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Magnitude and distribution of residual stresses around cold-worked holes in 1045 steel were measured with the Fastress automatic stress X-ray analyzer. Permanent interferences between 0.8% and 6.2% at a hole with 0.5 in. diameter produced compressive hoop and radial stresses up to -60 ksi and -40 ksi respectively. The size of the zone with compressive stress is significantly wider than existing analysis predicts.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Pigs housed under artificial lighting currently experience a wide range of illuminances and photoperiods, which may be more appropriate to the visual capabilities and needs of stockpersons rather than pigs. Pigs and wild boar can show nocturnal, diurnal and crepuscular activity patterns, suggesting that their visual system may function well under a wide range of light levels, unlike humans. Inappropriate lighting affects many aspects of an animal’s physiology, anatomy and behaviour and may compromise welfare. This experiment was designed to investigate the preference of juvenile pigs to occupy and conduct certain behaviours in different illuminances, and gain some indication of their preferred photoperiod.
Glaciological estimates of the ice supply to George VI Ice Shelf are obtained by integrating the accumulation over the catchment. The basal melt (or possible shelf thickening) rates for the ice shelf are calculated by balancing the accumulation with calving and melting. We calculate an average equilibrium melt rate for the ice shelf of 2 m a −1. If the ice shelf is in mass balance it alone provides 53 km3a −1 melt from its base compared to a total for Antarctica of only 320 km3a −1.
The mean oxygen isotope composition of recent accumulation on the catchment is determined by using accumulation and isotope data, supplemented by temperature measurements and a close empirical relationship between isotope ratio and temperature. The catchment has a mean isotope ratio of −20.8‰ relative to SMOW.
Oceanographic work has previously shown that the sea-water under the ice shelf at the north of George VI Sound is Warm Deep Water modified by melting ice. The melting ice has an isotope ratio of −20.3‰. The good agreement in isotope ratios suggest that the melting ice is from the catchment and because the basal ice of George VI Ice Shelf represents accumulation over the last few millennia the implication is that there has been no systematic change in the isotope composition of the accumulation during this period. This implies no secular change in either the elevation or the climatic temperature of this part of the ice sheet.
A pneumocele occurs when an aerated cranial cavity pathologically expands; a pneumatocele occurs when air extends from an aerated cavity into adjacent soft tissues forming a secondary cavity. Both pathologies are extremely rare with relation to the mastoid. This paper describes a case of a mastoid pneumocele that caused hypoglossal nerve palsy and an intracranial pneumatocele.
A 46-year-old man presented, following minor head trauma, with hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to a fracture through the hypoglossal canal. The fracture occurred as a result of a diffuse temporal bone pneumocele involving bone on both sides of the hypoglossal canal. Further slow expansion of the mastoid pneumocele led to a secondary middle fossa pneumatocele. The patient refused treatment and so has been managed conservatively for more than five years, and he remains well.
While most patients with otogenic pneumatoceles have presented acutely in extremis secondary to tension pneumocephalus, our patient has remained largely asymptomatic. Aetiology, clinical features and management options of temporal bone pneumoceles and otogenic pneumatoceles are reviewed.
The maximum safe storage interval after endoscope reprocessing remains unknown. We assessed the association between storage interval and endoscope contamination to evaluate the need for scope reprocessing prior to use.
We conducted a study in 2 phases. In phase 1, we cultured 9 gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes that had been stored for at least 7 days since reprocessing. Each scope was cultured in 3 places: external surfaces of hand piece, insertion tube, and internal channels. In phase 2, after reprocessing these scopes, we hung and cultured them prospectively in a similar fashion at 1-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-week intervals without patient use. We defined clinically relevant contamination as >100 colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL).
In phase 1, median hang time was 69 days (range, 8–555 days). Considering the 27 total cultures, 3 of 27 GI endoscopes (11.1%) had positive cultures, all with nonpathogenic skin flora at ≤100 CFU/mL. Median hang time was not statistically different between scopes with positive and negative cultures (P=.82). In phase 2, 7 of 131 prospective cultures (5.3%) from 6 of 9 GI endoscopes at varying storage intervals were positive, all at ≤100 CFU/mL. At 56 days after reprocessing (the longest storage interval studied), 1 of 24 cultures (4.2%) was positive (100 CFU/mL of Bacillus species from external biopsy/suction ports).
No endoscopes demonstrated clinically relevant contamination at hang times ranging from 7 to 555 days, and most scopes remained uncontaminated up to 56 days after reprocessing. Our data suggest that properly cleaned and disinfected GI endoscopes could be stored safely for longer intervals than currently recommended.
Childhood early life stress (ELS) increases risk of adulthood major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with altered brain structure and function. It is unclear whether specific ELSs affect depression risk, cognitive function and brain structure.
This cross-sectional study included 64 antidepressant-free depressed and 65 never-depressed individuals. Both groups reported a range of ELSs on the Early Life Stress Questionnaire, completed neuropsychological testing and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neuropsychological testing assessed domains of episodic memory, working memory, processing speed and executive function. MRI measures included cortical thickness and regional gray matter volumes, with a priori focus on the cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, caudate and hippocampus.
Of 19 ELSs, only emotional abuse, sexual abuse and severe family conflict independently predicted adulthood MDD diagnosis. The effect of total ELS score differed between groups. Greater ELS exposure was associated with slower processing speed and smaller OFC volumes in depressed subjects, but faster speed and larger volumes in non-depressed subjects. In contrast, exposure to ELSs predictive of depression had similar effects in both diagnostic groups. Individuals reporting predictive ELSs exhibited poorer processing speed and working memory performance, smaller volumes of the lateral OFC and caudate, and decreased cortical thickness in multiple areas including the insula bilaterally. Predictive ELS exposure was also associated with smaller left hippocampal volume in depressed subjects.
Findings suggest an association between childhood trauma exposure and adulthood cognitive function and brain structure. These relationships appear to differ between individuals who do and do not develop depression.
Multiwavelength observations of polars are essential for developing the big picture of these systems, particularly to gain understanding of the relevant accretion-induced heating and cooling processes. Eclipsing polars are prime targets for such studies since different radiation processes can be disentangled by observations with high-time resolution. We present a preliminary combined analysis of space-based observations (XMM-Newton, ROSAT, HST) with ground-based high-speed photometry (MCCP, OPTIMA, ULTRACAM) of DP Leo, HU Aqr and UZ For. We determine the location and extent of different emission components and find secular and short-term changes in the accretion geometries. We find displaced optical and X-ray emission regions in DP Leo and HU Aqr as well as mini-bursts and accretion arcs of variable size in HU Aqr. We report marked changes in the X-ray eclipse length of UZ For between high and low states.
We present simultaneous energetic electron and solar radio observations from the ISEE−3 spacecraft of several solar type III radio bursts. The UC Berkeley energetic particle experiment measures from 2 to ~ 103 keV with good energy and pitch angle resolution while the Meudon/GSFC radio experiment tracks type III radio bursts at 24 frequencies in the range 30 kHz—2 MHz.
Social science plays an increasing and valuable role in volcanic Disaster Risk Management (DRM); social science research methods are now used globally to investigate and improve the links amongst volcanology, emergency mangement and community resilience to volcanic hazards. The biennial IAVCEI Cities on Volcanoes Conferences, each hosted by an international city at risk from volcanic hazards, held its eighth meeting in Yogyakarta (Indonesia) in September 2014. These meetings attract large attendances of social and physical scientists as well as emergency managers and DRM practitioners. By incorporating social science methodologies, information derived from volcano monitoring and data interpretation can be used in the most effective way possible to reduce the risk of volcanic hazards to society.
A range of New Zealand researchers at universities, and the government earth science research institute GNS Science, have been conducting applied social research focussed around natural hazards for nearly 20 years, spearheaded by studies of the impacts of the 1995/96 eruptions of Ruapehu volcano. In 2006 the national Joint Centre for Disaster Research was established, a joint venture between Massey University School of Psychology and GNS Science. It includes researchers from other universities and agencies and undertakes multi-disciplinary applied teaching and research aimed at gaining a better understanding of the impacts of disasters on communities, improving the way society manages risk, and enhancing community preparedness, response and recovery from the consequences of hazard events. Researchers also focus on the effective communication of likelihoods for volcanic eruption forecasts (Doyle et al., 2014). Three projects are highlighted here as examples of volcanic hazard focussed research within this collaborative national social science framework.
Development of a revised Volcanic Alert Level system
The communication of scientific information to stakeholders is a critical component of an effective Volcano Early Warning System. Volcanic Alert Level (VAL) systems are used in many countries as a tool to communicate complex volcanic information in a simple form, from which response decisions can be made. Communication tools such as these are required to meet the needs of a wide range of stakeholders, including central government, emergency managers, the aviation industry, media and the public.
