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This research attempts to systematically establish shape descriptor states through elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) using pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.) kernel as a model. Kernel images of 53 pili accessions from the National Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory (NPGRL), University of the Philippines Los Baños were acquired using VideometerLab 3. Shape features, such as roundness, compactness and elongation, were extracted from the images. Shapes outlines were characterized using elliptic Fourier coefficients calculated from SHAPE version 1.3 software. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to elucidate clusters representing the shape descriptor states. The first principal component accounts for the variation in length to width ratio; whereas, the second and third principal components explain the variation in the location of the widest portion and the truncation of the apex and base of the kernel, respectively. Cluster analysis separated the different accessions into six distinct clusters at 0.04 Euclidian distance. Six descriptor states, narrowly elliptic, elliptic, widely elliptic, ovate, obovate and lance-ovate, were characterized from the shape outlines and visualized through R's shape on r package. The discrimination between clusters was validated through MANOVA and LDA with 95% correct classification. The Fourier coefficients were also able to represent the variation observed from the physical properties of shape. The method may be used in establishing shape descriptors of all plant parts of all crop species.
Common practices for invasive species control and management include physical, chemical, and biological approaches. The first two approaches have clear limitations and may lead to unintended (negative) consequences, unless carefully planned and implemented. For example, physical removal rarely completely eradicates the targeted invasive species and can cause disturbances that facilitate new invasions by nonnative species from nearby habitats. Chemical treatments can harm native, and especially rare, species through unanticipated side effects. Biological methods may be classified as biocontrol and the ecological approach. Similar to physical and chemical methods, biocontrol also has limitations and sometimes leads to unintended consequences. Therefore, a relatively safer and more practical choice may be the ecological approach, which has two major components: (1) restoration of native species and (2) biomass manipulation of the restored community, such as selective grazing or prescribed burning (to achieve and maintain viable population sizes). Restoration requires well-planned and implemented planting designs that consider alpha-, beta-, and gamma-diversity and the abundance of native and invasive component species at local, landscape, and regional levels. Given the extensive destruction or degradation of natural habitats around the world, restoration could be most effective for enhancing ecosystem resilience and resistance to biotic invasions. At the same time, ecosystems in human-dominated landscapes, especially those newly restored, require close monitoring and careful intervention (e.g., through biomass manipulation), especially when successional trajectories are not moving as intended. Biomass management frequently uses prescribed burning, grazing, harvesting, and thinning to maintain overall ecosystem health and sustainability. Thus, the resulting optimal, balanced, and relatively stable ecological conditions could more effectively limit the spread and establishment of invasive species. Here we review the literature (especially within the last decade) on ecological approaches that involve biodiversity, biomass, and productivity, three key community/ecosystem variables that reciprocally influence one another. We focus on the common and most feasible ecological practices that can aid in resisting new invasions and/or suppressing the dominance of existing invasive species. We contend that, because of the strong influences from neighboring areas (i.e., as exotic species pools), local restoration and management efforts in the future need to consider the regional context and projected climate changes.
A staple theme in clinical psychology, emotion regulation, or the ability to manage one's emotions, is directly linked with personal wellbeing and the ability to effectively navigate the social world. Until recently, this concept has been limited to a focus on intrapersonal processes, such as suppression. Less emphasis has been placed on developmental, social, and cultural aspects of emotion regulation. We argue here that as social beings, our engagement in emotion regulation may often occur interpersonally, with trusted others helping us to regulate our emotions. This review will highlight recent research on interpersonal emotion regulation processes.
A systematic method for determining colour descriptor states using image analysis is proposed using pili (Canarium ovatum) as a model. Kernel images of 52 pili accessions from the core collection of the Institute of Crop Science and National Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory, University of the Philippines Los Baños were captured using a calibrated VideometerLab 3 setup. Colour descriptor states were derived from the average International Commission on Illumination lightness (L*), green–red (a*) and blue–yellow (b*) colour component values. Cluster analysis and subsequent colour-parameter averaging per cluster were performed to produce representative colour values of descriptor states. The Euclidian distance (Delta E) of 3.5 was used to cut the cluster into readily distinguishable colour differences resulting to three descriptor states – light brown, brown and dark brown. Continuous colour variation of brown colour was observed indicating a possible quantitative nature of the trait. The use of delta E in elucidating the descriptor lists served as a gauge in successfully identifying distinguishable variations between colours. The method described can be applied to the elucidation of colour descriptor states of all parts of the plant of all crop species.
