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Obtaining objective, dietary exposure information from individuals is challenging because of the complexity of food consumption patterns and the limitations of self-reporting tools (e.g., FFQ and diet diaries). This hinders research efforts to associate intakes of specific foods or eating patterns with population health outcomes.
Dietary exposure can be assessed by the measurement of food-derived chemicals in urine samples. We aimed to develop methodologies for urine collection that minimised impact on the day-to-day activities of participants but also yielded samples that were data-rich in terms of targeted biomarker measurements.
Urine collection methodologies were developed within home settings.
Different cohorts of free-living volunteers.
Home collection of urine samples using vacuum transfer technology was deemed highly acceptable by volunteers. Statistical analysis of both metabolome and selected dietary exposure biomarkers in spot urine collected and stored using this method showed that they were compositionally similar to urine collected using a standard method with immediate sample freezing. Even without chemical preservatives, samples can be stored under different temperature regimes without any significant impact on the overall urine composition or concentration of forty-six exemplar dietary exposure biomarkers. Importantly, the samples could be posted directly to analytical facilities, without the need for refrigerated transport and involvement of clinical professionals.
This urine sampling methodology appears to be suitable for routine use and may provide a scalable, cost-effective means to collect urine samples and to assess diet in epidemiological studies.
Clinicians treating patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) might favor one second-generation antidepressant (SGA) because of perceived benefits for the accompanying symptoms of MDD.
To compare the efficacy of bupropion, citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, nefazodone, paroxetine, sertraline, trazodone, and venlafaxine for the treatment of the accompanying symptoms of MDD.
This review is part of a larger review on the comparative effectiveness of SGAs for MDD. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts up to May 2010. Two persons independently reviewed the literature, abstracted data, and rated the risk of bias.
We located 26 head-to-head and 7 placebo-controlled trials that provided evidence for this review. We did not locate any studies on treating accompanying appetite change, low energy, melancholia, or psychomotor change. There was no evidence for many comparisons and we were unable to conduct quantitative analysis for any comparisons. For the comparisons that were studied, we concluded that the SGAs are similarly efficacious for treating anxiety, insomnia, pain, and somatization. The strength of the evidence for these conclusions is low (meaning further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of the effect and is likely to change the estimate).
Our findings indicate that the existing evidence does not warrant the choice of one second-generation antidepressant over another based on greater efficacy for the accompanying symptoms of depression.
Extended-release formulations of antidepressants have been marketed as a strategy to increase patient adherence. Changes in the formulation of drugs, however, could be related to changes in efficacy and tolerability. Among second-generation antidepressants, bupropion, fluoxetine, mirtazapine, paroxetine, and venlafaxine are available in immediate- and extended-release formulations.
To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and adherence of immediate- versus extended-release formulations of second-generation antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults.
To provide an evidence base for clinicians when choosing immediate- or extended-release formulations of antidepressants for the treatment of MDD.
We conducted a comparative effectiveness review for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality searching PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts up to May 2010. Two people independently reviewed the literature, abstracted data, and rated the risk of bias.
Six RCTs and one observational study provided evidence about the comparative efficacy, tolerability, and adherence of bupropion SR (sustained release) versus bupropion XL (extended release), fluoxetine daily vs. fluoxetine weekly, paroxetine IR (immediate release) versus paroxetine CR (continuous release), and venlafaxine IR versus venlafaxine XR (extended release). Overall, no substantial differences in efficacy and safety could be detected. Open-label and observational evidence indicated better adherence for bupropion XL and fluoxetine weekly than for immediate-release medications. No differences in adherence could be detected between paroxetine IR and paroxetine CR.
Our findings indicate similar efficacy and tolerability between immediate- and extended-release formulations. Whether extended-release formulations lead to better adherence remains unclear.
To examine the factors that are associated with changes in depression in people with type 2 diabetes living in 12 different countries.
People with type 2 diabetes treated in out-patient settings aged 18–65 years underwent a psychiatric assessment to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline and follow-up. At both time points, participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the WHO five-item Well-being scale (WHO-5) and the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale which measures diabetes-related distress. A composite stress score (CSS) (the occurrence of stressful life events and their reported degree of ‘upset’) between baseline and follow-up was calculated. Demographic data and medical record information were collected. Separate regression analyses were conducted with MDD and PHQ-9 scores as the dependent variables.
In total, there were 7.4% (120) incident cases of MDD with 81.5% (1317) continuing to remain free of a diagnosis of MDD. Univariate analyses demonstrated that those with MDD were more likely to be female, less likely to be physically active, more likely to have diabetes complications at baseline and have higher CSS. Mean scores for the WHO-5, PAID and PHQ-9 were poorer in those with incident MDD compared with those who had never had a diagnosis of MDD. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher PHQ-9, lower WHO-5 scores and greater CSS were significant predictors of incident MDD. Significant predictors of PHQ-9 were baseline PHQ-9 score, WHO-5, PAID and CSS.
This study demonstrates the importance of psychosocial factors in addition to physiological variables in the development of depressive symptoms and incident MDD in people with type 2 diabetes. Stressful life events, depressive symptoms and diabetes-related distress all play a significant role which has implications for practice. A more holistic approach to care, which recognises the interplay of these psychosocial factors, may help to mitigate their impact on diabetes self-management as well as MDD, thus early screening and treatment for symptoms is recommended.
Life in the terrestrial and marine subsurface has adapted and evolved mechanisms to survive under extremes of energy limitation, temperature, pressure, radiation, and/or water availability. New developments in nucleic acid sequencing, high-pressure biochemistry, and high-pressure biophysics have expanded our understanding of the mechanisms used by deep life. This chapter synthesizes these new developments and highlights remaining gaps in understanding.
The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD).
Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT). MCI-LB was diagnosed if two or more diagnostic features of dementia with Lewy bodies were present (visual hallucinations, cognitive fluctuations, motor parkinsonism, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder or positive FP-CIT SPECT). A Lewy body Neuropsychiatric Supportive Symptom Count (LBNSSC) was calculated based on the presence or absence of the supportive neuropsychiatric symptoms defined by the 2017 DLB diagnostic criteria: non-visual hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, depression and apathy.
MCI-LB (n = 41) had a higher LBNSSC than MCI-AD (n = 24; 1.8 ± 1.1 v. 0.7 ± 0.9, p = 0.001). 67% of MCI-LB had two or more of those symptoms, compared with 16% of MCI-AD (Likelihood ratio = 4.2, p < 0.001). MCI-LB subjects scored lower on tests of attention, visuospatial function and verbal fluency. However, cognitive test scores alone did not accurately differentiate MCI-LB from MCI-AD.
MCI-LB is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and a cognitive profile similar to established DLB. This supports the concept of identifying MCI-LB based on the presence of core diagnostic features of DLB and abnormal FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The presence of supportive neuropsychiatric clinical features identified in the 2017 DLB diagnostic criteria was helpful in differentiating between MCI-LB and MCI-AD.