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Although radiocarbon (14C) dating is commonly used for archeological music instruments, little research has been conducted on modern instruments (16th–19th centuries). New technology, based on the Mini Carbon Dating System (MICADAS), enables some of the recurring challenges (e.g. sampling size) to be circumvented and paves the way for a new field of investigation. We here address the Indian instrumentarium, about which very little is known. We investigate the making and the restoration phases of two vina, a kinnari vina (E.1444), and a rudra vina or bin (E.997.24.1). By comparing 14C measurements made on several samplings of elements of the instruments with museological information, we were able to specify a unique calibrated interval of ages [1666 AD–1690 AD] for the kinnari vina, with a restoration phase [1678 AD–1766 AD] for the upper nut. The bin is likely attributed to the [1650 AD–1683 AD] interval.
Evidence-based data on prevalence and risk factors of suicidal intentions and behavior in dementia are as scarce as the data on assisted dying. The present literature review aimed on summarizing the current knowledge and provides a critical discussion of the results.
A systematic narrative literature review was performed using Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PSYNDEX, PSYCINFO, Sowiport, and Social Sciences Citation Index literature.
Dementia as a whole does not appear to be a risk factor for suicide completion. Nonetheless some subgroups of patients with dementia apparently have an increased risk for suicidal behavior, such as patients with psychiatric comorbidities (particularly depression) and of younger age. Furthermore, a recent diagnosis of dementia, semantic dementia, and previous suicide attempts most probably elevate the risk for suicidal intentions and behavior. The impact of other potential risk factors, such as patient's cognitive impairment profile, behavioral disturbances, social isolation, or a biomarker based presymptomatic diagnosis has not yet been investigated. Assisted dying in dementia is rare but numbers seem to increase in regions where it is legally permitted.
Most studies that had investigated the prevalence and risk factors for suicide in dementia had significant methodological limitations. Large prospective studies need to be conducted in order to evaluate risk factors for suicide and assisted suicide in patients with dementia and persons with very early or presymptomatic diagnoses of dementia. In clinical practice, known risk factors for suicide should be assessed in a standardized way so that appropriate action can be taken when necessary.
Determining interventions to address food insecurity and poverty, as well as setting targets to be achieved in a specific time period have been a persistent challenge for development practitioners and decision makers. The present study aimed to assess the changes in food access and consumption at the household level after one-year implementation of an integrated food security intervention in three rural districts of Rwanda.
A before-and-after intervention study comparing Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) scores and household Food Consumption Scores (FCS) at baseline and after one year of programme implementation.
Three rural districts of Rwanda (Kayonza, Kirehe and Burera) where the Partners In Health Food Security and Livelihoods Program (FSLP) has been implemented since July 2013.
All 600 households enrolled in the FSLP were included in the study.
There were significant improvements (P<0·001) in HFIAS and FCS. The median decrease in HFIAS was 8 units (interquartile range (IQR) −13·0, −3·0) and the median increase for FCS was 4·5 units (IQR −6·0, 18·0). Severe food insecurity decreased from 78 % to 49 %, while acceptable food consumption improved from 48 % to 64 %. The change in HFIAS was significantly higher (P=0·019) for the poorest households.
Our study demonstrated that an integrated programme, implemented in a setting of extreme poverty, was associated with considerable improvements towards household food security. Other government and non-government organizations’ projects should consider a similar holistic approach when designing structural interventions to address food insecurity and extreme poverty.
Agitation is common across neuropsychiatric disorders and contributes to disability, institutionalization, and diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. There is no consensus definition of agitation and no widespread agreement on what elements should be included in the syndrome. The International Psychogeriatric Association formed an Agitation Definition Work Group (ADWG) to develop a provisional consensus definition of agitation in patients with cognitive disorders that can be applied in epidemiologic, non-interventional clinical, pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic interventional, and neurobiological studies. A consensus definition will facilitate communication and cross-study comparison and may have regulatory applications in drug development programs.
The ADWG developed a transparent process using a combination of electronic, face-to-face, and survey-based strategies to develop a consensus based on agreement of a majority of participants. Nine-hundred twenty-eight respondents participated in the different phases of the process.
Agitation was defined broadly as: (1) occurring in patients with a cognitive impairment or dementia syndrome; (2) exhibiting behavior consistent with emotional distress; (3) manifesting excessive motor activity, verbal aggression, or physical aggression; and (4) evidencing behaviors that cause excess disability and are not solely attributable to another disorder (psychiatric, medical, or substance-related). A majority of the respondents rated all surveyed elements of the definition as “strongly agree” or “somewhat agree” (68–88% across elements). A majority of the respondents agreed that the definition is appropriate for clinical and research applications.
A provisional consensus definition of agitation has been developed. This definition can be used to advance interventional and non-interventional research of agitation in patients with cognitive impairment.
A novel method was developed for the preparation of arborescent (dendritic graft) polymers, by successive grafting reactions of linear chain segments using alkyne-azide “click” chemistry coupling. A linear polystyrene substrate was thus randomly functionalized with acetylene functionalities, by acetylation and further reaction with propargyl bromide in the presence of potassium hydroxide and 18-crown-6 in toluene. The anionic polymerization of styrene was achieved with 6-tert-butyldimethylsiloxy-hexyllithium to obtain polystyrene with a protected hydroxyl chain end. Deprotection of the hydroxyl group, followed by conversion into tosyl and azide functionalities yielded the material serving as side chains in the grafting reactions. Coupling of the azide-terminated side chains with the acetylene-functionalized substrate in the presence of a Cu(I) catalyst proceeded in up to 93% yield. Additional cycles of substrate functionalization and side chain coupling led to arborescent polymers of generations G1 and G2, with low polydispersity indices (Mw/Mn≈ 1.1), in 60-84% yield. These polymers are characterized by a very compact structure, and molecular weights increasing geometrically over successive generations. A similar methodology was also shown to work for the synthesis of arborescent polybutadiene systems, using azide-functionalized substrates and alkyne-terminated side chains. The coupling reaction proceeded in up to 76% yield under optimized conditions for these systems.
The role of self generated magnetic fields in the transport of a heat wave following a nanosecond laser irradiation of a solid target is investigated. Magnetic fields are expected to localize the electron carrying the heat flux but at the same time are affected in their evolution by the heat flux itself. We performed simultaneous measurements of heat wave propagation velocity within the target and magnetic fields developing on the target surface. These were compared to results obtained by numerical magneto-hydrodynamic modeling, including self-generated B fields. The comparison shows that longitudinal heat flow is overestimated in the simulations. Similarly, but most notably, the radial expansion of the magnetic fields is underestimated by the modeling. The two are likely linked, the more pronounced radial drift of B-fields induces a rotation of heat flux in the radial direction, and corresponding longitudinal heat flux inhibition. This suggests the need for improving present modeling of self-generated magnetic fields evolution in high power laser-matter interaction.
Combining Bisphophonates (BPs) and Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) to form a new medical device for the local treatment of Osteoporosis is a promising challenge. Our formulation was optimized from an apatitic-type CPC and we have shown that the best solution consists in introducing the bisphosphonate (Alendronate) in the calcium deficient apatite (CDA), a solid component of the cement, through a chemical exchange reaction. The cement obtained was characterized by 31P NMR and high frequency impedance for monitoring the CPC setting. The presence of Alendronate in the cement was also demonstrated by 31P NMR which has been also used to characterize the chemical transformation of α-TCP (main component of the apatitic cement) during the setting process. BP absorption/desorption experiments have been realized on cement blocks, under continuous flow condition, to model the release profile of the Alendronate. In vivo experiments showed promising results in terms of resorbability of the Alendronate–loaded cement while promoting new bone formation. The same methodology is considered to introduce gallium, a potential inhibitor of osteoclastic resorption, in a CPC formulation. First experiments have shown that gallium can be incorporated in calcium phosphate ceramics (i.e. β-TCP) where gallium is part of the network.
Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages).
Methods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity.
Results: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains.
Conclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.
Les dosimétries peau et extrémités ont été mises en place afin de prévenir les effets déterministes que l’on pourrait observer suite à une exposition partielle importante. Pour être sûr de prévenir ces effets déterministes, il faut mesurer les équivalents de dose peau et extrémités au niveau des endroits les plus exposés. Pour cela, il faut d’une part connaître qu’elle est la zone la plus exposée, et, d’autre part, y placer un dosimètre approprié. C’est d’autant plus difficile lorsque le terme source est complexe et que les conditions d’expositions varient. C’est le cas pour la dosimétrie des extrémités sur l’installation de MELOX. Les différentes conditions de travail sur l’établissement de MELOX font que la zone la plus exposée des extrémités n’est pas la même pour tous les intervenants et peut varier suivant le poste de travail et le temps d’intervention. Il est donc délicat de positionner un dosimètre à l’endroit le plus exposé sachant que celui-ci varie. L’approche présentée ici consiste à caractériser l’exposition reçue par les extrémités, c'est-à-dire, « cartographier » les équivalents de dose au niveau de l’avant-bras et de la main en fonction des conditions d’exposition. À partir de ces résultats, il devient possible d’estimer l’équivalent de dose maximal perçu au niveau des extrémités à partir d’une mesure faite à un endroit précis.