A major goal of Gardner, Ryan, and Snoeyink (2018) was to determine what steps are needed moving forward in examining gender representation in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Specifically, on the topic of pay differences, we highlight that gender differences in pay are in part due to differences in negotiation behaviors and/or experiences. Prior research demonstrates that female negotiators receive greater backlash than male negotiators—a possible explanation to why men tend to negotiate more often and more successfully than women (Bowles, Babcock, & Lai, 2007). Based on this evidence, one next step in moving forward should involve providing resources and knowledge to improve negotiation skills and practices specifically aimed at eliminating differences between women and men in both propensity to negotiate and the evaluation/consequences of negotiating.
The newborn lamb lacks circulating antibodies and relies on an early and adequate intake of colostrum for passive protection against disease and for energy (Black, Francis and Nicholls, 1985; Mellor, 1990). However, lambs may receive less colostrum than they require because of sibling competition, maternal undernutrition or udder disease. Colostrum insufficiency accounts for about 25% of perinatal lamb deaths world wide (Khalaf, Doxey and Baxter, 1979).
Powdered colostrum substitutes may be used to supplement ‘at risk’ lambs but, because the products are manufactured outside the United Kingdom (UK), mainly from bovine sources, their relevance to UK sheep enterprises is uncertain. Further, their available energy content is low because the main constituent, protein, is not catabolized by newborn lambs (Mellor and Cockburn, 1986). The present work measured the ability of one substitute derived from bovine whey (based on ProLAM, Fisons Animal Health Ltd), with or without supplementary glucose; to prevent disease and promote growth to 3 months in lambs reared in typical UK farm conditions.
While our fascination with understanding the past is sufficient to warrant an increased focus on synthesis, solutions to important problems facing modern society require understandings based on data that only archaeology can provide. Yet, even as we use public monies to collect ever-greater amounts of data, modes of research that can stimulate emergent understandings of human behavior have lagged behind. Consequently, a substantial amount of archaeological inference remains at the level of the individual project. We can more effectively leverage these data and advance our understandings of the past in ways that contribute to solutions to contemporary problems if we adapt the model pioneered by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis to foster synthetic collaborative research in archaeology. We propose the creation of the Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis coordinated through a U.S.-based National Center for Archaeological Synthesis. The coalition will be composed of established public and private organizations that provide essential scholarly, cultural heritage, computational, educational, and public engagement infrastructure. The center would seek and administer funding to support collaborative analysis and synthesis projects executed through coalition partners. This innovative structure will enable the discipline to address key challenges facing society through evidentially based, collaborative synthetic research.
There is a lack of evidence pointing to the efficacy of any specific psychotherapy for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to compare three psychological treatments for AN: Specialist Supportive Clinical Management, Maudsley Model Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults and Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was conducted with outcomes assessed at pre-, mid- and post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up by researchers blind to treatment allocation. All analyses were intention-to-treat. One hundred and twenty individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for AN were recruited from outpatient treatment settings in three Australian cities and offered 25–40 sessions over a 10-month period. Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder psychopathology. Secondary outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress and psychosocial impairment.
Treatment was completed by 60% of participants and 52.5% of the total sample completed 12-month follow-up. Completion rates did not differ between treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments on continuous outcomes; all resulted in clinically significant improvements in BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology and psychosocial impairment that were maintained over follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatments with regard to the achievement of a healthy weight (mean = 50%) or remission (mean = 28.3%) at 12-month follow-up.
The findings add to the evidence base for these three psychological treatments for adults with AN, but the results underscore the need for continued efforts to improve outpatient treatments for this disorder.
The diverse and fascinating properties of transition metal oxides stem from the strongly correlated electronic degrees of freedom; the scientific challenge and range of possible applications of these materials have caused fascination among physicists and materials scientists, thus capturing research efforts for nearly a century. Here, we focus on the binary VxOy and the ternary perovskite AVO3 and review the key aspects from the underlying physical framework and their basic properties, recent strides made in thin-film synthesis, to recent efforts to implement vanadium-based oxides for practical applications that augment existing technologies, which surpass limitations of conventional materials.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
In this paper we derive sufficient conditions for the permanence and ergodicity of a stochastic predator–prey model with a Beddington–DeAngelis functional response. The conditions obtained are in fact very close to the necessary conditions. Both nondegenerate and degenerate diffusions are considered. One of the distinctive features of our results is that they enable the characterization of the support of a unique invariant probability measure. It proves the convergence in total variation norm of the transition probability to the invariant measure. Comparisons to the existing literature and matters related to other stochastic predator–prey models are also given.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.