An estimated 800 million people live within 100 km of an active volcano in 86 countries and additional overseas territories worldwide [see Chapter 4 and Appendix B]1. Volcanoes are compelling evidence that the Earth is a dynamic planet characterised by endless change and renewal. Humans have always found volcanic activity fascinating and have often chosen to live close to volcanoes, which commonly provide favourable environments for life. Volcanoes bring many benefits to society: eruptions fertilise soils; elevated topography provides good sites for infrastructure (e.g. telecommunications on elevated ground); water resources are commonly plentiful; volcano tourism can be lucrative; and volcanoes can acquire spiritual, aesthetic or religious significance. Some volcanoes are also associated with geothermal resources, making them a target for exploration and a potential energy resource.
Much of the time volcanoes are not a threat because they erupt very infrequently or because communities have become resilient to frequently erupting volcanoes. However, there is an everpresent danger of a long-dormant volcano re-awakening or of volcanoes producing anomalously large or unexpected eruptions. Volcanic eruptions can cause loss of life and livelihoods in exposed communities, damage or disrupt critical infrastructure and add stress to already fragile environments. Their impacts can be both short-term, e.g. physical damage, and long-term, e.g. sustained or permanent displacement of populations. The risk from volcanic eruptions and their attendant hazards is often underestimated beyond areas within the immediate proximity of a volcano. For example, volcanic ash hazards can have effects hundreds of kilometres away from the vent and have an adverse impact on human and animal health, infrastructure, transport, agriculture and horticulture, the environment and economies. The products of volcanism and their impacts can extend beyond country borders, to be regional and even global in scale.
Although known historical loss of life from volcanic eruptions (since 1600 AD about 280,000 fatalities are recorded, Auker et al. (2013)) is modest compared to other major natural hazards, volcanic eruptions can be catastrophic for exposed communities. In 1985 the town of Armero in Colombia was buried by lahars (volcanic mudflows) with more than 21,000 fatalities due to relatively small explosive eruptions at the summit of Nevado del Ruiz volcano that partially melted a glacier (Voight, 1990).
Depression in late life is a risk factor for cognitive decline. Depression is also associated with increased disability and social support deficits; these may precede conversion to dementia and inform risk. In this study, we examined if baseline or one-year change in disability and social support predicted later cognitive deterioration.
299 cognitively intact depressed older adults were followed for an average of approximately seven years. Participants received antidepressant treatment according to a standardized algorithm. Neuropsychological testing and assessment of disability and social support were assessed annually. Cognitive diagnosis was reviewed annually at a consensus conference to determine if participants remained cognitively normal, or if they progressed to either dementia or cognitively impaired, no dementia (CIND).
During study participation, 167 individuals remained cognitively normal (56%), 83 progressed to CIND (28%), and 49 progressed to dementia (16%). Greater baseline instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) deficits predicted subsequent conversion to a cognitive diagnosis (CIND or dementia). However, neither baseline measures nor one-year change in basic ADLs (BADLs) and social support predicted cognitive conversion. In post hoc analyses, two IADL measures (managing finances, preparing meals) significantly increased the odds of cognitive conversion.
Greater IADL deficits predicted increased risk of cognitive conversion. Assessment of IADL deficits may provide clues about risk of later cognitive decline.
Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica and Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris are long-distance migratory shorebirds with declining numbers in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. One of the most important staging sites for these two species during northward migration is Yalu Jiang coastal wetland in the north Yellow Sea. Historical counts have been limited to once a year and conducted at different periods; these yield inadequate data for population monitoring. We estimated the numbers of Bar-tailed Godwits and Great Knots and described their migration phenology during northward migration from 2010 to 2012 at the Yalu Jiang coastal wetland, using a combination of periodic area-wide counts over the migration period and a modelling approach that estimates passage times and total numbers of birds transiting. The mean arrival date for L. l. baueri godwits was 29 March and mean departure date was 8 May. Corresponding dates were 11 April and 15 May for L. l. menzbieri godwits and 7 April and 14 May for Great Knots. We estimated that an annual average of over 68,000 Bar-tailed Godwits and 44,000 Great Knots used the area on northward migration from 2010–2012. Our results indicate that the Yalu Jiang coastal wetland supports on average at least 42% of the flyway’s northward-migrating L. l. baueri godwits, 19% of L. l. menzbieri godwits, and 22% of the Great Knots. Comparisons with historical counts conducted during peak migration periods indicate a 13% decline in Bar-tailed Godwits since 2004 and an 18% decline in Great Knots since 1999. Our results confirm that the study area remains the most important northward migration staging site for Bar-tailed Godwits and indicate that it has become the most important northward migration staging site for Great Knots along the flyway.
