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The six LIGO detections of merging black holes (BHs) allowed to infer slow spin values for the two pre-merging BHs. The three cases where the spins of the BHs can be determined in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) show that those BHs have high spin values. We discuss here scenarios explaining these differences in spin properties in these two classes of object.
Piglets are characteristically cold intolerant and thus susceptible to high mortality. However, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can induce non-shivering thermogenesis as a potential strategy to facilitate the animal’s response to cold. Whether cold exposure can induce browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) in piglets in a similar manner as it can in humans remains largely unknown. In this study, piglets were exposed to acute cold (4°C, 10 h) or chronic cold exposure (8°C, 15 days), and the genes and proteins of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and independent thermogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipogenic and lipolytic processes were analysed. Interestingly, acute cold exposure induced browning of porcine sWAT, smaller adipocytes and the upregulated expression of UCP1, PGC1α, PGC1β, C/EBPβ, Cidea, UCP3, CKMT1 and PM20D1. Conversely, chronic cold exposure impaired the browning process, reduced mitochondrial numbers and the expression of browning markers, including UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16. The present study demonstrated that acute cold exposure (but not chronic cold exposure) induces porcine sWAT browning. Thus, browning of porcine sWAT could be a novel strategy to balance the body temperature of piglets, and thus could be protective against cold exposure.
We investigated the first presence of qnrA among Shigella sonnei clinical isolates in Jiangsu Province, China. The qnrA-positive isolates coexisted with the mutation in gyrA at codon 83, these isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and 22·2% (2 of 9) of them were resistant to norfloxacin.
Psychosocial therapy after deliberate self-harm might be associated with reduced risk of specific causes of death.
In this matched cohort study, we included patients, who after an episode of deliberate self-harm received psychosocial therapy at a Suicide Prevention Clinic in Denmark between 1992 and 2010. We used propensity score matching in a 1:3 ratio to select a comparison group from 59 046 individuals who received standard care. National Danish registers supplied data on specific causes of death over a 20-year follow-up period.
At the end of follow-up, 391 (6.9%) of 5678 patients in the psychosocial therapy group had died, compared with 1736 (10.2%) of 17 034 patients in the matched comparison group. Lower odds ratios of dying by mental or behavioural disorders [0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.79], alcohol-related causes (0.63, 95% CI 0.50–0.80) and other diseases and medical conditions (0.61, 95% CI 0.49–0.77) were noted in the psychosocial therapy group. Also, we found a reduced risk of dying by suicide as well as other external causes, however, not by neoplasms and circulatory system diseases. Numbers needed to treat were 212.9 (95% CI 139.5–448.4) for mental or behavioural disorders as a cause of death, 111.1 (95% CI 79.2–210.5) for alcohol-related causes and 96.8 (95% CI 69.1–161.8) for other diseases and medical conditions.
Our findings indicate that psychosocial therapy after deliberate self-harm might reduce long-term risk of death from select medical conditions and external causes. These promising results should be tested in a randomized design.
Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case–control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95 % CI 1·08, 2·28; Ptrend=0·03) and 1·61 (95 % CI 1·12, 2·30; Ptrend<0·01), respectively. A suggestion of an inverse association was found for fibre intake. Higher GL was positively associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95 % CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
Effective management of Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is hindered by a lack of knowledge about its movements. We determined the feasibility of using harmonic radar technology to measure natural dispersal of B. minax. Tests demonstrated that 3.8 mg tags representing 8% of average insect weight had no visible impact on the ability of flies to takeoff and maintain flight. More than 86% of flies retained their tags for at least 5 days, and there was no significant mortality. Neither adhesive tested for tag mounting affected the survival of flies. Presence of the vertical dorsal tag did not prevent or hamper vertical movement. Together, results validate the use of tags weighing up to 3.8 mg for radar or telemetric study of dispersal ecology of B. minax.
We report here a comparative study of the in-plane strain
states of standard GaN epilayer grown on sapphire (001) and flip-chip GaN
epilayer bonded on Si (111) wafer by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman
spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It is confirmed that
the in-plane tensile strains can be largely reduced after the flip-chip
process. The reduction of the biaxial strains determined by XRD, Raman, and
PL analysis is found to be consistent.
