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Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among young people experiencing homelessness, and many of these smokers are motivated to quit. However, there is a lack of readily available cessation services for this population, which is highly mobile and can be challenging to engage in services.
We describe the development of a smoking cessation text messaging intervention (TMI) for homeless youth who are interested in quitting smoking.
Participants were 18–25 years old and recruited from drop-in centers serving homeless youth. Three focus groups (N = 18) were conducted with smokers to refine the TMI content, and a separate sample of smokers (N = 8) provided feedback on the TMI after using it for 1 week. Survey data assessed the TMI's acceptability and feasibility.
Participants generally rated the TMI as helpful and relevant, and nearly all had cell phone plans that included unlimited texting and were able to view TMI content with few difficulties. Qualitative feedback on strengths/limitations of the TMI in terms of content, tone, and delivery parameters was used to finalize the TMI for a future evaluation.
Results suggest that a TMI is a feasible and acceptable option for young people experiencing homelessness who are interested in quitting smoking.
Wearable devices are fast evolving to address mobility and autonomy needs of elderly people who would benefit from physical assistance. Recent developments in soft robotics provide important opportunities to develop soft exoskeletons (also called exosuits) to enable both physical assistance and improved usability and acceptance for users. The XoSoft EU project has developed a modular soft lower limb exoskeleton to assist people with low mobility impairments. In this paper, we present the design of a soft modular lower limb exoskeleton to improve person’s mobility, contributing to independence and enhancing quality of life. The novelty of this work is the integration of quasi-passive elements in a soft exoskeleton. The exoskeleton provides mechanical assistance for subjects with low mobility impairments reducing energy requirements between 10% and 20%. Investigation of different control strategies based on gait segmentation and actuation elements is presented. A first hip–knee unilateral prototype is described, developed, and its performance assessed on a post-stroke patient for straight walking. The study presents an analysis of the human–exoskeleton energy patterns by way of the task-based biological power generation. The resultant assistance, in terms of power, was 10.9% ± 2.2% for hip actuation and 9.3% ± 3.5% for knee actuation. The control strategy improved the gait and postural patterns by increasing joint angles and foot clearance at specific phases of the walking cycle.
We designed a parent-directed home-visiting intervention targeting socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in children's early language environments. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether the intervention improved parents' knowledge of child language development and increased the amount and diversity of parent talk. Twenty-three mother–child dyads (12 experimental, 11 control, aged 1;5–3;0) participated in eight weekly hour-long home-visits. In the experimental group, but not the control group, parent knowledge of language development increased significantly one week and four months after the intervention. In lab-based observations, parent word types and tokens and child word types increased significantly one week, but not four months, post-intervention. In home-based observations, adult word tokens, conversational turn counts, and child vocalization counts increased significantly during the intervention, but not post-intervention. The results demonstrate the malleability of child-directed language behaviors and knowledge of child language development among low-SES parents.
The present study is dealing with the basic physics for a novel way to generate a free-formed ceramic body, not like common layer by layer, but directly by Selective Volume Sintering (SVS) in a compact block of ceramic powder. To penetrate with laser light into the volume of a ceramic powder compact it is necessary to investigate the light scattering properties of ceramic powders. Compared with polymers and metals, ceramic materials are unique as they offer a wide optical window of transparency. The optical window typically ranges from below 0.3 up to 5 µm wave length. In the present study thin layers of quartz glass (SiO2) particles have been prepared. As a function of layer thickness and the particle size, transmission and reflection spectra in a wave length range between 0.5 and 2.5 µm have been recorded. Depending on the respective particle size and by choosing a proper relation between particle size and wave length of the incident laser radiation, it is found that light can penetrate a powder compact up to a depth of a few millimeters. With an adjustment of the light absorption properties of the compact the initiation of sintering in the volume of the compact is possible.
Rabbitbrush, Chrysothamnus Nuttall spp. (Asteraceae), is a
common perennial native shrub across the inland western United States. In
the Columbia Basin growing district of Washington State, rabbitbrush is
often found in close proximity to potatoes and other agronomic crops, but
its value as a conservation reservoir and source of parasitoids of merit in
agriculture is unknown. Here, we define the aphid parasitoids frequenting
rabbitbrush, their aphid host preferences, seasonal occurrence, and linkage
or association with other aphids of economic and noneconomic importance.
Extensive field collections, lab-holdings, and rearings were used to explore
and characterise the fauna. One new species of aphidiine parasitoid is
described and illustrated: Praon cowiche Hollingbery and
Pike, new species and a key to the parasitoids of rabbitbrush
aphids is provided.
Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids associated with moss (Bryophyta) and/or roots of conifer (Pinaceae) or willow (Salix Linnaeus (Salicaceae)) in forests of the North American Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis rhois (Fitch) (moss only feeder), Pachypappa rosettei (Maxson), Pachypappa sacculi (Gillette), Prociphilus americanus (Walker) (fir root only feeder), Prociphilus xylostei (De Geer), and Thecabius populimonilis (Riley)) are characterised from their secondary host habitats. Secondary host forms of C. canadensis and T. populimonilis are described for the first time. The morphotypes from the secondary hosts were confirmed through deoxyribonucleic acid sequence matching with those from the primary hosts.
A molecular and biometric assessment and redescription of Myzodium mimulicola (Drews and Sampson) are provided. New North American host and distributional data are presented, including the first record from Alaska. Myzodium knowltoni (Smith and Robinson) is a junior subjective synonym of M. mimulicola, based on molecular-sequence and morphological evidence. A key to the known Myzodium species (apterae and alatae) is included.
Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions, diagnoses, illustrations, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 “barcode” sequences, a key to the species of Braggia, and notes on biology, distribution, and parasitoid associations are provided.
The CO N+ Deuterium Observations Receiver (CONDOR) is one of the very few
heterodyne receivers operational between 1.25 and 1.53 THz. It has successfully
obtained first-light observations on APEX and is currently being modified to
fly as the low frequency channel of GREAT on SOFIA.
We present observations of five 12CO and 13CO lines in
NGC 2024, including the first velocity resolved observations of
lines above 1 THz in this object (J = 13–12). We analysed the
observations using radiative transfer codes and derived a more
consistent model of this complex source. We found that the high-J CO
emission stems from a dense (n ~ 106 cm-3) and hot (~300 K) component, located at the interface of the H II
region and the molecular cloud.
CONDOR, the CO, N+, Deuterium Observations Receiver, is designed to make velocity-resolved observations of the CO, [NII], and p-H2D+ lines in the 1.4 THz (200-240μm) atmospheric windows. CONDOR's first light observations were made with the APEX telescope in November 2005. The CONDOR beam on APEX (at ν = 1.5 THz) was expected to consist of a 4.3″ main beam and a 73″ error beam; this beam structure was verified from scans of Mars. The pointing accuracy, also determined from Mars scans, was better than 7″. The average atmospheric transmission during our Orion observations (elev~57°) was 19 ± 4% along the line-of-sight. A forward efficiency of Feff = 0.8 was determined from sky dips, and observations of the Moon and Mars were used to couple the CONDOR beam to sources of different sizes (ηc = 0.40 and ~0.10, respectively). For more information, see Wiedner et al. 2006.
The development of new acaricides is a long and very expensive process. Worryingly, there is increasing resistance to available acaricides worldwide leading to the real possibility that our dwindling supply of effective acaricides will be exhausted unless action is taken to increase the number of new acaricidal products and reduce the rate of resistance development. In 1995, eight major animal health pharmaceutical companies formed the Veterinary Parasite Resistance Group (VPRG) to act as an expert consultative group to guide the FAO in resistance management and collaborate in the prudent use of acaricides. In this paper, members of the VPRG discuss the problems and processes in acaricide development, resistance in the field to commonly used acaricides and the different considerations when targeting the cattle and pet market, and give their view of the future for tick control from the perspective of the animal health industry.
