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In September 2015, an outbreak of Escherichia coli Phage Type 32 with an indistinguishable multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis profile was identified in Scotland. Twelve cases were identified; nine primary cases, two secondary and one asymptomatic case. Extensive food history investigations identified venison products containing wild venison produced by a single food business operator as the most likely source of the outbreak. Of the nine primary cases, eight had consumed venison products, and one case had not eaten venison themselves but had handled and cooked raw venison in the household. This was the first reported outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) linked to venison products in the UK, and was also notable due to the implicated products being commercially produced and widely distributed. In contrast, previous venison outbreaks reported from other countries have tended to be smaller and related to individually prepared carcases. The outbreak has highlighted some important knowledge gaps in relation to STEC in venison that are currently been investigated via a number of research studies.
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability. Using high-resolution primary data from the North Wyke Farm Platform, an intensively instrumented farm-scale ruminant research facility located in southwest United Kingdom, this paper proposes a novel, information-driven approach to carry out comprehensive assessments of economic-environmental trade-offs inherent within pasture-based cattle and sheep production systems. The results of a data-mining exercise suggest that a potentially systematic interaction exists between ‘soil health’, ecological surroundings and livestock grazing, whereby a higher level of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock is associated with a better animal performance and less nutrient losses into watercourses, and a higher stocking density with greater botanical diversity and elevated SOC. We contend that a combination of farming system-wide trials and environmental instrumentation provides an ideal setting for enrolling scientifically sound and biologically informative metrics for agricultural sustainability, through which agricultural producers could obtain guidance to manage soils, water, pasture and livestock in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner. Priority areas for future farm-scale research to ensure long-term sustainability are also discussed.
We present mid-IR (8–13μm) images of dust in seven proto-planetary nebulae (PPN), GL2343, HD 161796, 89 Her, OH 0739–1435, CRL2688, IRAS 22272+5435, and CRL618. The images were taken at UKIRT and the IRTF with the Berkeley mid-IR camera which was developed at the Space Sci. Lab. in UC Berkeley and is supported by IGPP and LEA, LLNL. The results presented here are part of an on-going mid-IR imaging project to study the morphological development of a star as it evolves from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to the planetary nebula (PN) stage. In particular, we aim to establish when non-spherical symmetry which is evident in so many PN arises. Four of the objects are oxygen rich. Of these, GL2343 (Fig. 1) and HD 161796 are found to have spherical dust shells in the mid-IR with diameters of 6.″ 7 and 3″, respectively. OH 0739 is marginally resolved, but has a hint of elongation that is aligned with the bipolar nebula evident in the near-IR. 89 Her is unresolved at 1.″ 1 resolution. 89 Her, HD 161796 and GL2343, all high latitude supergiants, appear to form an evolutionary sequence as evidenced by the size of their circumstellar dust shells. Three of the objects are carbon rich. CRL2688 and IRAS 22272 +5435 are found to have elongated structures which suggest a bipolar morphology. CRL 618 is unresolved at 1.″ 7, but is known to be bipolar from optical studies. Hence, with the exception of OH 0739, a known binary, the oxygen rich PPN have spherical dust shells while the carbon rich have bipolar dust shells. Our small number of observations do not provide solid statistics; however, this trend suggests that nebula bipolarity is linked to carbon-rich chemistry.
We present mid-IR and far-IR images of a variety of AGB stars and red supergiants. The mid-IR images were all taken with the Berkeley/Livermore mid-IR array camera, which employs a 10 × 64 pixel Hughes photoconductor. All the images reported here were taken using a 10% bandpass CVF, at various wavelengths in the 10μm atmospheric window. These were supplemented by IRAS images, some constructed from survey scans, others made as Additional Observations during the pointed phase of the IRAS mission. We have so far observed 11 such sources with our mid-IR camera, and report here that only two of them (R Aql and V Hya) appear to be unresolved.
Carbon films were energetically deposited onto copper foil using the physical vapor deposition technique filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that high quality graphene films of uniform thickness can be deposited onto copper foil at temperatures of 850 °C. The films can be prepared at high deposition rates (∼1 nm/min) and were comparable to graphene films grown at 1050 °C using chemical vapor deposition. This lower growth temperature was made possible by the energetic carbon flux which assisted the arrangement of carbon atoms into graphene layers on the Cu growth surface. Floating substrate potential was found to produce the highest quality graphene and the addition of hydrogen gas during film growth resulted in more defective films.
