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Local attitudes towards carnivores often reflect the degree of damage they are perceived to cause. Consequently, understanding the interactions between people and these species is essential to conservation efforts. This study investigated local perceptions of three Cerrado canid species and current chicken management practices, to identify the potential damage they cause and how this relates to peoples’ attitudes towards these species. Results from structured interviews at 50 ranches in Goiás, Brazil, highlighted that general knowledge about Cerrado canids differed significantly by species, with interviewees unable to correctly answer questions about the hoary fox Lycalopex vetulus and crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous in comparison to the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus. Chicken coops were identified as the most effective method for preventing predation, yet only 44% of respondents employed this method. Using a perceived predation measure, interviewees reported chicken predation by all three Cerrado canids even though most of these events were stated to occur during the day, outside the species’ active periods. Reported predation events were a strong predictor of attitude. Participants who experienced predation events reported they did not like having a Cerrado canid on their property. However, 86% of the respondents agreed that Cerrado canids should nevertheless be protected. Our findings support the need to incorporate the human dimension in canid and broader carnivore conservation issues.
We present observations of 50 deg2 of the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, covering Galactic longitudes l = 300–350° and latitudes |b| ⩽ 0.5°. These data have been taken at 0.6 arcmin spatial resolution and 0.1 km s−1spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the Southern Galactic Plane in the 109–115 GHz J = 1–0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O.
We present a series of velocity-integrated maps, spectra, and position-velocity plots that illustrate Galactic arm structures and trace masses on the order of ~106 M⊙ deg−2, and include a preliminary catalogue of C18O clumps located between l = 330–340°. Together with the information about the noise statistics of the survey, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the PASA data store.
Non-psychotic affective symptoms are important components of psychotic syndromes. They are frequent and are now thought to influence the emergence of paranoia and hallucinations. Evidence supporting this model of psychosis comes from recent cross-fertilising epidemiological and intervention studies. Epidemiological studies identify plausible targets for intervention but must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, causal inference can be strengthened substantially using modern statistical methods.
Directed Acyclic Graphs were used in a dynamic Bayesian network approach to learn the overall dependence structure of chosen variables. DAG-based inference identifies the most likely directional links between multiple variables, thereby locating them in a putative causal cascade. We used initial and 18-month follow-up data from the 2000 British National Psychiatric Morbidity survey (N = 8580 and N = 2406).
We analysed persecutory ideation, hallucinations, a range of affective symptoms and the effects of cannabis and problematic alcohol use. Worry was central to the links between symptoms, with plausible direct effects on insomnia, depressed mood and generalised anxiety, and recent cannabis use. Worry linked the other affective phenomena with paranoia. Hallucinations were connected only to worry and persecutory ideation. General anxiety, worry, sleep problems, and persecutory ideation were strongly self-predicting. Worry and persecutory ideation were connected over the 18-month interval in an apparent feedback loop.
These results have implications for understanding dynamic processes in psychosis and for targeting psychological interventions. The reciprocal influence of worry and paranoia implies that treating either symptom is likely to ameliorate the other.
Background: Almost all patients admitted at acute crisis to a psychiatric ward experience clinically significant symptoms of insomnia. Ward environments pose challenges to both sleep and the delivery of therapy. Despite this, there is no description of how to adapt cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia to overcome these challenges. Aims: (i) To describe the key insomnia presentations observed in the Oxford Ward Sleep Solution (OWLS) trial and (ii) outline key adaptations aimed to increase accessibility and hence effectiveness of CBT for insomnia for a ward setting. Methods: Trial therapists collaboratively agreed the key insomnia presentations and therapy adaptations based on their individual reflective logs used during the trial. Results: Three key insomnia presentations are outlined. These are used to illustrate the application of 10 CBT for insomnia therapy adaptations. These include use of sleep monitoring watches to engage patients in treatment, stabilizing circadian rhythms, reducing the impact of night-time observations and managing discharge as a sleep challenge. Conclusions: Whilst inpatient wards bring challenges for sleep and therapy delivery, creative adaptations can increase the accessibility of evidence based CBT for insomnia techniques. This therapy has proven popular with patients.
