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During the five years of the mission, the Gaia spectrograph, the Radial Velocity
Spectrometer (RVS) will repeatedly survey the celestial sphere down to magnitude
V ~ 17–18. This talk presents: (i) the system which is currently developed within
the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) to reduce and calibrate the
spectra and to derive the radial and rotational velocities, (ii) the RVS expected
performances and (iii) scientific returns.
We consider here as cryogenic detectors the solid state or superfluid He detectors operated at temperature lower than 77 K. The principle of operation of these detectors is presented in Section 20.2. Liquid xenon, argon and neon detectors operated respectively at 165 K, 87 K and 20 K are described in the following chapter.
The first searches for dark matter particles were performed with ultrapure semiconductors, operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and installed in pure lead and copper shields in underground environments. Combining a-priori excellent energy resolutions (low energy thresholds) and very pure detector material, they produced the first limits on WIMP searches in the 1980s. It turns out that about 20 years later, such germanium detectors, reaching sub-keV thresholds, have produced the best limits at very low WIMP masses, i.e. lower than 10 GeV. Performances and results of these detectors are described in Section 20.3.1.
In the 1980s, the idea was also put forward in the United States, Europe and Japan of using very low temperature detectors to achieve the required excellent energy resolution and low threshold characteristic of semiconductors, but with different materials and then different nuclei. The idea was to detect particles in a crystal by measuring the increase of temperature induced by the energy deposition. As the heat capacity approximately follows a Debye law with a T3 dependence, it is possible to consider real calorimetric measurements down to very small energy deposition, by using the proper absorber and low enough temperature.
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
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