The third symposium on Remote Sensing of Snow and Ice, organized by the International Glaciological Society, took place in Boulder, Colorado, 17–22 May 1992. As part of this meeting a total of 21 papers was presented on snow and ice applications of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data in polar regions. Also during this meeting a NASA sponsored Workshop was held to review the status of polar surface measurements from AVHRR. In the following we have summarized the ideas and recommendations from the workshop, and the conclusions of relevant papers given during the regular symposium sessions. The seven topics discussed include cloud masking, ice surface temperature, narrow-band albedo, ice concentration, lead statistics, sea-ice motion and ice-sheet studies with specifics on applications, algorithms and accuracy, following recommendations for future improvements. In general, we can affirm the strong potential of AVHRR for studying sea ice and snow covered surfaces, and we highly recommend this satellite data set for long-term monitoring of polar process studies. However, progress is needed to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved parameters for all of the above mentioned topics to make this data set useful for direct climate applications such as heat balance studies and others. Further, the acquisition and processing of polar AVHRR data must become better coordinated between receiving stations, data centers and funding agencies to guarantee a long-term commitment to the collection and distribution of high quality data.
A point mutation resulting in a specific amino acid change(K27M) in either one of the genes encoding histone H3, H3F3A (H3.3) or HIST1H3B/C/I (H3.1)is present in most pediatric intrinsic pontine gliomas, and has been described in other midline locations. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and location of this mutation in diffuse infiltrating gliomas in young adults. The study group consisted of 22 consecutive diffuse gliomas in patients under the age of 40 treated at St. Michael’s Hospital, an adult hospital in the University of Toronto system. Ultra-sensitive digital droplet PCR, a method capable of highly sensitive and specific mutation detection affecting either H3.3 or H3.1, was performed on sample DNA to determine H3K27M status. The H3K27M mutation was detected in the gliomas of five patients, aged 17 to 34 years. The male: female ratio was 3:2. The allele frequency ranged from 26% to 44%, reflecting the infiltrating character of the tumors. Three of the tumors where located in the thalamus, one in the medulla, and one was intraventricular. In terms of grading, one tumor was considered WHO grade II, two III, and two IV. In contrast, most tumors in patients with gliomas lacking the K27M mutation (17 subjects, age 19 to 39 years) were located in the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, with the following exceptions: 1 in the thalamus, 1 in the hypothalamus, 1 in the cerebellum, and 1 periventricular. WHO grades were 1 II, 9 III, 7 IV. Correlation with patient outcome is ongoing. We conclude that the H3K27M is common in thalamic gliomas in young adult patients, and rare or absent in lobar hemispheric gliomas.
This study examines the interplay between individual and social–developmental factors in the development of positive functioning, substance use problems, and mental health problems. This interplay is nested within positive and negative developmental cascades that span childhood, adolescence, the transition to adulthood, and adulthood. Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse community sample of 808 participants interviewed 12 times from ages 10 to 33. Path modeling showed short- and long-term cascading effects of positive social environments, family history of depression, and substance-using social environments throughout development. Positive family social environments set a template for future partner social environment interaction and had positive influences on proximal individual functioning, both in the next developmental period and long term. Family history of depression adversely affected mental health functioning throughout adulthood. Family substance use began a cascade of substance-specific social environments across development, which was the pathway through which increasing severity of substance use problems flowed. The model also indicated that adolescent, but not adult, individual functioning influenced selection into positive social environments, and significant cross-domain effects were found in which substance-using social environments affected subsequent mental health.
Although the HST GSC–I (Paper-I: Lasker et al. 1990, Paper-II: Russell et al. 1990, Paper-III: Jenkner et al. 1990) has been used with great success operationally, it was always known that it was possible to improve the scientific and operational usefulness by an increase in scope to include multi-color and multi-epoch data. Once the GSC-II concept was established, it was evident that, even beyond the original motivations in HST operations, it would address a number of other astronomical needs such as increasing demands for fainter catalogues to support remote or queue scheduling capabilities and adaptive optics on the next generation of large-aperture, new-technology telescopes. In addition, the all sky nature of the GSC–II makes it a natural data source for research in galactic structure.
The Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica conducts various educational outreach programs as part of its mission as a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center. The method behind the outreach programs is one of forging partnerships between Center researchers and other educational organisations. The main program serves primary and secondary students in Chicago. The core of the program is called Space Explorers and is targeted at high school students. These students attend a summer residential institute at the University of Chicago’s Yerkes Observatory. The high school Space Explorers then extend the reach of the program during the academic year by teaching in primary schools using a portable planetarium. The Center also pursues many other outreach activities and is in the process of forming an Antarctic Education Alliance.
The compositional flexibility of the sodium zirconium phosphate
(NaZr2(PO4)3) structure has been
exploited in the design of monophasic radiophases capable of immobilizing
the most common cations associated with reprocessed high-level commercial
waste streams. Highly crystalline, monophasic members of the
NaZr2(PO4)3 structural family ([NZP])
have been prepared with conventional processing methods and equipment. These
radiophases were tailored to accommodate 10–20 wt % modified PW-4b simulated
calcine as single phases isostructural with
NaZr2(PO4)3. To meet the challenge of
designing monophasic materials capable of accommodating the chemical
complexity of PW-4b, an ionic substitution scheme based on crystal chemical
principles was developed. The radiophases were prepared with inexpensive,
inorganic precursors and a solution sol-gel method; these materials were
heat treated and/or sintered under a variety of conditions to determine the
optimum conditions for single phase [NZP] formation. X-ray powder
diffraction provided valuable information that was used to assess the
suitability of the ionic substitution model developed in this investigation.
The results of this investigation suggest that monophasic [NZP] radiophases
capable of accommodating 10–20 wt % modified PW-4b simulated calcine may be
continuously processed with conventional ceramic processing methods and
equipment. Moreover, the relatively low temperatures involved and the
reproducibility of the process make [NZP] radiophases economically
attractive hosts for radioactive and heavy metal industrial wastes.
We examined and described colonization of MRSA in the anterior nares and throat from 184 community-recruited injection drug users. Thirty-seven (20%) were positive for MRSA: most (34, 92%) were carriers in the nares; while only three (8%) were carriers detected by throat swabs alone. The majority (29, 78%) of MRSA isolates were PVL positive.
The efficacy of pitfall traps baited with pheromone and cereal oil in capturing Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val and T. castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was low (trap catch) in mill and simulated warehouse settings. In a simulated warehouse experiment, strains of Tribolium Macleay recently taken from mills were caught 24% less often in traps than were laboratory strains, and T. confusum was caught 40% less often than T. castaneum. Both species were found together in all flour samples taken from a Canadian flour mill. A comparison of the species ratio in flour samples with that found in traps revealed that T. confusum was caught less often in traps than was T. castaneum. In flour, T. castaneum burrowed more than did T. confusum, and there were differences in burrowing behaviour between the four T. castaneum strains. Mills infested with T. confusum may have higher levels of infestation than was previously thought, indicating that further research into beetle behaviour in mills is needed.
A robust copper slurry should have high removal rate, efficient planarization, optimal over polishing window and fast clearing without corrosion. These requirements were addressed in the choice of abrasive particles, film formation for copper passivation, selectivity of copper to barrier, and interactions between particles and film surfaces. The performance results of low dishing erosion and surface finish are discussed with the proposed mechanism.
The goal of this work was to produce a fabrication process for high performance polycrystalline silicon thin film MOS devices. We have fabricated p-channel devices with mobilities of 35 cm2/V-sec and n-channel devices with mobilities of 50 cm2/V-sec by tailoring the process for depositon of the channel layer, by gate oxidation of the channel at high temperature, and by use of plasma hydrogenation. Under optimal conditions deduced from the study, device threshold voltages are close to zero. Leakage currents in the off-state are less than 0.1 pA/µm of channel length. Fabrication of the devices requires four mask levels and employs standard process steps. Therefore, polycrystalline silicon devices are attractive candidates for a variety of electronics applications, including thin film logic over large area.
We present a numerical model that simulates the evolution of precipitates and the diffusion of interstitial oxygen in Czochralski silicon. The growth and/or dissolution of each precipitate and the local concentration of interstitial oxygen with which the precipitates interact are followed as a function of time. We treat realistic densities of discrete, interacting precipitates and determine how the precipitate density influences the extent of the precipitation. The model also treats oxygen outdiffusion and the formation of precipitate-free or denuded zones. We apply the model to previous experimental data on the time dependence of precipitate growth and to the development of denuded zones during intrinsic gettering.