Background: Our view is that sleep disturbance may be a contributory causal factor in the development and maintenance of psychotic experiences. A recent series of randomized controlled intervention studies has shown that cognitive-behavioural approaches can improve sleep in people with psychotic experiences. However, the effects of psychological intervention for improving sleep have not been evaluated in young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Improving sleep might prevent later transition to a mental health disorder. Aims: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention targeting sleep disturbance in young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Method: Patients were sought from NHS mental health services. Twelve young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis with sleep problems were offered an eight-session adapted CBT intervention for sleep problems. The core treatment techniques were stimulus control, circadian realignment, and regulating day-time activity. Participants were assessed before and after treatment and at a one month follow-up. Results: All eligible patients referred to the study agreed to take part. Eleven patients completed the intervention, and one patient withdrew after two sessions. Of those who completed treatment, the attendance rate was 89% and an average of 7.6 sessions (SD = 0.5) were attended. There were large effect size improvements in sleep. Post-treatment, six patients fell below the recommended cut-off for clinical insomnia. There were also improvements in negative affect and psychotic experiences. Conclusion: This uncontrolled feasibility study indicates that treating sleep problems in young people at ultra-high of psychosis is feasible, acceptable, and may be associated with clinical benefits.
Observations made at Las Campanas Observatory and at the Anglo-Australian Observatory have been used to determine line-of-sight velocities with an average accuracy of 3 kms−1 for 135 member stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The velocities were derived from cross-correlation techniques applied to 30 A/mm spectra obtained with digital sky-subtracting detectors. The spectra themselves have been used to analyze the cyanogen anomalies on the red giant branch in this cluster (Norris et al., 1984). When combined with the velocities published by the CORAVEL group (Mayor et al., 1983), these observations yield velocities for 212 stars with projected distances from the cluster center ranging from 3 to 68 core radii. After radial binning and analysis these observations yield the following results:
(i) The inner parts of the cluster show appreciable differential rotation with a maximum projected rotation velocity of approximately 6 kms−1 in the region 6–18 core radii. However, at larger radii the rotation declines rapidly and is essentially zero for radii greater than 30 core radii. This result is illustrated in Figure 1. To within the errors of the determinations, the position angle of the maximum rotation and that of the major axis of the stellar density distribution coincide.
(ii) In contrast to M3 (Gunn and Griffin 1979), “thermal equilibrium” multimass models (c.f. Da Costa and Freeman 1976) can ONLY reproduce the observed velocity dispersion values by including a substantial amount of “dark matter”; i.e. unlike M3, there is “missing mass” in 47 Tuc. In order to retain a fit to the surface brightness profile of the cluster, this “dark mass” (which provides perhaps 30 to 40 percent of the total cluster mass) cannot have a distribution much different from that of the cluster giants if it is in the form of stars and “thermal equilibrium” is maintained. In this case the obvious candidates for the dark matter are the white dwarf remnants of the stars more massive than the current turnoff mass, though many more such remnants are required than the number expected from extrapolating the present mass function. The difference between M3 and 47 Tuc in this case then implies that the 47 Tuc initial mass function had many more massive stars than did that for M3. The work of Freeman (1977), who demonstrated large IMF variations in the 8 − 1.5 solar mass range in young Magellanic Cloud clusters, provides observational support for this interpretation.
• Identify the core principles of stakeholder theory.
• Understand why and how stakeholder theory pioneered and developed in the Scandinavian context.
• Understand company-stakeholder relationships in the age of technology.
• Analyse the Monsanto case study, illustrating the challenges behind managing for stakeholders in the twenty-first century.
At the beginning of the 1990s, Jack Smith, the General Motors (GM) CEO, brought Jose Ignacio Lopez, who had previously served as the successful GM head of purchasing in Europe, to purchasing operations at Detroit. The objective was clear: to stop the automaker's losses by cutting costs. Often described as a fanatically dedicated and hard-working manager, Lopez became a GM hero by ripping up long-standing contracts with dedicated suppliers and demanding lower prices. Within his first year in Detroit, Lopez achieved an astounding $1.1 billion of savings in purchasing and identified another $2.4 billion in savings for the next year, which made Jack Smith acknowledge that Lopez had ‘stopped the bleeding’ at GM (Kurylko and Crate, 2006).
Was Lopez successful in his managerial position with the cost-cutting strategy he was using? For those who consider maximising financial returns as the primary objective of any business, it is only logical to answer ‘yes’. The rationality behind this train of thought runs, generally speaking, in the following way: shareholders own the company and their primary objective is to maximise a company's financial returns within legal boundaries; shareholders hire an executive manager to run the company and serve their interests in the best possible way; the hired executive will be rewarded, both financially and career-wise, based on his/her success in serving shareholders’ interests; thus, keeping shareholders happy, within legal boundaries, is the executive's primary responsibility, and the interests of all other parties in the business are secondary.