Premutation and full-mutation hyperexpansion of CGG-triplets in the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene have been implicated in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome (FXS), respectively. The currently available molecular diagnostic tests are either costly or labour-intensive, which prohibits their application as a first-line FMR1 test in large-scale population-based screening programs. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of a simplified closed-tube strategy for rapid first-line screening of FXS based on melt peak temperature (Tm) analysis of direct triplet-primed polymerase chain reaction amplicons (dTP-PCR MCA). In addition, we also evaluated the correlation between Tm and CGG-repeat size based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) of dTP-PCR amplicons. The assays were initially tested on 29 FMR1 reference DNA samples, followed by a blinded validation on 107 previously characterised patient DNA samples. The dTP-PCR MCA produced distinct melt profiles of higher Tm for samples carrying an expanded allele. Among the samples tested, we also observed a good correlation between Tm and CGG-repeat size. In the blinded validation study, dTP-PCR MCA accurately classified all normal and expansion carriers, and the FMR1 genotypic classification of all samples was completely concordant with the previously determined genotypes as well as the dTP-PCR CE results. This simple and cost-effective MCA-based assay may be useful as a first-line FXS screening tool that could rapidly screen out the large majority of unaffected individuals, thus minimising the number of samples that need to be analysed by Southern blot analysis.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
This audit cycle aimed to identify deficiencies in medicines management in an adult psychiatric hospital. The original audit in 2009 highlighted that a number of improvements were needed to enhance prescribing standards. Following implementation of these recommendations, two reaudits were performed to assess both the improvements in medicines management along with evaluating the newly introduced drug prescription chart.
Local, national and international guidelines on medicines management were reviewed in 2009, following which an audit tool was designed. Recommendations from the original audit were taken on board with the introduction of a new medication chart. This chart incorporated many of the recommendations from the original audit into it. Two reaudits were then performed, each over 1 day by four assessors and included all inpatient wards.
The initial audit in 2009 outlined a number of recommendations, namely the introduction of an appropriate ‘fit for purpose’ medication chart, the need for regular postgraduate prescribing education and training and the consideration of a prescribing formulary and/or Drugs & Therapeutics Committee. Results from the reaudits revealed that considerable improvement was made in areas such as patient demographics, pharmacist involvement, generic prescribing, BLOCK capitals, inclusion of Medical Council Registration Number, PRN prescribing and discontinuation procedures.
Although significant improvement was noted, further improvement is required with regards to the need for a review date for PRN medication; the need for improved documentation of allergies, height and weight; and the importance of a working group to assess community medicines management and the need for further reaudits to assess continued improvement in all deficient areas.
We describe the development of a noise-temperature testing capability for phased-array antennas operating in receive mode from 0.7 GHz to 1.8 GHz. Sampled voltages from each array port were recorded digitally as the zenith-pointing array under test was presented with three scenes: (1) a large microwave absorber at ambient temperature, (2) the unobstructed radio sky, and (3) broadband noise transmitted from a reference antenna centred over and pointed at the array under test. The recorded voltages were processed in software to calculate the beam equivalent noise temperature for a maximum signal-to-noise ratio beam steered at the zenith. We introduced the reference-antenna measurement to make noise measurements with reproducible, well-defined beams directed at the zenith and thereby at the centre of the absorber target. We applied a detailed model of cosmic and atmospheric contributions to the radio sky emission that we used as a noise-temperature reference. We also present a comprehensive analysis of measurement uncertainty including random and systematic effects. The key systematic effect was due to uncertainty in the beamformed antenna pattern and how efficiently it illuminates the absorber load. We achieved a combined uncertainty as low as 4 K for a 40 K measurement of beam equivalent noise temperature. The measurement and analysis techniques described in this paper were pursued to support noise-performance verification of prototype phased-array feeds for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope.