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Maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield is severely constrained by drought and this study was conducted to assess gains in grain yield and other traits of released maize cultivars. Twenty-three maize cultivars plus a check were evaluated under drought and well-watered conditions at Zaria and Kadawa during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 dry seasons. The 24 cultivars were evaluated using 6 x 4 lattice design with three replications. Genotypes differed significantly for all measured traits except anthesis-silking interval (ASI), husk cover, and number of ears per plant under drought, and ASI, husk cover, and ear aspect under well-watered conditions. Under drought, grain yield ranged from 2251 kg ha−1 for SAMMAZ 31 to 4938 kg ha−1 for SAMMAZ 19, with a genetic gain of 1.93% yr−1. Under well-watered conditions, grain yield varied from 3082 kg ha−1 for SAMMAZ 37 to 5689 kg ha−1 for SAMMAZ 51, with the same genetic gain found under drought conditions. Grain yield reduction as a result of drought was 28.4% and performance under drought predicted performance under well-watered conditions better than vice versa with regression coefficient value of 0.8. Grain yield had significant correlations with all measured traits under both water conditions, except for husk cover, plant and ear heights under drought. Our data revealed that substantial genetic gains have been made in breeding for high grain yield cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions over a period of 16 years in Nigeria.
We report on the results of coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) and ptychography measurements of two individual core-shell-shell GaAs/(In,Ga)As/GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned Si(111) substrate. CXDI at the axial GaAs 111 Bragg reflection was applied at different positions along the NW axis in order to characterize the NWs in terms of structural homogeneity along the radial directions. At each positon 3D reciprocal space maps have been recoded and inverted using phase retrieval algorithms. The CXDI were complemented by 2D ptychography measurements at GaAs 111 Bragg reflection probing the same NWs with respect to their structural homogeneity. Both methods provide structural homogeneity for NW1 and NW2 except at the bottom part of the NWs. In case of NW2 CXDI and ptychography show changes in the structure of the top part of the NW indicated by 60° rotation of the indicated three-fold rotational symmetry in the observed diffraction patterns and changes in the strain field reconstructed from ptychography.
Service utilisation by refugee families may be affected by the mismatch between Western individualistic service delivery approaches and the target communities’ more collectivist cultural patterns and practices. In addition to access barriers, utilisation of early childhood services by refugees can also be impacted upon by distrust of services, health and settlement issues, stigma, unfamiliarity with early childhood programmes, and fear of child protection and other legal systems. This low service utilisation sits in conflict with the need for early interventions for very young children, who are in the peak period of brain development. This article explores the implementation of a model to address these issues in early childhood work with refugee families and communities, with the intent to increase service uptake. Some strategies to address potential barriers will be described in the context of a community engagement model that includes consultation, relationship building, collaborative flexible service design and delivery, partnerships in community capacity building and cross-referral. Flexible, culturally appropriate interventions can enhance strengths based, non-pathologising and development-focused approach. A community engagement approach will, nevertheless, present challenges for service providers who must be willing to adapt their practices. Services and funding bodies need to recognise that this process is lengthy and resource intensive, but will ultimately lead to better service delivery and uptake, potentially leading to improvements in health, development and relational outcomes, for children and families from refugee backgrounds.
The effect of feeding two levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the performance of crossbred Friesian calves was investigated. Twenty-four neonatal male Friesian × Baladi calves (35·5 ± 0·25 kg of initial body weight) were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design into three experimental groups for 90 days (eight calves per group). Calves fed their diets without yeast (S. cerevisiae) were considered as Control, while the diets of other calves were supplemented daily either with 2·5 g (YL diet) or with 5 g (YH diet) of yeast per calf. Calves fed the YH diet showed increased feed intake, while dry matter and fibre digestibilities were increased in calves fed YH and YL diets. Calves fed YL and YH diets showed lower ruminal ammonia-N and higher total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate concentrations than Control calves. Both YH and YL calves showed increased plasma concentrations of total protein, globulin and glucose and decreased cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Calves’ final weight and daily gain were increased with S. cerevisiae yeast supplemented diets. After 42 days of experiment, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli and Enterobacteria spp. counts were down to undetectable levels in the faeces of calves fed S. cerevisiae additive. It could be concluded that adding S. cerevisiae to milk-fed calves increased feed utilization and improved pre-weaned calf performance and health status, reducing faecal pathogenic bacteria.
