To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Biochar has received attention due to its potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration in soil and improving soil quality and crop productivity. This study evaluated the effects of rice straw biochar (RSB) and rice husk ash (RHA) each applied at 5 Mg ha−1 and four N levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) on soil fertility, growth, and yield of rice and wheat for three consecutive rice–wheat rotations. RSB significantly increased electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, and P and K contents when compared to control (no amendment) up to 7.5 cm soil depth. Both RSB and RHA did not influence shoot N concentration in wheat plant but significantly increased P and K concentrations at 60 days after sowing. Grain yields of both rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB as compared to control (no amendment) and RHA treatments. While the highest grain yields of rice and wheat were observed at 120 kg N ha−1 in RHA and no biochar-treated plots, a significant increase in grain yields was observed at 80 kg N ha−1 in RSB treatment, thereby saving 40 kg N ha−1 in each crop. Both agronomic and recovery N efficiencies in rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB-amended soil compared to control. Significant positive correlations were observed between soil N, P, and K concentrations and total N, P, and K concentrations in aboveground biomass of wheat at 60 days after sowing. This study showed the potential benefits of applying RSB for improving soil fertility and yields of rice and wheat in a rice–wheat system.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) conducted research from 2008 to 2015 aimed to improve the complex public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) system. This paper summarizes PERRC studies that addressed the development and assessment of criteria for evaluating PHEPR and metrics for measuring their efficiency and effectiveness.
We reviewed 171 PERRC publications indexed in PubMed between 2009 and 2016. These publications derived from 34 PERRC research projects. We identified publications that addressed the development or assessment of criteria and metrics pertaining to PHEPR systems and describe the evaluation methods used and tools developed, the system domains evaluated, and the metrics developed or assessed.
We identified 29 publications from 12 of the 34 PERRC projects that addressed PHEPR system evaluation criteria and metrics. We grouped each study into 1 of 3 system domains, based on the metrics developed or assessed: (1) organizational characteristics (n = 9), (2) emergency response performance (n = 12), and (3) workforce capacity or capability (n = 8). These studies addressed PHEPR system activities including responses to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the 2011 tsunami, as well as emergency exercise performance, situational awareness, and workforce willingness to respond. Both PHEPR system process and outcome metrics were developed or assessed by PERRC studies.
PERRC researchers developed and evaluated a range of PHEPR system evaluation criteria and metrics that should be considered by system partners interested in assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of their activities. Nonetheless, the monitoring and measurement problem in PHEPR is far from solved. Lack of standard measures that are readily obtained or computed at local levels remains a challenge for the public health preparedness field. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:626-638)
To: (i) determine the prevalence of self-reported eating less and eating down during early and late pregnancy and postpartum, and explore risk factors associated with eating less; (ii) examine the association between eating less and diet quality; and (iii) determine the association between eating less and weight gain during pregnancy.
Data were collected longitudinally from a cohort of women participating in a community health programme. Diet was assessed at three time points (≤20 weeks’ gestation, 36 weeks’ gestation, 6 months’ postpartum), body weight was measured during study enrolment (≤20 weeks’ gestation) and at 36 weeks’ gestation, and information about the woman and her household was collected at enrolment.
The Rang-Din Nutrition Study in the Rangpur and Dinajpur districts of Bangladesh.
Women (n 4011).
The prevalence of self-reported eating less differed by time point (75·9 % in early pregnancy, 38·8 % in late pregnancy, 7·4 % postpartum; P<0·001). The most common reason for eating less across all time periods was food aversion or loss of appetite. Women who reported eating less in late pregnancy had consumed animal-source foods less frequently in the preceding week than women who reported eating more (mean (sd): 11·7 (7·4) v. 14·8 (9·2) times/week; P<0·001) and had lower weekly weight gain than women who reported eating more (mean (se): 0·27 (0·004) v. 0·33 (0·004) kg/week; P<0·001).
Eating less has negative implications with respect to diet quality and pregnancy weight gain in this context.
This study describes findings from an assessment conducted to identify perceived knowledge gaps, information needs, and research priorities among state, territorial, and local public health preparedness directors and coordinators related to public health emergency preparedness and response (PHPR). The goal of the study was to gather information that would be useful for ensuring that future funding for research and evaluation targets areas most critical for advancing public health practice.
We implemented a mixed-methods approach to identify and prioritize PHPR research questions. A web survey was sent to all state, city, and territorial health agencies funded through the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement program and a sample of local health departments (LHDs). Three focus groups of state and local practitioners and subject matter experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were subsequently conducted, followed by 3 meetings of an expert panel of PHPR practitioners and CDC experts to prioritize and refine the research questions.
We identified a final list of 44 research questions that were deemed by study participants as priority topics where future research can inform PHPR programs and practice. We identified differences in perceived research priorities between PHEP awardees and LHD survey respondents; the number of research questions rated as important was greater among LHDs than among PHEP awardees (75%, n=33, compared to 24%, n=15).
The research questions identified provide insight into public health practitioners’ perceived knowledge gaps and the types of information that would be most useful for informing and advancing PHPR practice. The study also points to a higher level of information need among LHDs than among PHEP awardees. These findings are important for CDC and the PHPR research community to ensure that future research studies are responsive to practitioners’ needs and provide the information required to enhance their capacity to meet the needs of the communities and jurisdictions they serve. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:552–561)
Based upon its economical perspective, the phenomenon of forced moulting in the poultry industry has become a common practice to increase the productivity and reproductive life span of birds. Different feed supplements, including vitamins, minerals, probiotics and prebiotics have been extensively used by poultry farmers for many years. In the last decade, researchers have reported advantageous effects of these supplements in improving different health biomarkers of post moult poultry birds. Therefore, including with these supplements in post moult feed is believed to exhibit better results than moulting alone. The current review is aimed at highlighting the empirical data available on the importance of various feed supplements that are considered favourable in ameliorating the health status of moulted poultry birds.
We present the results of a numerical simulation of the corona and wind structure of the Sun-like exoplanet-host GJ 3021 using a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The simulation is driven by the radial component of the surface magnetic field recovered with the Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) technique. We consider two different ZDI input maps, which have similar large-scale structures but different spatial resolutions and field strengths. These maps arise from different but comparable models used to fit the observed circularly polarised spectra of the star. Our simulations show that the structure of the inner corona is consistent among the considered cases. Larger discrepancies are found in the wind structure, in particular in the radial wind speed and the Alfvén surface topology. These elements can have a significant impact on the mass loss and angular momentum loss predicted for this system and in other studies based on this numerical data-driven approach.
This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012–2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65·0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan.
Spectropolarimetric observations combined with tomographic imaging techniques have revealed that all pre-main sequence (PMS) stars host multipolar magnetic fields, ranging from strong and globally axisymmetric with ≳kilo-Gauss dipole components, to complex and non-axisymmetric with weak dipole components (≲0.1 kG). Many host dominantly octupolar large-scale fields. We argue that the large-scale magnetic properties of a PMS star are related to its location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This conference paper is a synopsis of Gregory et al. (2012), updated to include the latest results from magnetic mapping studies of PMS stars.
We present a preliminary 3D potential field extrapolation model of the joint magnetosphere of the close accreting PMS binary V4046 Sgr. The model is derived from magnetic maps obtained as part of a coordinated optical and X-ray observing program.
We present results of the X-ray monitoring of V4046 Sgr, a close classical T Tauri star binary, with both components accreting material. The 360 ks long XMM observation allowed us to measure the plasma densities at different temperatures, and to check whether and how the density varies with time. We find that plasma at temperatures of 1–4 MK has high densities, and we observe correlated and simultaneous density variations of plasma, probed by O VII and Ne IX triplets. These results strongly indicate that all the inspected He-like triplets are produced by high-density plasma heated in accretion shocks, and located at the base of accretion flows.