The bulk lifetime
and diffusion length
Ln of minority carriers vary through the height of a cast
multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) block. This variation is due to the
segregation of metallic impurities during the directional solidification and
the native impurity concentrations increase from the bottom to the top of
the ingot, which is solidified last, while the ingot bottom, which is
solidified first, is contaminated by the contact with the crucible floor. It
is of interest to verify if a correlation exists between the bulk lifetime
of as cut wafers and the conversion efficiency
cells. In a very large ingot (>310 kg), it was found that
, in raw wafers,
in phosphorus diffused
ones and Ln in diffused wafers are smaller in the top and in the bottom
of the ingot. The same evolution is observed in solar cells, however the
diffusion length values Lcel in the central part of the ingot are
markedly higher than those found in diffused wafers, due to the in-diffusion
of hydrogen from the SiN-H antireflection coating layer. The variations of
and those of
, along the ingot height, are well
correlated, suggesting that the evaluation of
can predict the
properties of the devices. In addition, segregation phenomena around the
grain boundaries are observed at the bottom of the ingots, due to a marked
contamination by the crucible floor, and at its top where impurities are
accumulated. These phenomena are linked to the long duration of the
solidification process and the large amount of imperfect silicon used to
cast the ingot.
We have used the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys to measure the mass density function of morphologically-selected early-type galaxies in the Gemini Deep Deep Survey fields, over the redshift range 0.9 < z < 1.6. Our imaging data set covers four well-separated sight-lines, and is roughly intermediate (in terms of both depth and area) between the GOODS/GEMS imaging data, and the images obtained in the Hubble Deep Field campaigns. Our images contain 144 galaxies with ultra-deep spectroscopy, and they have been analyzed using a new purpose-written morphological analysis code which improves the reliability of morphological classifications by adopting a ‘quasi-petrosian’ image thresholding technique. We find that at z = 1 approximately 70% of the stars in massive galaxies reside in early-type systems. This fraction is remarkably similar to that seen in the local Universe. However, we detect very rapid evolution in this fraction over the range 1.0 < z < 1.6, suggesting that in this epoch the strong color-morphology relationship seen in the nearby Universe is beginning to fall into place.
Due to their particular properties (low emittance, short duration, and
large number density), the beams of multi-MeV protons generated during the
interaction of ultraintense (I > 1019 W/cm2)
short pulses with thin solid targets are suited for use as a particle
probe in laser-plasma experiments. When traversing a sample, the proton
density distribution is, in general, affected by collisional stopping,
scattering and deflections via electromagnetic fields, and each of these
effects can be used for diagnostic purposes. In particular, in the limit
of very thin targets, the proton beams represent a valuable diagnostic
tool for the detection of quasi-static electromagnetic fields. The proton
imaging and deflectometry techniques employ these beams, in a
point-projection imaging scheme, as an easily synchronizable diagnostic
tool in laser- plasma interactions, with high temporal and spatial
resolution. By providing diagnostic access to electro-magnetic field
distributions in dense plasmas, this novel diagnostics opens up to
investigation a whole new range of unexplored phenomena. Several transient
processes were investigated employing this technique, via the detection of
the associated electric fields. Examples provided in this paper include
the detection of pressure-gradient electric field in extended plasmas, and
the study of the electrostatic fields associated to the emission of MeV
proton beams in high-intensity laser-foil interactions.
We present a rank-free phylogenetic nomenclature for 25 well-established ancient clades of living turtles. This is the first attempt to document fully the nomenclatural history of a clade with the intent of proposing a coherent nomenclatural system to replace the traditional rank-based nomenclature. Because of the imperative to retain connectivity to the literature for information retrieval, due consideration is given to balancing the desire to develop a consistent system against the desire to conserve traditional associations between names, taxa (i.e., clades), and characters. Novel issues and problems that emerged during this review include: the unclear name/clade association of traditional names; the creation of synonymy lists from which to choose a name; difficulties associated with selecting a single criterion for choosing among multiple ‘subjectively synonymous’ names; identifying authorship for a converted traditional name; and the potential loss of nomenclatural information due to ‘functional homonyms.’ This work may provide a useful road map to those intent on converting their traditional rank-based nomenclatures to explicitly phylogenetic nomenclatures under the precepts of the PhyloCode.
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) constitute the single largest determinant of livelihoods for scores of forest fringe communities and poor people in the tropics. In India over 50 million people are believed to be directly dependent upon NTFPs for their subsistence. However, such human dependence on NTFPs for livelihood gains (win) has most frequently been at a certain ecological cost (lose). If livelihoods are to be maintained, the existing ‘win-lose’ settings have to be steered to a ‘win-win’ mode, otherwise, there could be severe erosion of the biological resources and loss of livelihoods (‘lose-lose’). Examining the dependence of forest fringe communities on NTFPs at three sites in south India with contrasting human and ecological settings, three key factors (extent of dependence on NTFPs, indigenous ecological knowledge and market organization) are likely to constrain reaching the win-win situation. How these factors shape the ecological cost of harvesting NTFPs at the three sites is examined. Within the parameter space of these factors, it is possible to predict outcomes and associations that will conform to win-win or win-lose situations. Empirical data derived from the three study sites demonstrate the causality of the observed associations. The key for long-term livelihood gains lies in reducing the ecological cost. Certain interventions and recommendations that could optimize the balance between livelihood gains and ecological cost are proposed.