Radio survey datasets comprise an increasing number of individual observations stored as sets of multidimensional data. In large survey projects, astronomers commonly face limitations regarding: 1) interactive visual analytics of sufficiently large subsets of data; 2) synchronous and asynchronous collaboration; and 3) documentation of the discovery workflow. To support collaborative data inquiry, we present encube, a large-scale comparative visual analytics framework. encube can utilise advanced visualization environments such as the CAVE2 (a hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment powered with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-based supercomputer and 84 million pixels) for collaborative analysis of large subsets of data from radio surveys. It can also run on standard desktops, providing a capable visual analytics experience across the display ecology. encube is composed of four primary units enabling compute-intensive processing, advanced visualisation, dynamic interaction, parallel data query, along with data management. Its modularity will make it simple to incorporate astronomical analysis packages and Virtual Observatory capabilities developed within our community. We discuss how encube builds a bridge between high-end display systems (such as CAVE2) and the classical desktop, preserving all traces of the work completed on either platform – allowing the research process to continue wherever you are.
The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a cold, dry polar desert and the alpine glaciers therein exhibit small annual and seasonal mass balances, often <±0.06 m w.e. Typically, winter is the accumulation season, but significant snow storms can occur any time of year occasionally making summer the accumulation season. The yearly equilibrium line altitude is poorly correlated with mass balance because the elevation gradient of mass balance on each glacier can change dramatically from year to year. Most likely, winds redistribute the light snowfall disrupting the normal gradient of increasing mass balance with elevation. Reconstructed cumulative mass balance shows that the glaciers have lost <2 m w.e. over the past half century and area changes show minimal retreat. In most cases these changes are less than the uncertainty and the glaciers are considered in equilibrium. Since 2000, however, the glaciers have lost mass despite relatively stable summer air temperatures suggesting a different mechanism in play. Whether this trend is a harbinger of future changes or a temporary excursion is unclear.
Finite-element analysis of circular septum models indicates that (1) anticlastic fluting weakened the last septa of the same radius of curvature by a factor of about 2.5 relative to the tensile stresses in a sphere of nacre, (2) septa with ammonitic sutures were stronger than those with goniatitic sutures of the same thickness, and (3) septa with more “complex” ammonitic sutures were stronger at the edge between lobes and saddles than “simple” ones. These results contradict recent claims that ammonoid septa became weaker as sutural complexity increased from goniatitic through ammonitic, so that the most complex sutures were limited to the shallowest habitats. The smaller marginal flutes of complex septa were relatively strong, allowing them to be thinner than the central septum and still act as elastic wall supports. Many Mesozoic ammonoids with highly sinuous sutures occurred in deep epeiric and open-ocean habitats, whereas it is those with secondarily reduced, ceratitic sutures that were typically associated with restricted shallow basins.
This paper is based on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which aims to provide information on cultural aspects of mental health and psychosocial wellbeing relevant to care and support for Syrians affected by the crisis. This paper aims to inform mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) staff of the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing issues facing Syrians who are internally displaced and Syrian refugees.
We conducted a systematic literature search designed to capture clinical, social science and general literature examining the mental health of the Syrian population. The main medical, psychological and social sciences databases (e.g. Medline, PubMed, PsycInfo) were searched (until July 2015) in Arabic, English and French language sources. This search was supplemented with web-based searches in Arabic, English and French media, and in assessment reports and evaluations, by nongovernmental organisations, intergovernmental organisations and agencies of the United Nations. This search strategy should not be taken as a comprehensive review of all issues related to MHPSS of Syrians as some unpublished reports and evaluations were not reviewed.
Conflict affected Syrians may experience a wide range of mental health problems including (1) exacerbations of pre-existing mental disorders; (2) new problems caused by conflict related violence, displacement and multiple losses; as well as (3) issues related to adaptation to the post-emergency context, for example living conditions in the countries of refuge. Some populations are particularly vulnerable such as men and women survivors of sexual or gender based violence, children who have experienced violence and exploitation and Syrians who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex. Several factors influence access to MHPSS services including language barriers, stigma associated with seeking mental health care and the power dynamics of the helping relationship. Trust and collaboration can be maximised by ensuring a culturally safe environment, respectful of diversity and based on mutual respect, in which the perspectives of clients and their families can be carefully explored.
Sociocultural knowledge and cultural competency can improve the design and delivery of interventions to promote mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrians affected by armed conflict and displacement, both within Syria and in countries hosting refugees from Syria.