The prevalence of the digenean Plagiorchis sp. was investigated in a natural wood mouse population (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a periaquatic environment. Classical identification was complemented with the use of molecular differentiation to determine prevalence and verify species identity. Use of the complete ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA gene sequences have confirmed that the species reported at this location was Plagiorchis elegans and not Plagiorchis muris as reported previously. This underlines the difficulties in identification of these morphologically similar parasites. Plagiorchis elegans is typically a gastrointestinal parasite of avian species but has also been reported from small mammal populations. Although the occurrence of this digenean in A. sylvaticus in the UK is rare, in the area immediately surrounding Malham Tarn, Yorkshire, it had a high prevalence (23%) and a mean worm burden of 26.6 ± 61.5. The distribution of P. elegans followed a typically overdispersed pattern and both mouse age-group and sex were determined to be two main factors associated with prevalence. Male mice harboured the majority of worms, carrying 688 of 717 recovered during the study, and had a higher prevalence of 32.4% in comparison to only 8.7% in the small intestine of female mice. A higher prevalence of 43% was also observed in adult mice compared to 14% for young adults. No infection was observed in juvenile mice. These significant differences are likely to be due to differences in the foraging behaviour between the sexes and age cohorts of wood mice.
We present a rare case of an unusual presentation of a pyriform sinus haemangioma in a normally healthy, Caucasian woman, including our management and a review of the literature.
A 44-year-old woman presented complaining of bringing up fresh blood whilst brushing her teeth, dysphonia, food sticking in her throat, and epigastric pain for the preceding 12 months, accompanied by a 17.5 kg weight loss. She underwent pre-operative computed tomography and subsequent complete excision of a pyriform sinus haemangioma using CO2 laser.
Haemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations and can affect any part of the body. They are not prevalent in adults and are rarely found in the pyriform sinus. Their common presenting symptoms and management have been previously documented; however, the presented case is unusual in both its presentation and management.
This investigation has looked at the preparation of nanoscale cobalt particles by a simple solid state reaction involving cobalt (II) nitrate and zeolite Na-X under vacuum conditions followed by reduction in an hydrogen atmosphere. Samples were characterised by powder x-ray diffraction and scanning/transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Magnetic measurements were performed on the samples below 300 K using a SQUID magnetometer.
Recent work1 has highlighted the possibility that through the introduction of metals into the one-dimensional channels of zeolite L, it may be feasible to engineer charge transport along the channels to produce a unique compound comprising a precise, assembled array of ultrafine, atomic-scale conducting wires embedded within the aluminosilicate framework. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), and microwave cavity perturbation measurements, we examine the properties of these remarkable materials as a function of composition as they approach the insulator to metal transition.
We report the design, manufacturing, and testing of a new cesium enhanced negative carbon ion source that can be useful to synthesize hard and/or electron emitting carbon nitride and diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films. The design of the source includes a conventional magnetron-sputtering gun, low voltage ion extraction lenses, and a cesium oven to provide cesium vapor for formation of a fractional mono layer of Cs on the carbon target. Cs reduces the surface work function of the carbon target and enhances the emission of negative carbon ions. Argon and argon-nitrogen gas mixtures were used to ignite and sustain the plasma in the chamber. We compare the properties of carbon nitride and DLC films deposited with and without cesium. Nitrogen composition in the Ar-N2 gas mixture was observed to be an important process parameter affecting mechanical properties of the film. The effect of the Cs oven temperature on deposition rate and current absorbed at the substrate was also investigated for RF powers from 0 to 150 W.
This paper presents preliminary data on analyses of selected materials using two state-ofthe- art XPS systems: the Physical Electronics Inc. (PHI, Eden Prairie, MN) Quantum 2000 instrument and the microXPS beamline (184.108.40.206) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). This research compares and contrasts relevant performance characteristics of the two systems including elemental and chemical state detection sensitivity, imaging capabilities including lateral resolution and useful image fields, role of X-ray dose damage to surface, analysis speed as well as analytical throughput.
Chemical analysis on a microscopic scale was performed on a TiN particle sample on silicon and on two patterned samples using a synchrotron source scanning photoemission microscope. For all the experiments, we exploit the ability, developed in our experimental system, to reach specific locations on the wafer and analyze the local chemical state.