The artistlike pictures of vortex flows presented here have been produced by the flow itself. The method of this “natural” flow visualization can be described briefly as follows: The working fluid is water mixed with some paste in order to increase the viscosity. Vortex flows are produced by pulling a stick or similar devices through the fluid or by injecting fluid through a nozzle into the working tank.
The flow visualization is performed in the following way: the surface of the fluid at rest is sparkled with oil paint of different colors diluted with some evaporating chemical. After the vortex structures have formed due to wakes or jets, a sheet of white paper is placed on the surface of the working fluid, where the oil color is attached to the paper immediately. The final results are artistlike paintings of vortex flows which exhibit a rich variety of flow structures.
Mixing in regular and chaotic flows
These photographs show the time evolution of two passive tracers in a low Reynolds number two-dimensional timeperiodic flow. The initial condition corresponds to two blobs of dye, green and orange, located below the free surface of a cavity filled with glycerine. The flow is induced by moving the top and bottom walls of the cavity while the other two walls are fixed. In this experiment the top wall moves from left to right and the bottom wall moves from right to left; both velocities are of the form Usin2(2πt/T), with the same U and the same period T, but with a phase shift of 90°.
The flow between two rotating disks (radius to heigh ratio of 20.9), enclosed by a
rotating cylinder, is investigated experimentally in the cases of both co- and
counter-rotation. This flow gives rise to a large gallery of instability patterns. A regime
diagram of these patterns is presented in the (Reb,Ret)-plane, where Reb,t is the
Reynolds number associated with each disk. The co-rotation case and the weak
counter-rotation case are very similar to the rotor–stator case, both for the basic flow
and the instability patterns: the basic flow consists of two boundary layers near each
disk and the instability patterns are the axisymmetric vortices and the positive spirals
described in the rotor–stator experiments of Gauthier, Gondret & Rabaud (1999),
Schouveiler, Le Gal & Chauve (2001), and the numerical study of Serre, Crespo del
Arco & Bontoux (2001). The counter-rotation case with higher rotation ratio is more
complex: above a given rotation ratio, the recirculation flow becomes organized into
a two-cell structure with the appearance of a stagnation circle on the slower disk. A
new kind of instability pattern is observed, called negative spirals. Measurements of
the main characteristics of this pattern are presented, including growth times, critical
modes and phase velocities.
This work reports the dynamic mechanical characterization of nanocomposites based on a poly(butyl acrylate) matrix filled with spherical particles of either polystyrene or silica both of diameter around 100 nm. A discrete numerical simulation, taking into account the microstructure and the nature of contact between reinforcing particles has been developed. This simulation enables to quantify the effect of interactions between filler particles on the elastic modulus, and in a more general sense, to clarify the concept of mechanical percolation. It gives results in very good agreement with experimental data.
We use both a Fourier-transform-based analysis and time-retrieval
calculations to get time-resolved measurements of the reflectivity
and the phase shift of a chirped probe pulse interacting
with a fs-laser-produced plasma by spectral interferometry
in a single shot. We have devised a novel dual-quadrature
Mach–Zehnder configuration in which wavefront division
is used to obtain spatial fringes from the perturbed and
unperturbed probe simultaneously. We demonstrate the capability
of this technique with fully analyzed experimental data on the
interaction of a femtosecond laser with C3H6
and C samples, showing 35-fs time resolution.
The destabilization of the stationary basic flow occurring between two disks enclosed
by a cylinder is studied experimentally when the radius of the disks is large compared
to the spacing. In the explored range of the cell aspect ratio, when one disk only
is rotating, circular vortices propagating to the centre are observed above a critical
angular velocity. These structures occur naturally but can also be forced by small
modulations of the angular velocity of the disk. For each rotation rate the dispersion
relation of the instability is experimentally reconstructed from visualizations and it
is shown that this dispersion relation can be scaled by the boundary layer thickness
measured over the disk at rest. The bifurcation is found to be of supercritical nature.
The effect of the forcing amplitude is in favour of a linear convective nature of this
instability of the non-parallel inward flow existing above the stationary disk. The
most unstable temporal frequency is found to be about four times the frequency
of the rotating disk. The evolution of the threshold of this primary instability is
described for different aspect ratios of the cell. Finally, two sets of experiments made
under transient conditions are presented: one in order to investigate further a possible
convective/absolute transition for the instability, and the other to compare with the
impulsive spin-down-to-rest experiments of Savas (1983).