Lopez was certainly successful in keeping his shareholders happy. However, this GM story does not end happily: Lopez's deeds significantly undermined the level of trust between GM and its long-time suppliers. Over time this strategy of constantly squeezing suppliers turned out to be less productive compared to the trusting long-term relationship built by Japanese car producers. The lesson behind the story is self-evident. Maximising immediate profits at the expense of ruining relationships with a stakeholder holds the company back. Lopez's success was more than dubious.
A pneumocele occurs when an aerated cranial cavity pathologically expands; a pneumatocele occurs when air extends from an aerated cavity into adjacent soft tissues forming a secondary cavity. Both pathologies are extremely rare with relation to the mastoid. This paper describes a case of a mastoid pneumocele that caused hypoglossal nerve palsy and an intracranial pneumatocele.
A 46-year-old man presented, following minor head trauma, with hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to a fracture through the hypoglossal canal. The fracture occurred as a result of a diffuse temporal bone pneumocele involving bone on both sides of the hypoglossal canal. Further slow expansion of the mastoid pneumocele led to a secondary middle fossa pneumatocele. The patient refused treatment and so has been managed conservatively for more than five years, and he remains well.
While most patients with otogenic pneumatoceles have presented acutely in extremis secondary to tension pneumocephalus, our patient has remained largely asymptomatic. Aetiology, clinical features and management options of temporal bone pneumoceles and otogenic pneumatoceles are reviewed.
This study tested whether accurate dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon wiggle-matching of short tree-ring series (~30 annual rings) in the Medieval period could be achieved. Scientific dating plays a central role in the conservation of historic buildings in England. Precise dating helps assess the significance of particular buildings or elements of their fabric, thus allowing us to make informed decisions about their repair and protection. Consequently, considerable weight, both financial and legal, can be attached to the precision and accuracy of this dating. Dendrochronology is the method of choice, but in a proportion of cases this is unable to provide calendar dates. Hence, we would like to be able to use 14C wiggle-matching to provide a comparable level of precision and reliability, particularly on shorter tree-ring sequences (~30 annual growth rings) that up until now would not routinely be sampled. We present the results of AMS wiggle-matching five oak tree-ring sequences, spanning the period covered by the vast majority of surviving Medieval buildings in England (about AD 1180–1540) when currently we have only decadal and bidecadal calibration data.
It is becoming increasingly clear that in order to generate accurate radiocarbon dates for bone collagen samples it is important to determine a sample-specific background correction to account for the greater complexity and higher number of steps in the pretreatment chemistry of this material. To provide suitable samples for the 14C community, 7 bone samples were obtained from contexts within British gravel quarries, which according to other dating techniques or stratigraphic information, should be of infinite age with respect to 14C. The bones were analyzed at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU) and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) to determine their suitability. In this paper, we show that 6 of the samples were indistinguishable from background. Both institutions measured finite ages for sample 387 from Oxey Mead that were statistically indistinguishable. Further work is required to establish whether this is because the bone was intrusive and of a younger age than expected or whether it is contaminated either postdepositionally or in the laboratory. We favor the former explanation because (1) the 2 chemistry laboratories use very different pretreatment schemes, (2) collagen yields were high, and (3) the laboratories produced ages that are in good agreement. The 6 “greater than” age samples will be made available to 14C laboratories to be used as background standards.
The dune of Oitavos, the underlying paleosol, and Helix sp. gastropod shells found within the paleosol were dated using a combination of radiocarbon and blue optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The organic component of the paleosol produced a significantly older age (∼20,000 cal BP) than the OSL age measurement (∼15,000 yr), while 14C age measurements on the inorganic component and the gastropods produced ages of ∼35,000 yr and ∼34,000 yr, respectively. Rare-earth element analyses provide evidence that the gastropods incorporate geological carbonate, making them an unreliable indicator of the age of the paleosol. We propose that the 14C age of the small organic component of the paleosol is also likely to be unreliable due to incorporation of residual material. The OSL age measurement of the upper paleosol (∼15,000 yr) is consistent with the age for the base of the dune (∼14,500 yr). The younger OSL age for the top of the dune (∼12,000 yr) suggests that it was built up by at least 2 sand pulses or that there was a remobilization of material at the top during its evolution, prior to consolidation.
