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The evidence base on the relationship between religion and mental health is growing rapidly, and we summarise the latest research on the topic. This includes studies on religious involvement and depression, bipolar disorder, suicide, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorders, personality disorder, chronic psychotic disorder, marital/family stability, social support and psychological well-being. We also review a relatively new topic in psychiatry, moral injury, which often accompanies PTSD and may interfere with its treatment. We describe a theoretical model that explains how religion might affect mental health and briefly discuss its applications in clinical practice, including a discussion of religiously integrated therapies for depression, anxiety and other emotional problems. Overall, studies indicate that religious involvement often serves as a powerful resource for patients, one that can be integrated into psychiatric care. At times, however, religion may impede or complicate treatment. This article will help clinicians determine, on the basis of the latest research, whether religion is an asset or a liability for a particular patient.
In an earlier article we reviewed the latest research on the relationship between religious involvement and mental health, the effects of religiosity on mental health and well-being over time and the impact of religious interventions. Here we focus on clinical applications that may be useful to psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. We discuss general clinical applications relevant to all patients (e.g. taking a spiritual history, supporting/encouraging religious beliefs, referring to clergy), violations of clinician–patient boundaries and the need to ensure that religious/spiritual interventions are patient-centred. We describe evidence-based religious interventions and how to identify appropriate patients for this approach. Finally, we explore situations in which religious beliefs and practices may be a problem, not a resource, and make recommendations on how to address such cases. Case vignettes illustrate clinical situations that mental health professionals are likely to encounter. Although the focus is on the North American context, we note how practice and culture in the UK may differ.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable and is associated with lower educational attainment. ADHD is linked to family adversity, including hostile parenting. Questions remain regarding the role of genetic and environmental factors underlying processes through which ADHD symptoms develop and influence academic attainment.
This study employed a parent-offspring adoption design (N = 345) to examine the interplay between genetic susceptibility to child attention problems (birth mother ADHD symptoms) and adoptive parent (mother and father) hostility on child lower academic outcomes, via child ADHD symptoms. Questionnaires assessed birth mother ADHD symptoms, adoptive parent (mother and father) hostility to child, early child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The Woodcock–Johnson test was used to examine child reading and math aptitude.
Building on a previous study (Harold et al., 2013, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038–1046), heritable influences were found: birth mother ADHD symptoms predicted child impulsivity/activation. In turn, child impulsivity/activation (4.5 years) evoked maternal and paternal hostility, which was associated with children's ADHD continuity (6 years). Both maternal and paternal hostility (4.5 years) contributed to impairments in math but not reading (7 years), via impacts on ADHD symptoms (6 years).
Findings highlight the importance of early child behavior dysregulation evoking parent hostility in both mothers and fathers, with maternal and paternal hostility contributing to the continuation of ADHD symptoms and lower levels of later math ability. Early interventions may be important for the promotion of child math skills in those with ADHD symptoms, especially where children have high levels of early behavior dysregulation.
Experimental evidence for the formation of hydrogenated fullerene molecules is presented. Films of C60 were grown on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (substrate) and exposed to a beam of deuterium atoms. Thermal desorption combined with mass spectrometry was used to determine the deuterated fullerene products formed, revealing a maximum degree of deuteration corresponding to C60D36. Release of D2 from the deuterated C60 film occurs at a much higher temperature than for D-saturated graphite.
Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) can be formed on icy dusty grains in molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks. The number of astronomical detections of solid COMs, however, is very limited. With the upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) this should change, but in order to identify solid state features of COMs, accurate laboratory data are needed. Here we present high resolution (0.5 cm–1) infrared ice spectra of acetone (C3H6O) and methyl formate (HCOOCH3), two molecules already identified in astronomical gas phase surveys, whose interstellar synthesis is expected to follow solid state pathways.
Reactions on carbonaceous surfaces play an important role in processes such as H2 formation in the interstellar medium. We have investigated the adsorption of C2 molecules on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface and then exposed them to a beam of deuterium atoms in order to investigate the formation of deuterated fullerenes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to probe the adsorbed molecules and their deuteration. Deuteration of C2 films results in increased thermal stability of the film, relative to films of pristine C2, along with an evolution towards higher deuterated species. The STM data provide confirmatory evidence for the formation of deuterated fullerene species.
