The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of benzodiazepine use on cognitive performance in primary care patients with first cognitive complaints. The association between the exposition to benzodiazepines (short and long half-life) and cognitive performance, evaluated through the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), was tested through analysis of the covariance and logistic regression models. Within the 4,249 participants (mean age 77.0 ± 8.2, 66.4% women), 732 (17%) were on benzodiazepines. When compared with non-users, short- and long-acting benzodiazepine users presented overlapping adjusted MMSE mean scores (respectively, mean MMSE score: 25.3, 95%CI 25.2–25.5; 25.4, 95%CI 25.1–25.7, and 25.9, 95%CI 25.3–26.4; p = 0.156). When tested according to the logistical regression model, after adjusting for potential confounders, no association was found between short and long acting benzodiazepine use and a MMSE < 24 (respectively, OR 0.9, 95%CI 0.7–1.2; OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7–1.3) as compared with non-users. In conclusion, according to the results of our study, benzodiazepine use seems not to impact on cognitive performance- as assessed with the MMSE- of primary care patients referring to GPs for first cognitive complaints.