An anisotropic solution adaptive method based on unstructured quadrilateral meshes for inviscid compressible flows is proposed. The data structure, the directional refinement and coarsening, including the method for initializing the refined new cells, for the anisotropic adaptive method are described. It provides efficient high resolution of flow features, which are aligned with the original quadrilateral mesh structures. Five different cases are provided to show that it could be used to resolve the anisotropic flow features and be applied to model the complex geometry as well as to keep a relative high order of accuracy on an efficient anisotropic mesh.
An outbreak of rabies affected domestic raccoon dogs on an animal farm in Inner Mongolia, China in 2007. A study was conducted to characterize the aetiological agent and clarify the origin of the rabies virus. Brain tissues were obtained from five rabid raccoon dogs. Viral nucleoprotein antigen was detected in the brain tissues and five rabies viruses were isolated from these rabid animals. Phylogenetic analysis of the N and G gene sequences showed that these isolates were closely related to Arctic-like rabies viruses isolated from the far-eastern region of Russia and South Korea, but distinct from the rabies viruses that are widely distributed in endemic areas in China. Epidemiological data suggested that the likely source of infection was from one wild raccoon dog that was captured and placed in the same type of pen used for domestic raccoon dogs.
PLATO is a fully-robotic observatory designed for operation in
Antarctica. It generates its own electricity (about 1 kW), heat
(sufficient to keep two 10-foot shipping containers comfortably above
0°C when the outside temperature is at -70°C), and
connects to the internet using the Iridium satellite system (providing
~30 MB/day of data transfer). Following a successful first year of
operation at Dome A during 2008, PLATO was upgraded with
new instruments for 2009.
In January 2005, members of a Chinese expedition team were the first
humans to visit Dome A on the Antarctic plateau, a site
predicted to be one of the very best astronomical sites on earth. In 2006, the Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy (CCAA) was founded
to promote the development of astronomy in Antarctica, especially at
Dome A. CCAA has since taken part in two traverses to Dome A, organized
by the Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC), in the austral
summers of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. These traverses resulted in the
installation of many site-testing and science instruments, supported
by the PLATO observatory. The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR)
has produced excellent results from Dome A. Our future plans include further site-testing work, and the following
full-scale science instruments: three 0.5-m Antarctic Schmidt
Telescopes (AST3), and a proposed 4-m telescope for wide-field
infrared high spatial-resolution surveys. The first AST3 telescope is
under construction and is scheduled for installation in 2011.
The THz spectral region includes a number of important transitions which
allow us to trace the evolution of the interstellar medium. Because of the
opacity of the atmosphere in this spectral range, the best sites for
ground-based THz observations are on the Antarctic Plateau; of these sites,
Dome A is expected to be the best. THz survey science can be carried out
with small telescopes, easing logistical constraints. By deploying a
submillimetre-wave tipper/ telescope to Dome A, we have trialled several
technologies for such an instrument, and we are able to test whether the
site quality is sufficient for THz surveys.
PLATO is a 6 tonne completely self-contained robotic observatory that provides its own heat, electricity, and satellite communications. It was deployed to Dome A in Antarctica in January 2008 by the Chinese expedition team, and is now in its second year of operation. PLATO is operating four 14.5cm optical telescopes with 1k × 1k CCDs, a wide-field sky camera with a 2k × 2k CCD and Sloan g, r, i filters, a fibre-fed spectrograph to measure the UV to near-IR sky spectrum, a 0.2m terahertz telescope, two sonic radars giving 1m resolution data on the boundary layer to a height of 180m, a 15m tower, meteorological sensors, and 8 web cameras. Beginning in 2010/11 PLATO will be upgraded to support a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor and three AST3 0.5m schmidt telescopes, with 10k × 10 CCDs and 100TB/annum data requirements.
This experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin A on the performance and immune competence of broilers under heat stress (HS). A total of 180 birds, at 22 days of age, were randomly assigned to be reared either at 24°C (thermoneutral, TN, 24°C, constant) or 24°C to 38°C (heat stress, HS, cycling) until the age of 42 days. Birds were then supplemented with vitamin A at 750, 1500, 15 000 IU/kg. Each of the 2 × 3 factorially arranged treatments were replicated in six cages, each containing five birds. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7% sheep red blood cells (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by using a Sephadax stimulation method to recruit abdominal exudate cells (AEC) to evaluate macrophage phagocytic ability. Body weight (BW) and feed conversion were significantly affected by dietary vitamin A (P < 0.05). HS significantly reduced BW, feed intake and feed conversion (P < 0.05). Numbers of AEC, percentage of macrophages in AEC, phagocytic macrophages, internalized opsonized and unopsonized SRBC were increased by dietary vitamin A (P < 0.05). Both primary and secondary antibody responses were characterized by increasing titers of antibody to SRBC by dietary vitamin A when birds were exposed to HS (P < 0.05). Lymphoid organ weights, antibody responses, incidence of macrophages in AEC and phagocytic ability of macrophages were all significantly reduced under HS. These results indicated that HS severely reduced performance and immunocompetence of broilers, whereas the immune response of broilers improved by dietary vitamin A supplementation under HS.
Introduction: To assess the efficacy of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in outpatients with major depressive disorder.
Methods: A meta-analysis of individual patient data was performed on the complete set of registration trials (nine randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week studies) of desvenlafaxine. Patients received fixed (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/day; n = 1,342) or flexible doses (100–400 mg/day; n = 463) of desvenlafaxine or placebo (n = 1,108). The primary efficacy variable was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17); the primary intent to treat analyses used the last-observation-carried-forward method.
Results: Significantly greater improvement with desvenlafaxine versus placebo on the HAM-D17 total score was observed for the full data set (difference in adjusted means: −1.9; P<.001), each fixed-dose group (all P<.001), and the flexible-dose group (P=.024). Overall rates of HAM-D17 response (≥50% decrease from baseline score: 53% vs 41%) and remission (HAM-D17 ≤7: 32% vs 23%) were significantly greater for desvenlafaxine versus placebo (all P<.001). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events increased with dose (4% to 18%; placebo: 3%).
Conclusion: Desvenlafaxine demonstrated short-term efficacy for treating major depressive disorder across the range of doses studied. No evidence of greater efficacy was observed with doses >50 mg/day; a strong dose-response effect on tolerability was observed.
The present study describes the embryonic development and early ontogeny of Amphiprion ocellaris from fertilization to post hatching. Anemonefish spontaneously spawned at 27–28°C. The newly laid eggs were orange in colour and elliptical in shape (1.8×0.8 mm). Melanin appeared as a black mass situated at the vegetal pole in mature eggs. This is rarely seen in eggs of other fish species. We documented developmental times at 27–28°C to egg activation (0.5 h), cleavage (4 h), blastula (11.5 h), gastrula (20 h), neurula (24.5 h), somite (28.5 h), turnover (72 h), blood formation (113 h) and internal ear and jaw formation (144 h). Hatching occurred 152 h after fertilization. On day 4, the eye buds were pigmented and melanophores formed on the ventral surface of the embryo. Internal ear and gill formation were completed on day 5 and coincided with movement of the opercula and pectoral fins. The mouth formed on day 6 and the digestive tract appeared on day 7. By day 10, the yolk was fully absorbed and a substantial amount of food was observed in the gut. Dark and orange pigments were dispersed and aggregated through muscle contractions by day 14, but red pigments did not appear until the fish were three months old. This study contributes to a further understanding of the embryology and the early ontogeny of damselfish and may help improve the culture of coral reef fish.
A model for acidity within pores within corrosion products on anodically-dissolving UO2 was developed using Comsol Multiphysics 3.2 to complement ongoing electrochemical measurements. It was determined that a depression of pH within pores can be maintained if: electrochemically measured dissolution currents used in the calculations are attenuated to reflect very localized pores; corrosion potentials exceed -250 mV (vs. SCE); and pore depths are > 1 μm for 300 mV or >100 μm for -50 mV (vs. SCE). Mixed diffusional-chemical equilibria control is suggested through deviations in the shapes between pH-potential and pH-pore depth plots.
Very large electro-optic effect has been observed in relaxor ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) ( P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) ) terpolymer. By adding small amount of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles, the refractive index of the nanocomposites can be tuned between about 1.4 and 1.5 while retaining large electro-optic effect and high transparency. Tunable long-period fiber gratings have been fabricated with the nanocomposite as the second cladding, and over 50nm of resonant wavelength shift has been achieved under a change of electric field of 30V/μm, which is much larger than other reported E-O tuning ranges. This corresponds to a pure refractive index change of the nanocomposite of Δn/n ∼ 0.4%.