As a result of collisions during their lifetimes, asteroids have a large variety of different shapes. It is believed that high velocity collisions or rotational spin-up of asteroids continuously replenish the Sun’s zodiacal cloud and debris disks around extrasolar planets (Jewitt (2010)). Knowledge of the spin and shape parameters of the asteroids is very important for understanding collision asteroid processes. Lately photometric observations of asteroids showed that variations in brightness are not accompanied by variations in colour index which indicate that the shape of the lightcurve is caused by varying illuminations of the asteroid surface rather than albedo variations over the surface. This conclusion became possible when photometric investigations were combined with laboratory experiments (Dunlap (1971)). In this article using the convex lightcurve inversion method we obtained the sense of rotation, pole solutions and preliminary shape of 901 Brunsia.
Implementation of a novel experimental approach using a bright source of narrowband x-ray emission has enabled the production of a photoionized argon plasma of relevance to astrophysical modelling codes such as Cloudy. We present results showing that the photoionization parameter ζ = 4πF/ne generated using the VULCAN laser was ≈ 50 erg cm s−1, higher than those obtained previously with more powerful facilities. Comparison of our argon emission-line spectra in the 4.15 - 4.25 Å range at varying initial gas pressures with predictions from the Cloudy code and a simple time-dependent code are also presented. Finally we briefly discuss how this proof-of-principle experiment may be scaled to larger facilities such as ORION to produce the closest laboratory analogue to a photoionized plasma.
The role of H2 in forming interstellar complex organics is still not clear due to the high activation energies required for “non-energetic” association reactions. In this work, we investigated the potential contribution of H2 to the hydrogenated species (HnNCO) formation on dust grains when the “energetic” processing is involved. The goal is to test whether an additional hydrogenation pathway is possible upon UV irradiation of a CO:H2 ice mixture. It is proposed that the electronically excited carbon monoxide (CO*) induced by UV-photons can react with a ground-state H2 to form HCO, ultimately enhancing the production of COMs in ice mantle.
The pore structure of vapour deposited ASW is poorly understood, despite its importance to fundamental processes such as grain chemistry, cooling of star forming regions, and planet formation. We studied structural changes of vapour deposited D2O on intra-molecular to 30 nm length scales at temperatures ranging from 18 to 180 K and observed enhanced mobility from 100 to 150 K. An Arrhenius type model describes the loss of surface area and porosity with a common set of kinetic parameters. The low activation energy (428 K) is commensurate with van der Waals forces between nm-scale substructures in the ice. Our findings imply that water porosity will always change with time, even at low temperatures.
HD 163296 is a young star surrounded by a planet-forming disk that shows clear signatures of dust gaps and rings; likely an indication of ongoing planet formation. We use the radiation thermochemical disk code ProDiMo to investigate the impact of dust/gas gaps on the temperature, chemistry and observables. Furthermore, we model high spatial resolution gas and dust observation of HD 163296 (ALMA/DSHARP). Our first results indicate that features in the observed radial intensity profile of the 12CO line are a consequence of the dust gaps and do not require gas depletion. Those preliminary results indicate that self-consistent modelling of the gas (chemistry, heating/cooling) and dust is necessary to accurately infer the degree of gas depletion within dust gaps. Such information is crucial to understand the processes that generate the disk substructure and their relation to planet formation.
The mid-IR spectrum of the interstellar medium contains both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon features. These are generally attributed to carbonaceous dust. The aliphatic component is of particular interest because it produces a significant 3.4 μm absorption feature. The optical depth of this feature is related to the number and type of aliphatic carbon C–H bonds in the line of sight. It is possible to estimate the column density of aliphatic carbon from quantitative analysis of the 3.4 μm interstellar feature, providing that the absorption coefficient of interstellar aliphatic hydrocarbon is known. We produced interstellar dust analogues with spectra closely matching astronomical observations. Using a combination of FTIR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, we determined an integrated absorption coefficient of the aliphatic component. The results thus obtained permit direct calibration of astronomical observations, providing rigorous estimates of the amount of aliphatic carbon in the ISM.
Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been detected in the gas-phase in cold and lightless molecular cores. Recent solid-state laboratory experiments have provided strong evidence that COMs can be formed on icy grains through ‘non-energetic’ processes. In this contribution, we show that propanal and 1-propanol can be formed in this way at the low temperature of 10 K. Propanal has already been detected in space. 1-propanol is an astrobiologically relevant molecule, as it is a primary alcohol, and has not been astronomically detected. Propanal is the major product formed in the C2H2 + CO + H experiment, and 1-propanol is detected in the subsequent propanal + H experiment. ALMA observations towards IRAS 16293-2422B are discussed and provide a 1-propanol:propanal upper limit of < 0.35–0.55, which are complemented by computationally-derived activation barriers in addition to the performed laboratory experiments.
Laboratory experiments are essential to support the interpretation of astronomical observations and space mission data. Here we present a new experimental setup to characterize in the Vis-MIR range in both reflection and transmission modes astrophysically-relevant frozen volatiles deposited at low temperature and exposed to ion bombardment.
Watching videotaped personal compulsions together with a therapist might enhance the effect of cognitive–behavioural therapy in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but little is known about how patients experience this.
To performed a qualitative study that describes how watching these videos influences motivation for treatment and whether patients report any adverse events.
In this qualitative study, data were gathered in semi-structured interviews with 24 patients with OCD. The transcripts were coded by two researchers. They used a combination of open and thematic coding and discrepancies in coding were discussed.
The experience of watching videos with personal compulsions helped patients to realise that these compulsions are aberrant and irrational. Patients report increased motivation to resist their OCD and to adhere to therapy. No adverse events were reported.
Videos with personal compulsions create more awareness in patients with OCD that compulsions are irrational, leading to enhanced motivation for treatment.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
We examine how to sensibly integrate spirituality into the care of older adult medical and psychiatric patients from a multi-cultural perspective. First, definitions of spirituality and spiritual integration are provided. Second, we examine the logic that justifies spiritual integration, including research that demonstrates an association between religious/spiritual (R/S) involvement and health in older adults and research that indicates widespread spiritual needs in later life and the consequences of addressing or ignoring them. Third, we describe how and when to integrate spirituality into the care of older adults, i.e. taking a spiritual history to identify spiritual needs and then mobilizing resources to meet those needs. Fourth, we examine the consequences of integrating spirituality on the well-being of patients and on the doctor–patient relationship. Finally, we describe boundaries in addressing R/S issues that clinicians should be cautious about violating. Resources will be provided to assist with all of the above.
The course of illness in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) varies significantly between patients. Little is known about factors predicting a chronic course of illness. The aim of this study is to identify factors involved in inducing and in maintaining chronicity in OCD.
The present study is embedded within the Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study, an ongoing multicenter naturalistic cohort study designed to identify predictors of long-term course and outcome in OCD. For this study, 270 subjects with a current diagnosis of OCD were included. Chronicity status at 2-year follow-up was regressed on a selection of baseline predictors related to OCD, to comorbidity and to stress and support.
Psychotrauma [odds ratio (OR) 1.98, confidence interval (CI) 1.22–3.22, p = 0.006], recent negative life events (OR 1.42, CI 1.01–2.01, p = 0.043), and presence of a partner (OR 0.28, CI 0.09–0.85, p = 0.025) influenced the risk of becoming chronic. Longer illness duration (OR 1.46, CI 1.08–1.96, p = 0.013) and higher illness severity (OR 1.09, CI 1.03–1.16, p = 0.003) increased the risk of remaining chronic.
External influences increase the risk of becoming chronic, whereas the factors involved in maintaining chronicity are illness-related. As the latter are potentially difficult to modify, treatment should be devoted to prevent chronicity from occurring in the first place. Therapeutic strategies aimed at alleviating stress and at boosting social support might aid in achieving this goal.