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Corner stores, also known as bodegas, are prevalent in low-income urban areas and primarily stock high-energy foods and beverages. Little is known about individual-level purchases in these locations. The purpose of the present study was to assess corner store purchases (items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent) made by children, adolescents and adults in a low-income urban environment.
Evaluation staff used 9238 intercept surveys to directly examine food and beverage purchases.
Intercepts were collected at 192 corner stores in Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Participants were adult, adolescent and child corner store shoppers.
Among the 9238 intercept surveys, there were 20 244 items. On average, at each corner store visit, consumers purchased 2·2 (sd 2·1) items (1·3 (sd 2·0) foods and 0·9 (sd 0·9) beverages) that cost $US 2·74 (sd $US 3·52) and contained 2786·5 (sd 4454·2) kJ (666·0 (sd 1064·6) kcal). Whether the data were examined as a percentage of total items purchased or as a percentage of intercepts, the most common corner store purchases were beverages, chips, prepared food items, pastries and candy. Beverage purchases occurred during 65·9 % of intercepts and accounted for 39·2 % of all items. Regular soda was the most popular beverage purchase. Corner store purchases averaged 66·2 g of sugar, 921·1 mg of sodium and 2·5 g of fibre per intercept. Compared with children and adolescents, adults spent the most money and purchased the most energy.
Urban corner store shoppers spent almost $US 3·00 for over 2700 kJ (650 kcal) per store visit. Obesity prevention efforts may benefit from including interventions aimed at changing corner store food environments in low-income, urban areas.
India is experiencing unprecedented demographic changes in recent times with wide implications for the future. Undoubtedly, such changes will alter the composition of the population in the coming years. The proportion of elderly is on a rapid increase and will continue to in the future as well. Currently the growth rate of elderly population is three times higher than the overall population clearly implying that ageing of the population will be the major challenge in India for the coming decades. In addition, all the states in the country are currently experiencing rapid fertility changes resulting in fewer and fewer children born in the country. The result from the 2011 census also reveals a decline in the child population. This is for the first time in the country that the number of children in the 0–6 age group has registered negative growth in the independent India (Census of India, 2011a). This is expected to alter the age composition significantly in the coming decades.
The data from 2011 census revealed that there are 104 million elderly in the country constituting 8.6 per cent of the population (Census of India, 2011b). The United Nation Population Division has projected that elderly population will reach 11 per cent by 2025 (United Nations Population Division, 2013). India is expected to have around 157 million elderly 60 years and above by then. This number will nearly double to around 297 million by 2050 constituting 18 per cent of India's population.
A major emerging demographic issue of the twenty-first century is the ageing of populations as an inevitable consequence of the demographic transition experienced by most countries. While all countries are experiencing growing proportions of the elderly, developing countries are currently ageing faster than developed countries. Population Ageing in India creates a holistic research base by looking at the demographics of the ageing population and reviewing existing studies. It delves deep into the socioeconomic layers of elderly health, work participation and contribution to income generation, national policy in practice and policy initiatives to ensure elderly wellbeing in other Asian countries. The shift of age composition to an older age structure has important implications for individuals, society as well as the country. Therefore, there is a need to promote harmony between development and demographic change by increasing the economic and social sources of support for the elderly.
Results of an experiment conducted during the summer seasons of
and 1991 in North West India
revealed that a Spanish semi-spreading type groundnut cultivar ICGS 1 produced
93% higher pod
yield than a Valencia bunch type MH 2. Application of chlormequat chloride
(CCC) to both cultivars
at 0·5 ml/l water enhanced yield by 17%. An input of 13 kg
P/ha increased the pod output significantly over control.
Qualitative assessment of nine promising mulberry varieties with two check cultivars was evaluated with silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). The feeding experiment revealed that ACC-143 and ACC-203 (S-135) varieties were superior to other varieties and check cultivars in all the economic characters of cocoon. The variety x season interaction was highly significant. ACC-143 and ACC-203 showed significantly better results over other varieties.
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