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All livestock animal species harbour complex microbial communities throughout their digestive tract that support vital biochemical processes, thus sustaining health and productivity. In part as a consequence of the strong and ancient alliance between the host and its associated microbes, the gut microbiota is also closely related to productivity traits such as feed efficiency. This phenomenon can help researchers and producers develop new and more effective microbiome-based interventions using probiotics, also known as direct-fed microbials (DFMs), in Animal Science. Here, we focus on one type of such beneficial microorganisms, the yeast Saccharomyces. Saccharomyces is one of the most widely used microorganisms as a DFM in livestock operations. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with different species, strains and doses of Saccharomyces (mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on gut microbial ecology, health, nutrition and productivity traits of several livestock species. However, the possible existence of Saccharomyces which are indigenous to the animals’ digestive tract has received little attention and has never been the subject of a review. We for the first time provide a comprehensive review, with the objective of shedding light into the possible existence of indigenous Saccharomyces of the digestive tract of livestock. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nomadic yeast able to survive in a broad range of environments including soil, grass and silages. Therefore, it is very likely that cattle and other animals have been in direct contact with this and other types of Saccharomyces throughout their entire existence. However, to date, the majority of animal scientists seem to agree that the presence of Saccharomyces in any section of the gut only reflects dietary contamination; in other words, these are foreign organisms that are only transiently present in the gut. Importantly, this belief (i.e. that Saccharomyces come solely from the diet) is often not well grounded and does not necessarily hold for all the many other groups of microbes in the gut. In addition to summarizing the current body of literature involving Saccharomyces in the digestive tract, we discuss whether the beneficial effects associated with the consumption of Saccharomyces may be related to its foreign origin, though this concept may not necessarily satisfy the theories that have been proposed to explain probiotic efficacy in vivo. This novel review may prove useful for biomedical scientists and others wishing to improve health and productivity using Saccharomyces and other beneficial microorganisms.
At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. While quantifications of GHGE considered those proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the WFP involved the use of blue, gray and green water by the DCPS and related activities. Quantification of the EC of WFP considered an international average price of water. In the year 2017, the Comarca Lagunera registered a dairy cow inventory of 493 144 heads, with 227 142 lactating cows, which produced 2386 million liters of milk per year with an annual average EV of €525.3 million. The EC (€, millions) generated by the GHGE and WFP were €311.8 and €11 980.7, respectively, with a total EC of € 12 292.5 million. When the EV of milk production and the total environmental EC are compared, the contrast demonstrates not only the noteworthy environmental impact but also the significant and senseless biological and EC. In addition, having a large dairy cow concentration creates pollution concerns and the DCPS transfers both nutrients and water resources from an ecologically vulnerable arid region. Therefore, some mitigation strategies such as, better cow genotype, feed and manure management combined with the production of forages and grains in a different geographical region are suggested to promote an optimum use of water in order to uphold the social, economic and biologic sustainability of the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.
Few previous studies in Latin America (LA) have provided data on dietary intake composition with a standardized methodology. The present study aimed to characterize energy intake (EI) and to describe the main food sources of energy in representative samples of the urban population from eight LA countries from the Latin American Study in Nutrition and Health (ELANS).
Cross-sectional study. Usual dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls.
Urban areas from eight countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela), September 2014 to July 2015.
Adolescents and adults aged 15–65 years. Final sample comprised 9218 individuals, of whom 6648 (72·1 %) were considered plausible reporters.
Overall, mean EI was 8196 kJ/d (1959 kcal/d), with a balanced distribution of macronutrients (54 % carbohydrate, 30 % fat, 16 % protein). Main food sources of energy were grains, pasta and bread (28 %), followed by meat and eggs (19 %), oils and fats (10 %), non-alcoholic homemade beverages (6 %) and ready-to-drink beverages (6 %). More than 25 % of EI was provided from food sources rich in sugar and fat, like sugary drinks, pastries, chips and candies. Meanwhile, only 18 % of EI was from food sources rich in fibre and micronutrients, such as whole grains, roots, fruits, vegetables, beans, fish and nuts. No critical differences were observed by gender or age.
Public health efforts oriented to diminish consumption of refined carbohydrates, meats, oils and sugar and to increase nutrient dense-foods are a priority in the region to drive to a healthier diet.
