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Epidemiological and clinical evidence highlight the benefit of dietary fibre consumption on body weight. This benefit is partly attributed to the interaction of dietary fibre with the gut microbiota. Dietary fibre possesses a complex food structure which resists digestion in the upper gut and therefore reaches the distal gut where it becomes available for bacterial fermentation. This process yields SCFA which stimulate the release of appetite-suppressing hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY. Food structures can further enhance the delivery of fermentable substrates to the distal gut by protecting the intracellular nutrients during upper gastrointestinal digestion. Domestic and industrial processing can disturb these food structures that act like barriers towards digestive enzymes. This leads to more digestible products that are better absorbed in the upper gut. As a result, less resistant material (fibre) and intracellular nutrients may reach the distal gut, thus reducing substrates for bacterial fermentation and its subsequent benefits on the host metabolism including appetite suppression. Understanding this link is essential for the design of diets and food products that can promote appetite suppression and act as a successful strategy towards obesity management. This article reviews the current evidence in the interplay between food structure, bacterial fermentation and appetite control.
The effect of modifying dietary fatty acid (FA) composition on insulin sensitivity remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether changes in plasma phospholipid (PL) FA composition, as a result of dietary intervention, correspond with changes in insulin sensitivity. The RISCK study was a 6-month randomised controlled dietary intervention study, which assessed the effect of modifying dietary fat and the glycaemic index (GI) of carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity. Total NEFA levels, fasting plasma PL FA profiles and an insulin sensitivity index (Si), derived from intravenous glucose tolerance minimal-model analysis, were available from 533 participants, all at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. Bivariate correlations between changes in saturated PL FA (SFA), MUFA (as a percentage of total plasma NEFA) and changes in Si were assessed according to treatment group. Age, sex, ethnicity, percentage change in body mass and change in dietary GI were controlled for. Increasing total NEFA concentration was associated with worsening Si (r −0·152; P = 0·001). In the high-MUFA/low-GI diet group, change in PL-MUFA was positively and independently associated with change in Si (r 0·297; P = 0·002). Among MUFA, change in oleic acid (18 : 1) was most strongly correlated with change in Si (r 0·266; P = 0·005), as was change in minor FA 24 : 1 (r 0·244; P = 0·011) and 17 : 1 (r 0·196; P = 0·042). In the high-SFA/high-GI group, change in SFA concentration was not significantly associated with change in Si. In conclusion, increases in the proportion of plasma PL-MUFA following a high-MUFA dietary intervention were associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( − 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.
Stichtite is a naturally occurring layered double hydroxide (LDH) with the ideal chemical formula Mg6Cr2CO3(OH)16.4H2O. It has received less attention in the literature than other LDHs and is often described as a rare mineral; however, abundant deposits of the mineral do exist. In this article we aim to review a number of significant publications concerning the mineral stichtite, including papers covering the discovery, geological origin, synthesis and characterizsation of stichtite. Characterization techniques reviewed include powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), thermogravimetry (TG) and electron microprobe analysis.
The new 1 m f/4 fast-slew Zadko Telescope was installed in June 2008 about 70 km north of Perth, Western Australia. It is the only metre-class optical facility at this southern latitude between the east coast of Australia and South Africa, and can rapidly image optical transients at a longitude not monitored by other similar facilities. We report on first imaging tests of a pilot program of minor planet searches, and Target of Opportunity observations triggered by the Swift satellite. In 12 months, 6 gamma-ray burst afterglows were detected, with estimated magnitudes; two of them, GRB 090205 (z = 4.65) and GRB 090516 (z = 4.11), are among the most distant optical transients imaged by an Australian telescope. Many asteroids were observed in a systematic 3-month search. In September 2009, an automatic telescope control system was installed, which will be used to link the facility to a global robotic telescope network; future targets will include fast optical transients triggered by high-energy satellites, radio transient detections, and LIGO gravitational wave candidate events. We also outline the importance of the facility as a potential tool for education, training, and public outreach.
Nitric oxide (NO) release can promote healthy tissue regeneration. A PEG-fibrinogen adhesive hydrogel that would allow for inducible NO release was created with mechanical properties that could be tailored to specific applications and tissue types. PEG (4-arm)-fibrinogen hydrogels of varying ratios were derivatized with S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP)-thiolactone to create an active NO donor material. Controlled release from gels was established using light as the activating source, although temperature, pH, and external mechanical loading are also means to induce active NO release. Gels with varying ratios of fibrinogen to PEG were made, derivatized, and tested. Gels below a ratio of 1.5:1 (fibrinogen:PEG) did not gel, while at ratio of 1.5:1 gelation occurs and NO release can be induced. Interestingly, the release from 1.5:1 gels was significantly lower compared to 2:1 and 3:1 gel formulations. Rheometric data show that lower ratio gels are more elastic than viscous. Derivatized gels exhibited linear elastic moduli, behaving more like other more synthetic hydrogels. Swelling data indicates that as the ratio of fibrinogen to PEG increases the swelling ratio decreases, likely due to the hydrophobic nature of the NO donor. Cells remain viable on both derivatized and non-derivatized gels.