In 2003, a National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) 5MV tandem accelerator mass spectrometer was installed at SUERC, providing the radiocarbon laboratory with 14C measurements to 4–5‰ repeatability. In 2007, a 250kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) was added to provide additional 14C capability and is now the preferred system for 14C analysis. Changes to the technology and to our operations are evident in our copious quality assurance data: typically, we now use the 134-position MC-SNICS source, which is filled to capacity. Measurement of standards shows that spectrometer running without the complication of on-line δ13C evaluation is a good operational compromise. Currently, 3‰ 14C/13C measurements are routinely achieved for samples up to nearly 3 half-lives old by consistent sample preparation and an automated data acquisition algorithm with sample random access for measurement repeats. Background and known-age standard data are presented for the period 2003–2008 for the 5MV system and 2007–2008 for the SSAMS, to demonstrate the improvements in data quality.
A new National Electrostatic Corporation (NEC) 5MV accelerator mass spectrometer became operational at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) in July 2002. It has 2 Cs sputter negative ion sources: a 134-sample source (S1) for the routine measurement of all species, and a hybrid source (S2) with 40 spaces for radiocarbon measurements with either graphite or CO2 samples. A number of performance tests on graphite samples have been carried out on both sources. A precison of better than 0.3% is feasible for modern samples on a routine basis. The 14C background of the machine and the graphite preparation process blank are 0.04 ± 0.01 and 0.16 ± 0.05 pMC, respectively, indicating that 14C dating back to ~50 kyr BP is possible. The normalized 14C values for a series of reference materials agree well with the IAEA, TIRI, and FIRI consensus values. Routine measurement of 14C has been underway since May 2003. Preliminary results of performance tests on the CO2 gas ion source are also reported.
Stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychotic experiences. SLEs might act as an environmental risk factor, but may also share a genetic propensity with psychotic experiences.
To estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence the relationship between SLEs and psychotic experiences.
Self- and parent reports from a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) were analysed using structural equation model fitting.
SLEs correlated with positive psychotic experiences (r = 0.12–0.14, all P<0.001). Modest heritability was shown for psychotic experiences (25–57%) and dependent SLEs (32%). Genetic influences explained the majority of the modest covariation between dependent SLEs and paranoia and cognitive disorganisation (bivariate heritabilities 74–86%). The relationship between SLEs and hallucinations and grandiosity was explained by both genetic and common environmental effects.
Further to dependent SLEs being an environmental risk factor, individuals may have an underlying genetic propensity increasing their risk of dependent SLEs and positive psychotic experiences.
We have found a correlation between the M / L global gradients and the structural parameters of the luminous components of a sample of 19 early-type galaxies. Such a correlation supports the hypothesis that there is a connection between the dark matter content and the evolution of the baryonic component in such systems.
Planetary nebulae (PNe) may be the most promising tracers in the halos of early-type galaxies. We have used multi-object spectrographs on the WHT and the VLT, and the new Planetary Nebula Spectrograph on the WHT, to obtain hundreds of PN velocities in a small sample of nearby galaxies. These ellipticals show weak halo rotation, which may be consistent with ab initio models of galaxy formation, but not with more detailed major merger simulations. the galaxies near L* show evidence of a universal declining velocity dispersion profile, and dynamical models indicate the presence of little dark matter within 5 Reff—implying halos either not as massive or not as centrally concentrated as CDM predicts.
We have discovered a number of very small isolated H II regions 20-30 kpc from their nearest galaxy. The H II regions appear as tiny emission line dots (ELdots) in narrow band images obtained by the NOAO Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG). We have spectroscopic confirmation of 5 isolated H II regions in 3 systems. The Hα luminosities of the H II regions are equivalent to the ionizing flux of only 1 large or a few small OB stars each. These stars appear to have formed in situ and represent atypical star formation in the low density environment of galaxy outskirts. In situ star formation in the intergalactic medium offers an alternative to galactic wind models to explain metal enrichment. In interacting systems (2 out of 3), isolated H II regions could be a starting point for tidal dwarf galaxies.
We present results from our Parkes Multibeam H I survey of 3 loose groups of galaxies that are analogous to the Local Group. This is a survey of groups containing only spiral galaxies with mean separations of a few hundred kpc, and total areas of approximately 1 Mpc2; groups similar to our own Local Group. We present a census of the H I-rich objects in these groups down to a 1σ MHI sensitivity ~7×105M⊙, as well as the detailed properties of these detections from follow-up Compact Array observations. We found 7 new H I-rich members in the 3 groups, all of which have stellar counterparts and are, therefore, typical dwarf galaxies. The ratio of low-mass to high-mass gas-rich galaxies in these groups is less than in the Local Group meaning that the “missing satellite” problem is not unique. No high-velocity cloud analogs were found in any of the groups. If HVCs in these groups are the same as in the Local Group, this implies that HVCs must be located within ~300-400 kpc of the Milky Way.