Morphological and physiological features indicate Metriorhynchidae as the only group of crocodylomorphs with a pelagic lifestyle. Some of these features have evolved convergently in several clades of tetrapods secondarily adapted to aquatic life. One striking feature of metriorhynchids as compared to other crocodylomorphs is the morphology of the pelvic region (i.e., ventrally deflected sacral ribs and reduced pelvic girdle), which increases significantly the depth of this region. This morphology, as a whole, resembles that of other viviparous Mesozoic marine reptiles not phylogenetically related to metriorhynchids. We tested two alternative hypotheses of reproductive strategies in this clade: oviparity vs. viviparity. Given the lack of direct evidence supporting one or the other, we explored the use of evidence that may disconfirm either of these hypotheses. Using this counter-inductive approach, we found no cases contradicting viviparity in metriorhynchids, except for their phylogenetic position as archosaurs. A survey of reproductive modes amongst amniotes depicts the evolutionary plasticity of the transition to viviparity, and a widespread occurrence among tetrapods secondarily adapted to a marine life. Assuming oviparity for metriorhynchids implies egg-laying out of the water. However, their postcranial morphology (i.e., features of fore and hind limbs, pelvic girdle, and tail) contradicts this possibility. In this context, we rejected oviparity for metriorhynchids.
Using the liquid phase epitaxy technique (LPE) Ga0.86In0.14As0.13Sb0.87 layers lattice-matched to (100) Te-GaSb have been deposited, which were intentionally doped with Te and Zn in a wide range. The Raman spectra show that the layers become more defective as the dopant molar fraction is increased. Two main vibrational bands are observed in the Raman spectra centred at 230 and 245 cm-1 that depend strongly on the Te (Zn) molar concentration, which are assigned to the vibrational modes GaAs-like and to (GaSb+InAs)-like mixture. The low-temperature photoluminescence of n (p)-type GaInAsSb was obtained as a function of Te (Zn) concentration added to the melt solution. The photoluminescence was interpreted taking into account nonparabolicity of the conduction (valence) band. It is shown that the band-to-band radiative transition energy can be used to estimate the free carrier concentration in GaInAsSb, for a wide range of doping concentration.
Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide public health problems and risk factors for chronic diseases. The presence of SNP in several genes has been associated with the presence of obesity. A total of 580 children (8–13 years old) from Queretaro, Mexico, participated in this cross-sectional study, which evaluated the associations of rs9939609 (fat mass obesity-associated (FTO)), rs17782313 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)) and rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) SNP with obesity and metabolic risk factors. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 19·8 and 19·1 %, respectively. FTO, MC4R and TMEM18 risk allele frequency was 17, 9·8 and 89·5 %, respectively. A significant association between FTO homozygous and MC4R heterozygous risk alleles and obesity was found (OR 3·9; 95 % CI 1·46, 10·22, and OR 2·1; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·71; respectively). The FTO heterozygous subjects showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, compared with the homozygous for the ancestral allele subjects. These results remain significant after considering adiposity as a covariate. The FTO and MC4R genotypes were not significantly associated with total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentration. No association was found between TMEM18 risk allele and obesity and/or metabolic alterations. Our results show that, in addition to a higher BMI, there is also an association of the risk genotype with blood pressure in the presence of the FTO risk genotype. The possible presence of a risk genotype in obese children must be considered to offer a more comprehensive therapeutic approach in order to delay and/or prevent the development of chronic diseases.
The Antennae galaxies are a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies, being an ideal source to understand how the dynamics of galaxy mergers drives star formation. We present archive ALMA CO(3−2) and VLT near-IR H2 spectro-imaging observations, and new ALMA 13CO(2−1) and dust continuum observations, at ~50 pc resolution. Combining tracers of density and velocity structure of the gas and its energetics, we demonstrate that star formation involves a complex interplay of merger-driven gas dynamics and turbulence, and the dissipation of the gas kinetic energy. We focus on a compact, bright H2 source, associated with cold molecular gas and dust continuum emission, located where the velocity gradient in the interaction region is observed to be the largest. The characteristics of this source suggest that we are witnessing the formation, initiated by turbulent dissipation, of a cloud massive enough (~4×106M⊙) to form a super star cluster within 1 Myr.
A number of recent reports emphasize the risk of zoonotic diseases and the high degree of prevalence of asymptomatic animals infected with Leptospira interrogans. This report sought to assess the prevalence of antibodies to certain serovars of L. interrogans, and to describe the association between seropositivity and risk factors associated with within-flock transmission in a mountainous region of Mexico. Overall seroprevalence to L. interrogans was 54·5% (95% confidence interval 48·3–60·7); the most frequent serovar was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The accumulation of placentas and fetuses at a site close to lambing paddocks can play a significant role as a risk factor for within-flock transmission of L. interrogans in transhumant farming systems in the municipality of Xalatlaco. The high prevalence of L. interrogans antibodies supports the hypothesis that natural foci of this zoonosis are present in sheep flocks in this area. These findings emphasize the need for planning and implementation of control programmes for ovine leptospirosis in Mexico and elsewhere.
Differences on physicochemical properties of poly(pentadecanolide), PPDL, synthesized by enzymatic ring opening polymerization at two different temperatures, 70 C and 90 C, using Novozyme-430 were assessed. PPDL synthesized at 90°C presents lower molecular weight and crystallinity than the one prepared at 70°C. It was detected by FTIR that PPDL synthesized at 90°C presents a large amorphous phase with more terminal OH groups. A difference in the melting and crystallization behavior was detected by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, where the melting of the PPDL synthesized at 90°C presents multiple melting and crystallization events at lower temperature than those exhibit by PPDL synthesized at 70°C which presents a well defined single melting and crystallization event. The differences in melting behavior are attributed to the presence of a larger amorphous phase in PPDL synthesized at 90°C due to increased number of terminal OH groups that disrupt the crystalline structure. Thermal stability is also higher in PPDL synthesized at 70°C since the onset of decomposition starts 50°C above that observed in PPDL obtained at 70°C.
Introduction. The nutritional and functional qualities of wild and
cultivated Mexican serviceberry have not yet been reported. This species could have
similar potential for commercialization to that of Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier
alnifolia Nutt.). Materials and methods. Wild and cultivated
fruits at two maturity stages were assessed for CIE Lab color, fruit size, titratable
acidity and total soluble solids. Also, chemical composition and mineral contents were
determined. In addition, vitamin C and simple phenols were assessed. Total soluble
phenols, condensed tannins and anthocyanins as well as Trolox antioxidant activity and
oxygen radical antioxidant activity were determined. Results. Fruit size,
titratable acidity, total soluble solids, iron and simple phenols were higher in fruits of
cultivated plants than in those of wild plants. Total fiber, calcium, vitamin C, total
soluble phenols and condensed tannins were higher in wild fruits. Wild and cultivated
serviceberry showed higher Trolox antioxidant activity compared with oxygen radical
antioxidant activity. Caffeic, chlorogenic, coumaric and syringic acids and rutin were the
predominant simple phenolics; they comprised from 59.3% (cultivated overripe fruit) to
76.9% (wild ripe fruit) of the sum of simple phenolics. The antioxidant activity of wild
and cultivated fruit (258.3–699.2 mmol·kg–1, fw) is up to 3.8 times higher compared with
those of fruits commonly consumed. Conclusion. Contents of antioxidant
compounds and the outstanding antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Mexican
serviceberry make this species a natural resource that could contribute to health.
Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements that can be found. Arsenic is mainly emitted by the copper, lead and zinc production, in agriculture as pesticides and herbicides. Two forms of arsenic are common in natural waters: arsenite (AsO33−) and arseniate (AsO43−), referred to as As(III) and As(V). The nano-Mg/Al-hydrotalcites present ionic exchange and adsorbent capacities. In this work, the physic-chemical characterization of nano-Mg/Al-hydrotalcites and his arsenic removal capacityis described. The solids were synthesized by the sol-gel method with Mg/Al=2 and 3 ratio. The solids and their thermal treated products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, DTA, TGA and N2 adsorption. The solids were used as adsorbents As(III) in aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherm studies of As(III) from aqueous solution are described. The adsorbent capacity was determined using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models. The As(III) adsorption isotherm data fit best to the isotherm Freundlich model. The maximum As(III) uptake capacity by nano-Mg/Al-hydrotalcites and the heated solids were determined using the Freundlich equation and were found to 547.46, 660.15, 799.88 and 739.12 mg As(III)/g HT-Mg/Al=2, HT-Mg/Al=3, HT-Mg/Al=2 at 350°C and HT-Mg/Al=3 at 350°C respectively. In the kinetic studies using 40 mg/L concentration of As(III) solutions was obtained an excellent removal capacity in contact times less at one minute.
The presence of 10 virulence genes was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 365 European O157 and non-O157 Escherichia coli isolates associated with verotoxin production. Strain-specific PCR data were analysed using hierarchical clustering. The resulting dendrogram clearly separated O157 from non-O157 strains. The former clustered typical high-risk seropathotype (SPT) A strains from all regions, including Sweden and Spain, which were homogenous by Cramer's V statistic, and strains with less typical O157 features mostly from Hungary. The non-O157 strains divided into a high-risk SPTB harbouring O26, O111 and O103 strains, a group pathogenic to pigs, and a group with few virulence genes other than for verotoxin. The data demonstrate SPT designation and selected PCR separated verotoxigenic E. coli of high and low risk to humans; although more virulence genes or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis will need to be included to separate high-risk strains further for epidemiological tracing.