The small effective mass and high mobility of electrons in Bi, make Bi nanowires a promising system for thermoelectric applications. Dense arrays of 20–200 nm diameter Bi nanowires were fabricated by high pressure injection of the melt. Transport properties and Seebeck coefficient were investigated for Bi nanowires with various wire diameters as a function of temperature (1 K < T < 300 K) and magnetic fields (B < 0.6 T). We discuss the problem of the contact resistance of Bi nanowire arrays.
Copper and aluminum are extensively used in various parts of the Electromagnetic (EM) Gun systems. Copper is used in the design of the railgun because it has favorable electrical and thermal properties. Aluminum is used for armature and sabot fabrication because of it is light weight and has favorable thermal properties. Extensive degradation of the copper rail and aluminum armature occurs owing to the severe heating and thermomechanical deformation of these components during operation of the EM gun. In this research effort, several modification techniques were used to protect the rail and armature materials from these degradation processes. These include application of Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) and Ion Beam Enhanced Deposition (IBED) . By using these techniques, the copper rails and aluminum armatures were coated with TiN and TaN. Several characterization techniques were used to assess the chemical,mechanical and other properties of these modified surfaces. Optical Microscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Scanning Auger Spectroscopy techniques were also used. Microhardness measurements have also been performed. From the results of this preliminary investigation, it has been concluded that the surface properties of the coated rail and armature materials have been improved and the extent of wear and spark erosion from these surfaces has been reduced.
Photoelectron Yield Spectroscopy is one of the most direct methods to study the density of gap states of amorphous semiconductors. We have made use of it to investigate the transient changes of the density of gap states of a-Si:H upon illumination with above-band-gap light. An excitation density of 50 mW/cm2 of 532 nm light from a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser was modulated with frequencies between 0.1 Hz and 10 KHz and the transient response of the photoelectron yield signal was monitored by gated electron counting or a lock-in amplifier. From this we deduce a reversible increase of the occupied density of defect states under illumination with a maximum Δg ∼ 1017 cm3 eV-1 at about 0.3 eV below the Fermi energy and a decrease below EF− 0.75 eV, i. e. in the region of deep tail states. The effect exhibits a wide spectrum of time constants involved. Based on additional transient surface photo voltage measurements as well as numerical simulations we argue that the observed redistribution of states is not due to a light induced change in surface band bending or due to a mere excitation of electrons from occupied to empty states. Instead, we interpret the observed effect as a conversion of weak to dangling bonds, i.e. a precursor of the Staebler-Wronski Effect, lacking however the final step of hydrogen stabilisation necessary for the creation of metastable defects.
Magnetron dry etching using SiCl4, combined with a smooth reflowed photoresist masking technique has been used to fabricate GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides. The effect of pressure, flowrate and power on etch rate and sidewall smoothness has been studied. Waveguides fabricated using optimum parameters exhibited optical losses lower than those achievable using wet etching. This process was further used in the fabrication of Fabry Perot ridge lasers, detectors and phase modulators.
In 1979 Edgar asked for a characterization of those completely regular Hausdorff topological spaces X which have the property that any Boolean σ-homomorphism from the Baire σ-field of X into the measure algebra of an arbitrary complete probability space can be realized by a measurable point-mapping. Those spaces X will be called homomorphism-compact or, for short, H-compact hereafter. It is wellknown that compact spaces are H-compact (cf. , p. 637, Proposition 3.4). We will show that the same is true for strongly measure compact spaces. On the other hand H-compact spaces are easily seen to be real-compact. Since the notions of measure-compactness and liftingcompactness (cf. ) also lie between strong measure-compactness and real-compactness it is natural to investigate the relations among these notions. Here the results are mainly negative (cf. Sections 4 and 6). Concerning the structural properties of H-compactness not very much can be said so far (cf. Section 7): it is, for instance, unknown whether the product of two H-compact spaces is again H-compact.