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Coated copper sulfate (CCS) could be used as copper supplement in cows. To investigate the influences of copper sulfate (CS) and CCS on milk performance, nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, fifty Holstein dairy cows were arranged in a randomized block design to five groups: control, CS addition (7.5 mg Cu/kg dry matter [DM] from CS) or CCS addition (5, 7.5 and 10 mg Cu/kg DM from CCS, respectively). When comparing copper source at equal inclusion rates (7.5 mg/kg DM), cows receiving CCS addition had higher yields of fat corrected milk, milk fat and protein, digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, activities of carboxymethyl-cellulase, cellobiase, pectinase and α-amylase, populations of Ruminococcus (R.) albus, R. flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes and liver copper content than cows receiving CS addition. Increasing CCS addition, DM intake was unchanged, yields of milk, milk fat and protein, feed efficiency, digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and acid detergent acid fibre, ruminal total VFA concentration, acetate to propionate ratio, activity of cellulolytic enzyme and populations of total bacteria, protozoa and dominant cellulolytic bacteria and concentrations of copper in serum and liver increased linearly, but ruminal propionate percentage, ammonia-N concentration, α-amylase activity and populations of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus decreased linearly. The results indicated that supplement of CS could be substituted with CCS, and addition of CCS improved milk performance and nutrient digestion in dairy cows.
Mental health disorders and their treatments produce significant costs and benefits in both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors. The latter are often referred to as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Little is known about healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector and how to include these in health economics research.
The triple aim of this study is (i) to identify healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector, (ii) to validate the list of healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector on a European level by sector-specific experts, and (iii) to classify the identified ICBs.
A scientific literature search in PubMed and an additional grey literature search, carried out in six European countries, were used to retrieve ICBs. In order to validate the international applicability of the ICBs, a survey was conducted with an international group of experts from the criminal justice sector. The list of criminal justice ICBs was categorized according to the PECUNIA conceptual framework.
The full-text analysis of forty-five peer-reviewed journal articles and eleven grey literature sources resulted in a draft list of items. Input from the expert survey resulted in a final list of fourteen unique criminal justice ICBs, categorized according to the care atom.
This study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs of mental health-related interventions within the criminal justice sector. More research is needed to facilitate the further and increased inclusion of ICBs in health economics research.
Recently, we found that in ovo feeding of l-leucine (l-Leu) afforded thermotolerance, stimulated lipid metabolism and modified amino acid metabolism in male broiler chicks. However, the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on thermoregulation and growth performance until marketing age of broilers are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on body weight (BW) gain under control thermoneutral temperature or chronic heat stress. We measured changes of body temperature and food intake, organ weight, as well as amino acid metabolism and plasma metabolites under acute and chronic heat stress in broilers. A total of 168 fertilized Chunky broiler eggs were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups in experiments. The eggs were in ovo fed with l-Leu (34.5 µmol/500 µl per egg) or sterile water (500 µl/egg) during incubation. After hatching, male broilers were selected and assigned seven to nine replicates (one bird/replicate) in each group for heat challenge experiments. Broilers (29- or 30-day-old) were exposed to acute heat stress (30 ± 1°C) for 120 min or a chronic heat cyclic and continued heat stress (over 30 ± 1°C; ages, 15 to 44 days). In ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significant suppression of enhanced body temperature without affecting food intake, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, lactic acid or thyroid hormones under acute heat stress. Daily body temperature was significantly increased by l-Leu in ovo feeding under chronic heat stress. Interestingly, in ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significantly higher daily BW gain compared with that of the control group under chronic heat stress. Moreover, some essential amino acids, including Leu and isoleucine, were significantly increased in the liver and decreased in the plasma by l-Leu in ovo feeding under acute heat stress. These results suggested that l-Leu in ovo feeding afforded thermotolerance to broilers under acute heat stress mainly through changing amino acid metabolism until marketing age.
Tuberculosis (TB) is generally considered a disease that principally afflicts the low-income segments of a population. In the Nanshan District of Shenzhen, China, with the economic transformation and a new Headquarters Economy (HE) emerging, there are now more cases in office workers than in manufacturing workers. To illustrate this trend, we describe a small TB outbreak in an office building located in the centre of the rapidly growing HE district. Two active pulmonary tuberculosis cases were found in workers who shared an office, and whole genome sequencing showed that the genetic distance between the strains of the two cases was just one single nucleotide polymorphism, consistent with intra-office transmission. Investigation of 30 other workers in the same or adjacent offices with interviews, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and chest X-rays, identified one new TB case and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in 40.0% (12/30) of the contacts. The offices were under-ventilated. None of the IGRA positive, asymptomatic contacts agreed to receive treatment for LTBI, presumably due to TB stigma, and over the next 2 years 69.0% (20/29) of the contacts were lost to follow-up. Treatment for LTBI and stigma of TB remain challenges here. Office workers in the HE of rapidly economic developing areas should be targeted with increased vigilance by TB control programmes.
Foamy, whitish appearance of the pyloric caeca, reflecting elevated lipid content, histologically visible as hypervacuolation, is frequently observed in Atlantic salmon fed high-plant diets. Lipid malabsorption syndrome (LMS) is suggested as term for the phenomenon. Earlier studies have shown that insufficient supply of phospholipids may cause similar symptoms. The objective of the present study was to strengthen knowledge on the role of choline, the key component of phosphatidylcholine, in development of LMS as well as finding the dietary required choline level in Atlantic salmon. A regression design was chosen to be able to estimate the dietary requirement level of choline, if found essential for the prevention of LMS. Atlantic salmon (456 g) were fed diets supplemented with 0, 392, 785, 1177, 1569, 1962, 2354, 2746 and 3139 mg/kg choline chloride. Fish fed the lowest-choline diet had pyloric caeca with whitish foamy surface, elevated relative weight, and the enterocytes were hypervacuolated. These characteristics diminished with increasing choline level and levelled off at levels of 2850, 3593 and 2310 mg/kg, respectively. The concomitant alterations in expression of genes related to phosphatidylcholine synthesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and storage confirmed the importance of choline in lipid turnover in the intestine and ability to prevent LMS. Based on the observations of the present study, the lowest level of choline which prevents LMS and intestinal lipid hypervacuolation in post-smolt Atlantic salmon is 3·4 g/kg. However, the optimal level most likely depends on the feed intake and dietary lipid level.
Placental function can be modified by maternal obesity affecting the materno-fetal fatty acid transport process. We analyze for the first time the in vivo materno-fetal kinetic transfer of fatty acids (FA) labeled with stable isotopes in control and obese pregnant women.
Materials and Methods:
Labelled FA with similar metabolism (stearic acid: 13C-SA, palmitic acid: 13C-PA and oleic acid: 13C-OA) were orally administered at -4 h, -8 h, and -12 h, respectively prior to elective caesarean section to 10 pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 and 10 with BMI 25–30 (control). Placenta, venous and arterial cord blood were collected obtaining a wide range of FA enrichments. A combined experimental and computational modeling analysis was applied.
FA Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in placenta was 11–12% per hour. No differences were observed between control and normo-lipidemic obese pregnant women. It was not possible to estimate FA FSR in cord blood with this oral bolus dose approach. Computational modelling demonstrated a good fit to the data when all maternal plasma lipid classes were included but not with modelling based only on the non-esterified FA fraction (NEFA). The estimated materno-fetal 13C-FA transfer was around 1%.
Our approach using multiple 13C-FA tracers allowed us to estimated FSR in placental/maternal plasma but not in fetal/maternal compartments. Computational modelling showed a consistent time course of placental 13C-FA transfer and predicted total fetal FA accumulation during the experiment. We conclude that in addition to NEFA in the maternal circulation, maternal plasma VLDL and other lipoproteins are important contributors to placental FA transfer to the fetus.
To examine the impact of determinants of incident dementia in three different old age groups (75–79, 80–84, 85+years) in Germany.
Multicenter prospective AgeCoDe/AgeQualiDe cohort study with baseline and nine follow-up assessments at 1.5-year intervals.
Primary care medical record registry sample.
General practitioners’ (GPs) patients aged 75+years at baseline.
Conduction of standardized interviews including neuropsychological assessment and collection of GP information at each assessment wave. We used age-stratified competing risk regression models (accounting for the competing event of mortality) to assess determinants of incident dementia and age-stratified ordinary least square regressions to quantify the impact of identified determinants on the age at dementia onset.
Among 3027 dementia-free GP patients, n = 704 (23.3%) developed dementia during the 13-year study period. Worse cognitive performance and subjective memory decline with related worries at baseline, and the APOE ε4 allele were associated independently with increased dementia risk in all three old age groups. Worse cognitive performance at baseline was also associated with younger age at dementia onset in all three age groups. Other well-known determinants were associated with dementia risk and age at dementia onset only in some or in none of the three old age groups.
This study provides further evidence for the age-specific importance of determinants of incident dementia in old age. Such specifics have to be considered more strongly particularly with regard to potential approaches of early detection and prevention of dementia.
Most research on the causes of women's underrepresentation examines one of two stages of the political pipeline: the development of nascent political ambition or specific aspects of the campaign and election process. In this article, we make a different kind of contribution. We build on the growing literature on gender, psychology, and representation to provide an analysis of what kinds of men and women make it through the political pipeline at each stage. This allows us to draw some conclusions about the ways in which the overall process is similar and different for women and men. Using surveys of the general U.S. population (N = 1,939) and elected municipal officials such as mayors and city councilors (N = 2,354) that measure the distribution of Big Five personality traits, we find that roughly the same types of men and women have nascent political ambition; there is just an intercept shift for sex. In contrast, male and female elected officials have different personality profiles. These differences do not reflect underlying distributions in the general population or the population of political aspirants. In short, our data suggest that socialization into political ambition is similar for men and women, but campaign and election processes are not.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.
Antenna-pattern measurements obtained from a double-metal supra-terahertz-frequency (supra-THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) are presented. The QCL is mounted within a mechanically micro-machined waveguide cavity containing dual diagonal feedhorns. Operating in continuous-wave mode at 3.5 THz, and at an ambient temperature of ~60 K, QCL emission has been directed via the feedhorns to a supra-THz detector mounted on a multi-axis linear scanner. Comparison of simulated and measured far-field antenna patterns shows an excellent degree of correlation between beamwidth (full-width-half-maximum) and sidelobe content and a very substantial improvement when compared with unmounted devices. Additionally, a single output has been used to successfully illuminate and demonstrate an optical breadboard arrangement associated with a future supra-THz Earth observation space-borne payload. Our novel device has therefore provided a valuable demonstration of the effectiveness of supra-THz diagonal feedhorns and QCL devices for future space-borne ultra-high-frequency Earth-observing heterodyne radiometers.
We analyse a class of chemical reaction networks under mass-action kinetics involving multiple time scales, whose deterministic and stochastic models display qualitative differences. The networks are inspired by gene-regulatory networks and consist of a slow subnetwork, describing conversions among the different gene states, and fast subnetworks, describing biochemical interactions involving the gene products. We show that the long-term dynamics of such networks can consist of a unique attractor at the deterministic level (unistability), while the long-term probability distribution at the stochastic level may display multiple maxima (multimodality). The dynamical differences stem from a phenomenon we call noise-induced mixing, whereby the probability distribution of the gene products is a linear combination of the probability distributions of the fast subnetworks which are ‘mixed’ by the slow subnetworks. The results are applied in the context of systems biology, where noise-induced mixing is shown to play a biochemically important role, producing phenomena such as stochastic multimodality and oscillations.
In utero exposure to the ubiquitous plasticizer, bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with offspring obesity. As adipogenesis is a critical factor contributing to obesity, we determined the effects of in vivo maternal BPA and in vitro BPA exposure on newborn adipose tissue at the stem-cell level. For in vivo studies, female rats received BPA before and during pregnancy and lactation via drinking water, and offspring were studied for measures of adiposity signals. For in vitro BPA exposure, primary pre-adipocyte cell cultures from healthy newborns were utilized. We studied pre-adipocyte proliferative and differentiation effects of BPA and explored putative signal factors which partly explain adipose responses and underlying epigenetic mechanisms mediated by BPA. Maternal BPA-induced offspring adiposity, hypertrophic adipocytes and increased adipose tissue protein expression of pro-adipogenic and lipogenic factors. Consistent with in vivo data, in vitro BPA exposure induced a dose-dependent increase in pre-adipocyte proliferation and increased adipocyte lipid content. In vivo and in vitro BPA exposure promotes the proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes, contributing to an enhanced capacity for lipid storage. These findings reinforce the marked effects of BPA on adipogenesis and highlight the susceptibility of stem-cell populations during early life with long-term consequence on metabolic homeostasis.
Bipolar and more complex morphologies observed in planetary nebulae have been explained by two principal hypotheses: by the existence of a companion producing a circumstellar disk, by the effects of a magnetic field, or by a combination of both. The polarimetric analysis of these objects could give information about the presence of dust grains aligned with any preferential direction, due to a magnetic field or to the action of radiative torques (RAT). We performed polarimetric observations of some planetary nebulae in order to detect linear polarization and (in the best scenario) to detect the signature of an accretion disk in these objects. We observed in the visual region with POLIMA at the San Pedro Mártir observatory, and with POLICAN the NIR polarimeter in the Guillermo Haro observatory. We present the result of these observations in one of these objects: the PN M2-9.
We carried out simultaneous observations of H2O and OH masers, and radio continuum at 1.3 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) towards 4 water-fountain candidates. Water fountains (WFs) are evolved stars, in the AGB and post-AGB phase, with collimated jets traced by high-velocity H2O masers. Up to now, only 15 sources have been confirmed as WFs through interferometric observations. We are interested in the discovery and study of new WFs. A higher number of these sources is important to understand their properties as a group, because they may represent one of the first manifestations of collimated mass-loss in evolved stars. These observations will provide information about the role of magnetic fields in the launching of jets in WFs. Our aim is to ascertain the WF nature of these candidates, and investigate the spatial distribution of the H2O and OH masers.
We study the mixing in low-intermediate massive stars using eclipsing binaries. We compute stellar evolutionary models with a varying convective core overshooting parameter and different rotation rates. Using a Bayesian estimation method, we found that the coexistence of the two phenomena may be a reasonable explanation of the observed extra-mixing.