Memory impairment in geriatric depression is understudied, but may identify individuals at risk for development of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a neuropsychologically based definition of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in patients with geriatric depression, we hypothesized that patients with aMCI, compared with those without it, would have increased incidence of both dementia and AD.
Participants were aged 60 years and older and consisted of depressed participants and non-depressed volunteer controls. The depressed cohort met criteria for unipolar major depression. All participants were free of dementia and other neurological illness at baseline. At study entry, participants were administered a standardized clinical interview, a battery of neurocognitive tests, and provided a blood sample for determination of apolipoprotein E genotype. A cognitive diagnosis was assigned by a panel of experts who convened annually and reviewed available clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory data to achieve a consensus cognitive diagnosis to determine a consensus diagnosis. Survival analysis examined the association between aMCI and later dementia (all-cause) and AD.
Among 295 depressed individuals, 63 (21.36%) met criteria for aMCI. Among 161 non-depressed controls, four (2.48%) met aMCI criteria. Participants were followed for 6.28 years on average. Forty-three individuals developed dementia, including 40 (13.6%) depressed and three (1.9%) control participants. Both aMCI and age were associated with incident dementia and AD.
The presence of aMCI is a poor prognostic sign among patients with geriatric depression. Clinicians should carefully screen elderly depressed adults for memory impairment.
Neuroticism is a psychological construct that includes tendency to exhibit negative affect (NA), having poor stress tolerance and being at risk for depression and anxiety disorders. The consequences of neuroticism in the elderly adults are understudied. We hypothesized that older depressed patients with comorbid neuroticism at baseline would have worse mood and cognitive outcomes compared with older depressed patients without neuroticism.
One hundred and ten older depressed adults completed baseline self-reports of depression and the NEO-Personality Inventory as a measure of neuroticism, were administered a battery of cognitive tests annually and were seen by a study psychiatrist who assessed patients using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and treated patients with antidepressants using an established treatment guideline. Patients were followed as clinically indicated for up to three years. We measured remission (defined as MADRS score ≤ 6) rates at one year as a categorical outcome. In addition, we used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the relationship between neuroticism and change in MADRS and cognitive score over time.
Non-remitters (30%) at one year had higher scores in total neuroticism (TN), vulnerability to stress (VS), and NA. Over three years, time to achieve remission was associated with higher TN, higher VS, and greater NA. In analyses controlling for baseline cognitive score, age, sex, and education, VS was associated with baseline to two-year change in cognition.
Presence of neuroticism in older depressed patients treated with medication is associated with poor mood outcomes and may indicate increased risk of cognitive decline.
As the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A has been getting brighter over time, new observations at high frequencies have allowed imaging of the radio emission at unprecedented detail. We present a new radio image at 44 GHz of the supernova remnant (SNR), derived from observations performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in 2011. The diffraction-limited image has a resolution of 349×225 mas, which is the highest achieved to date in high-dynamic range images of the SNR. We also present a new image at 18 GHz, also derived from ATCA observations performed in 2011, which is super-resolved to 0″.25. The new 44 and 18 GHz images yield the first high-resolution spectral index map of the remnant. The comparison of the 44 GHz image with contemporaneous X-ray and Hα observations allows further investigations of the nature of the remnant asymmetry and sheds more light into the progenitor hypotheses and SN explosion. In light of simple free-free absorption models, we discuss the likelihood of detecting at 44 GHz the possible emission originating from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or a compact source in the centre of the remnant.
Supernovae and their remnants are believed to be prodigious sources of Galactic cosmic rays and interstellar dust. Understanding the mechanisms behind their surprisingly high production rate is helped by the study of nearby young supernova remnants. There has been none better in modern times than SN1987A, for which radio observations have been made for over a quarter of a century. We review extensive observations made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at centimetre wavelengths. Emission at frequencies from 1 to 100 GHz is dominated by synchrotron radiation from an outer shock front which has been growing exponentially in strength from day 3000, and is currently sweeping around the circumstellar ring at about 4000 km s−1. Three dimensional models of the propagation of the shock into the circumstellar medium are able to reproduce the main observational features of the remnant, and their evolution. We find that up to 4% of the electrons encountered by the shock are accelerated to relativistic energies. High-frequency ALMA observations will break new ground in the understanding of dust and molecule production.