The red-bed deposits in northern Iraq are situated in an active foreland basin adjacent to the Zagros Orogenic Belt, bound to the north by the Iranian plate thrust over the edge of the Arabian plate. The red-bed successions are composed of alternating red and brown silty mudstones, purplish red calcareous siltstone, fine- to coarse-grained pebbly sandstone and conglomerate. The red beds in the current study can be divided into four parts showing a trend of upward coarsening with fine-grained deposits at the top. A detailed petrographic study was carried out on the sandstone units. The clastic rocks consist mainly of calcite cemented litharenite with rock fragments (volcanic, metamorphic and sedimentary), quartz and minor feldspar. The petrographic components reflect the tectonic system in the source area, laterally ranging from a mixed orogenic and magmatic arc in Mawat–Chwarta area to recycled orogenic material rich in sedimentary rock fragments in the Qandel area. The Cretaceous–Palaeogene foreland basin of northern Iraq formed to the southwest of the Zagros Suture Zone and the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone of western Iran. During Palaeogene time deposition of the red beds was caused by renewed shortening in the thrust sheets overlying the Arabian margin with uplift of radiolarites (Qulqula Formation), resulting in an influx of radiolarian debris in addition to continuing ophiolitic detritus. Mixed sources, including metamorphic, volcanic and sedimentary terranes, were present during deposition of the upper part of the red beds.
Vitreoretinal surgical techniques are used to approach disorders of the posterior segment of the eye. Over the past 30 years, great strides have been made in the ability to safely and effectively operate in this segment. The spectrum of disorders menable to operative intervention has broadened significantly with the evolution of advanced, smaller-gauge microsurgical instruments, computer-controlled infusion and aspiration systems, endolaser probes, perfluorocarbon heavy liquid for manipulation of detached retinal tissue, implantable slow-release pharmacological devices, wide-angle optical viewing systems, and long-acting gases and silicone oil for intraocular tamponade. The treatment of intraocular tumors with radioactive episcleral plaques has also become well-characterized and “evidence-based” through large-scale, prospective, randomized clinical trial data. The advent and sophistication of the pars plana approach with microsurgical vitrectomy instrumentation has allowed for the repair of most simple and complex primary and recurrent retinal detachments. The pars plana is the section of the eye located approximately at the junction of the iris and the sclera and is a safe place to insert intraocular instruments without damage to internal structures. However, in certain cases of primary retinal detachment, the most appropriate treatment remains scleral buckling surgery, as has been performed for over 60 years.
Scleral buckling surgery involves the placement of a strip of silicone around the outside of the globe to cause a slight indentation or buckle of the eye wall and support the intraocular retinal breaks and vitreous base. The procedure is effective because the external support helps close the causative retinal tear inside the eye. The retinal tear is repaired by a combination of support from the buckle and the formation of a chorioretinal scar induced by a thermal modality such as cryotherapy (freezing) or laser (heating). The usual procedure for addressing complex retinal detachments with very large or posteriorly located retinal tears, significant retinal scarring, vitreous hemorrhage, or severe cataract formation is to combine scleral buckle surgery with the more advanced intraocular vitrectomy techniques.
We present a framework to volume-render three-dimensional data cubes interactively using distributed ray-casting and volume-bricking over a cluster of workstations powered by one or more graphics processing units (GPUs) and a multi-core central processing unit (CPU). The main design target for this framework is to provide an in-core visualization solution able to provide three-dimensional interactive views of terabyte-sized data cubes. We tested the presented framework using a computing cluster comprising 64 nodes with a total of 128 GPUs. The framework proved to be scalable to render a 204 GB data cube with an average of 30 frames per second. Our performance analyses also compare the use of NVIDIA Tesla 1060 and 2050 GPU architectures and the effect of increasing the visualization output resolution on the rendering performance. Although our initial focus, as shown in the examples presented in this work, is volume rendering of spectral data cubes from radio astronomy, we contend that our approach has applicability to other disciplines where close to real-time volume rendering of terabyte-order three-dimensional data sets is a requirement.
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is dramatically changing the landscape of high performance computing in astronomy. In this paper, we identify and investigate several key decision areas, with a goal of simplifying the early adoption of GPGPU in astronomy. We consider the merits of OpenCL as an open standard in order to reduce risks associated with coding in a native, vendor-specific programming environment, and present a GPU programming philosophy based on using brute force solutions. We assert that effective use of new GPU-based supercomputing facilities will require a change in approach from astronomers. This will likely include improved programming training, an increased need for software development best practice through the use of profiling and related optimisation tools, and a greater reliance on third-party code libraries. As with any new technology, those willing to take the risks and make the investment of time and effort to become early adopters of GPGPU in astronomy, stand to reap great benefits.
The prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners is considerably higher than in the general population. This is an important public health issue as the vast majority of prisoners stay in custody for less than 9 months and, when not in prison, offenders' lifestyles are frequently chaotic, characterized by social exclusion, instability and unemployment. Multi-disciplinary mental health inreach services were introduced to target care towards prisoners with severe mental illness (SMI) in a similar way to that provided by Community Mental Health Teams outside prison. The aim was to establish the proportion of prisoners with SMI who were assessed and managed by prison mental health inreach services.
A two-phase prevalence survey in six prisons in England measured SMI upon reception into custody. Case-note review established the proportion of those with SMI subsequently assessed and treated by inreach services.
Of 3492 prisoners screened, 23% had SMI. Inreach teams assessed only 25% of these unwell prisoners, and accepted just 13% onto their caseloads.
Inreach teams identified and managed only a small proportion of prisoners with SMI. Prison-based services need to improve screening procedures and develop effective care pathways to ensure access to appropriate services. Improved identification of mental illness is needed in both the community and the Criminal Justice System to better engage with socially transient individuals who have chaotic lifestyles and complex needs.
Objective: To estimate the heritability of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and beat-to-beat office BP and HR in an isolated, environmentally and genetically homogeneous Omani Arab population. Methods: Ambulatory BP measurements were recorded in 1,124 subjects with a mean age of 33.8 ± 16.2 years, using the auscultatory mode of the validated Schiller ambulatory BP Monitor. Beat-to-beat BP and HR were recorded by the Task Force Monitor. Heritability was estimated using quantitative genetic analysis. This was achieved by applying the maximum-likelihood-based variance decomposition method implemented in SOLAR software. Results: We detected statistically significant heritability estimates for office beat-to-beat, 24-hour, daytime, and sleep HR of 0.31, 0.21, 0.20, and 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates in the abovementioned conditions for systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP)/mean BP (MBP) were all significant and estimated at 0.19/0.19/0.19, 0.30/0.44/0.41, 0.28/0.38/0.39, and 0.21/0.18/0.20, respectively. Heritability estimates for 24-hour and daytime ambulatory SBP, DBP, and MBP ranged from 0.28 to 0.44, and were higher than the heritability estimates for beat-to-beat recordings and sleep periods, which were estimated within a narrow range of 0.18–0.21. Conclusion: In this cohort, because shared environments are common to all, the environmental influence that occurs is primarily due to the variation in non-shared environment that is unique to the individual. We demonstrated significant heritability estimates for both beat-to-beat office and ambulatory BP and HR recordings, but 24-hour and daytime ambulatory heritabilities are higher than those from beat-to-beat resting levels and ambulatory night-time recordings.
Suppose that f: ℝ×ℂN→ℂN is holomorphic in z and continuous in t, and that Φ: ℂN×ℂN→ℂN is holomorphic. Boundary value problems of the form
are considered. The particular interest is in the structure and topological properties of the set of solutions. The paper is motivated by the corresponding properties of the set of periodic solutions of ż = f(t, z) when f is periodic in t. Consideration of this complex equation gives information about the periodic solutions of the real equation ẋ = f(t, x).
Background: We performed a genome-wide scan in a homogeneous Arab population to identify genomic regions linked to blood pressure (BP) and its intermediate phenotypes during mental and physical stress tests. Methods: The Oman Family Study subjects (N = 1277) were recruited from five extended families of ~10 generations. Hemodynamic phenotypes were computed from beat-to-beat BP, electrocardiography and impedance cardiography. Multi-point linkage was performed for resting, mental (word conflict test, WCT) and cold pressor (CPT) stress and their reactivity scores (s), using variance components decomposition-based methods implemented in SOLAR. Results: Genome-wide scans for BP phenotypes identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant evidence of linkage on chromosomes 1 and 12 for WCT-linked cardiac output (LOD = 3.1) and systolic BP (LOD = 3.5). Evidence for suggestive linkage for WCT was found on chromosomes 3, 17 and 1 for heart rate (LOD = 2.3), DBP (LOD = 2.4) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET), respectively. For △WCT, suggestive QTLs were detected for CO on chr11 (LOD = 2.5), LVET on chr3 (LOD = 2.0) and EDI on chr9 (LOD = 2.1). For CPT, suggestive QTLs for HR and LVET shared the same region on chr22 (LOD 2.3 and 2.8, respectively) and on chr9 (LOD = 2.3) for SBP, chr7 (LOD = 2.4) for SV and chr19 (LOD = 2.6) for CO. For △CPT, CO and TPR top signals were detected on chr15 and 10 (LOD; 2.40, 2.08) respectively. Conclusion: Mental stress revealed the largest number of significant and suggestive loci for normal BP reported to date. The study of BP and its intermediate phenotypes under mental and physical stress may help reveal the genes involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension.