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From simple averaging to more sophisticated registration and restoration strategies, such as super-resolution (SR), there exist different computational techniques that use a series of images of the same object to generate enhanced images where noise and other distortions have been reduced. In this work, we provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of this enhancement for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. These images are compared in two ways, qualitatively through visual inspection in real and reciprocal space, and quantitatively, through the calculation of objective measurements, such as signal-to-noise ratio and atom column roundness. Results show that these techniques improve the quality of the images. In this paper, we use an SR methodology that allows us to take advantage of the information present in the image frames and to reliably facilitate the analysis of more difficult regions of interest in experimental images, such as surfaces and interfaces. By acquiring a series of cross-sectional experimental images of magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films (111), we have generated interpolated images using averaging and SR, and reconstructed the atomic structure of the very top surface layer that consists of a full monolayer of Fe, with topmost Fe atoms in tetrahedrally coordinated sites.
Background: Biallelic variants in POLR1C are associated with POLR3-related leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), or 4H leukodystrophy (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia, Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism), and Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The clinical spectrum of POLR3-HLD caused by variants in this gene has not been described. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study involving 25 centers worldwide was conducted between 2016 and 2018. The clinical, radiologic and molecular features of 23 unreported and previously reported cases of POLR3-HLD caused by POLR1C variants were reviewed. Results: Most participants presented between birth and age 6 years with motor difficulties. Neurological deterioration was seen during childhood, suggesting a more severe phenotype than previously described. The dental, ocular and endocrine features often seen in POLR3-HLD were not invariably present. Five patients (22%) had a combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and abnormal craniofacial development, including one individual with clear TCS features. Several cases did not exhibit all the typical radiologic characteristics of POLR3-HLD. A total of 29 different pathogenic variants in POLR1C were identified, including 13 new disease-causing variants. Conclusions: Based on the largest cohort of patients to date, these results suggest novel characteristics of POLR1C-related disorder, with a spectrum of clinical involvement characterized by hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with or without abnormal craniofacial development reminiscent of TCS.
Background: Genetically-determined leukoencephalopathies comprise a rare group of inherited white matter disorders. The vast majority are associated with a progressive disease course and early death. This study seeks to determine the clinical and demographic correlates of stress in parents of leukodystrophy patients, for future clinical guidance. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 36 families was performed. Children aged 1 month to 12 years with a diagnosed leukodystrophy or genetically-determined leukoencephalopathy were included. 31 mothers and 24 fathers completed the Parental Stress Index, 4th edition (PSI-4). One demographic questionnaire was completed per family. Clinical data was gathered within 6 months of the questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed with total stress (TS) scores as the primary outcome. Results: Mothers and fathers had comparable TS scores. No clinical or demographic factors predicted the father’s TS score. Greater ambulatory impairment, using the GMFCS scale, correlated to lower TS scores in the mother. Conclusions: The progressive nature of these conditions makes it such that anticipating a child’s inability to walk may cause more stress for mothers than a child’s actual inability to ambulate. The inability of all other variables to predict total stress highlights a need for individualized approaches when addressing stress in these families.
New routes in additive devices fabrication techniques and advances in printable materials are required to meet the ever increasing demands for low-cost and large-area flexible electronics. In particular, perovskite-based materials have gained an appeal due to their unique optoelectronics and ferroelectrics properties, which may replace p-n junction in semiconductor devices. Metal-organic methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite formulations have been extensively studied in the last few years as promising materials for use in printed electronics, which do not require high temperatures or vacuum environment, contrary to conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques. In this work, digital inkjet-printing in ambient atmosphere is proposed as a deposition pathway for the fabrication of perovskite active layers in photodetector and thin-film photovoltaic device architectures. The device architecture containing a printed perovskite active layer sandwiched between TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD as electron and hole transport layers, respectively, as well as layer-on-layer fabrication and responsivity spectra of the perovskite-based device are presented.
The total solar eclipse of July 11, 1991 was observed from “La Matanza”, Baja California Sur, México, only 5 km south of the center line of totality, with several small instruments intended to obtain images of the corona during totality, and using a range of exposure times which allowed us to detect both the inner and outer corona. Relations between large and fine scale structures of the corona, the photospheric and chromospheric activity, and the presence of coronal holes are presented.
A pilot study by 6 Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) explored how bibliometrics can be used to assess research influence.
Evaluators from 6 institutions shared data on publications (4202 total) they supported, and conducted a combined analysis with state-of-the-art tools. This paper presents selected results based on the tools from 2 widely used vendors for bibliometrics: Thomson Reuters and Elsevier.
Both vendors located a high percentage of publications within their proprietary databases (>90%) and provided similar but not equivalent bibliometrics for estimating productivity (number of publications) and influence (citation rates, percentage of papers in the top 10% of citations, observed citations relative to expected citations). A recently available bibliometric from the National Institutes of Health Office of Portfolio Analysis, examined after the initial analysis, showed tremendous potential for use in the CTSA context.
Despite challenges in making cross-CTSA comparisons, bibliometrics can enhance our understanding of the value of CTSA-supported clinical and translational research.
Interdisciplinary collaboration is a critical component of translation, dissemination, implementation, and improvement (TDII) science. Yet, little is known about effective frameworks and practices regarding interdisciplinary research in TDII.
This study drew on data collected from an expert panel during a regional symposium.
Findings highlight facilitators and barriers to stimulating interdisciplinary TDII research in different domains: intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, power and hierarchy, physical environment, and communication and language.
Findings have significant implications for TDII of clinical practices.
Recent observations of the magnetic field in pre-main sequence stars suggest that the magnetic field topology changes as a function of age. The presence of a tachocline could be an important factor in the development of magnetic field with higher multipolar modes. In this work we performed MHD simulations using the EULAG-MHD code to study the magnetic field generation and evolution in models that mimic stars at two evolutionary stages. The stratification for both stellar phases was computed by fitting stellar structure profiles obtained with the ATON stellar evolution code. The first stage is at 1.1Myr, when the star is completely convective. The second stage is at 14Myrs, when the star is partly convective, with a radiative core developed up to 30% of the stellar radius. In this proceedings we present a preliminary analysis of the resulting mean-flows and magnetic field. The mean-flow analysis shown that the star rotate almost rigidly on the fully convective phase, whereas at the partially convective phase there is differential rotation with conical contours of iso-rotation. As for the mean magnetic field both simulations show similarities with respect to the field evolution. However, the topology of the magnetic field is different.
The mechanism by which sunspots are generated at the surface of the sun remains unclear. In the current literature two types of explanations can be found. The first one is related to the buoyant emergence of toroidal magnetic fields generated at the tachocline. The second one states that active regions are formed, from initially diffused magnetic flux, by MHD instabilities that develop in the near-surface layers of the Sun. Using the anelastic MHD code EULAG we address the problem of sunspot formation by performing implicit large-eddy simulations of stratified magneto-convection in a domain that resembles the near-surface layers of the Sun. The development of magnetic structures is explored as well as their effect on the convection dynamics. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field over an initially stationary hydrodynamic convective state, we investigate the formation of self-organized magnetic structures in the range of the initial magnetic field strength, 0.01 < B0/Beq < 0.5, where Beq is the characteristic equipartition field strength.
We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ≃ 900 ±70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar iii], [S iv], and [Ne ii] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases.
The role of tachoclines, the thin shear layers that separate solid body from differential rotation in the interior of late-type stars, in stellar dynamos is still controversial. In this work we discuss their relevance in view of recent results from global dynamo simulations performed with the EULAG-MHD code. The models have solar-like stratification and different rotation rates (i.e., different Rossby number). Three arguments supporting the key role of tachoclines are presented: the solar dynamo cycle period, the origin of torsional oscillations and the scaling law of stellar magnetic fields as function of the Rossby number. This scaling shows a regime where the field strength increases with the rotation and a saturated regime for fast rotating stars. These properties are better reproduced by models that consider the convection zone and a fraction of the radiative core, naturally developing a tachocline, than by those that consider only the convection zone.
Cottonseed hulls are co-product of agribusiness that can be used in beef cattle rations, decreasing the cost of feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cottonseed hull levels, display and ageing times on visual and sensorial meat acceptability. Longissimus thoracis muscle from 30 crossbred young bulls finished on three high-grain diets (210, 270 or 330 g/kg of cottonseed hulls on dry matter, respectively) were visually evaluated during 10 days of display by 37 appraisers. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability from the three diets and three ageing times (1, 7 and 14 days) were evaluated by 120 consumers. On the visual study, time of display (P⩽0.001) was a more significant factor than diet. Cottonseed hull level had no effect on sensorial analyses, with tenderness acceptability improving with ageing time (P⩽0.001). Results indicate the possibility of using the three studied levels of cottonseed without damaging consumer meat acceptability.
Photometric observations of o And collected from 1994 to 1998 are presented. Neither multimodal pulsations nor rotational modulation seems able to explain completely the complex light curves, but a model based on the pulsations together with some type of magnetic activity could be applicable.
Omicron Andromedae is a multiple system composed of at least four components. The main component “A” is a variable Be star (B5II-III). The variations of this star are multiform: the circumstellar emission and absorption can vary drastically and can even disappear and reappear later, whereas changes in magnitude are also observed (see e.g. Sareyan et al., 1998). Rapid Spectroscopic and photometric variations are observed as well. As explained below, the rapid Spectroscopic variations of the Hα line observed in 1992 during a phase of moderate emission are very special (Briot et al., 2001). Then the emission of о And increased, so another program of observations of the Hα line was performed to investigate its rapid variations during different emission phases. We present here some preliminary results.
Observations carried out for 5 years on o And show that 65 to 85% of its light variations can be described by a double wave: A sin (2πt/P1 + ϕ1) + B sin (2πt/P2 + ϕ2) + C with P1 ≈ 1.6 d = 2P2. When determined independently, P1 and P2 are always found in a 2:1 ratio (within 1%), while they can vary together by as much as 4%. The peak to peak amplitudes of this double-wave fit lay between 40 and 140 mmag (and can even be reduced to less than 10 mmag - our 1987 observations). The rest of the light variations do not show any permanent period or behavior, although a ∼ 2.3 d. (i.e. ≈ 3P1/2) period is frequently detected. Sometimes a marginal ∼ 6 d. period or time constant has been detected.
In spite of the quality of our photometric data, the precision on the periods and amplitudes obtained over a few nights is never increased by longer observations: our phase diagrams show significant irregular displacements around the average double-wave analytical solution if we include longer data strings (Fig. 1). This phenomenon was already apparent in our 1992 study (Sareyan et al., 1998): the star shows real irregular behaviour superimposed onto its double-wave “mean” light curve; these changes may show up as a progressive, or sometimes abrupt, modification of the shape of the double-wave light curve (Fig. 1).
Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth families are exclusively day-flyers, and therefore subject to evolutionary pressures similar to those endured by butterflies. Among them, the Castniidae, also called ‘butterfly-moths’ or ‘sun-moths’, behave like butterflies and, thus, castniid females appear to have also lost their pheromone glands, an unparallel attribute in the world of moths. In this paper, we review the sexual communication strategy in day-flying Lepidoptera, mainly butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea), Zygaenidae and Castniidae moths, and compare their mating behaviour with that of moth families of nocturnal habits, paying particular attention to the recently discovered butterfly-like partner-finding strategy of castniids and the fascinating facts and debates that led to its discovery.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
69 Ori (B5 V) was discovered as a Be star in 1976 (Doazan et al., 1977). We observed this object at the Merate Observatory during the periods Nov. 77. - Jan. 78 - Jan. 78 and Oct. 78 - Feb. 79 obtaining 20 red spectrograms and 25 blue ones with a dispersion of 35 Å/mm. We performed also B and V photo-electric observations during 12 nights altogether. The results from the red spectra and the photometric measurements have been discussed by Bossi et al. (1981).