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Several elicitors, stimulating induced resistance mechanisms, have potential in preventing or mitigating pathogen infections. Some of these compounds, triggering the production of jasmonic acid (JA), a precursor of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, could also play a central role in indirect resistance to pest species, by improving beneficial arthropod performance, and necrotrophic pathogens. In the current work, Trichoderma gamsii/T. asperellum and silica gel treatments – alone and in combination – were studied to evaluate the plant defence mechanism on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) by laboratory and field trials. JA production level was measured before and after Plasmopara viticola infection on potted vines. JA production induced by silica gel was higher than that caused by Trichoderma before infection. In Trichoderma-treated plants, JA production increased after P. viticola inoculation. In vineyard field trials, Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) showed higher captures in transparent sticky traps on silica gel-treated plants, in comparison with control. On the other hand, no significant attraction was detected for Ichneumonoidea and other Chalcidoidea in silica gel and T. gamsii/T. asperellum-treated plants. The potential effects of elicitors are discussed, in the frame of attract and reward strategy.
School-based psychological interventions encompass: universal interventions targeting youth in the general population; and indicated interventions targeting youth with subthreshold depression. This study aimed to: (1) examine the population cost-effectiveness of delivering universal and indicated prevention interventions to youth in the population aged 11–17 years via primary and secondary schools in Australia; and (2) compare the comparative cost-effectiveness of delivering these interventions using face-to-face and internet-based delivery mechanisms.
We reviewed literature on the prevention of depression to identify all interventions targeting youth that would be suitable for implementation in Australia and had evidence of efficacy to support analysis. From this, we found evidence of effectiveness for the following intervention types: universal prevention involving group-based psychological interventions delivered to all participating school students; and indicated prevention involving group-based psychological interventions delivered to students with subthreshold depression. We constructed a Markov model to assess the cost-effectiveness of delivering universal and indicated interventions in the population relative to a ‘no intervention’ comparator over a 10-year time horizon. A disease model was used to simulate epidemiological transitions between three health states (i.e., healthy, diseased and dead). Intervention effect sizes were based on meta-analyses of randomised control trial data identified in the aforementioned review; while health benefits were measured as Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted attributable to reductions in depression incidence. Net costs of delivering interventions were calculated using relevant Australian data. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were conducted to test model assumptions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured in 2013 Australian dollars per DALY averted; with costs and benefits discounted at 3%.
Universal and indicated psychological interventions delivered through face-to-face modalities had ICERs below a threshold of $50 000 per DALY averted. That is, $7350 per DALY averted (95% uncertainty interval (UI): dominates – 23 070) for universal prevention, and $19 550 per DALY averted (95% UI: 3081–56 713) for indicated prevention. Baseline ICERs were generally robust to changes in model assumptions. We conducted a sensitivity analysis which found that internet-delivered prevention interventions were highly cost-effective when assuming intervention effect sizes of 100 and 50% relative to effect sizes observed for face-to-face delivered interventions. These results should, however, be interpreted with caution due to the paucity of data.
School-based psychological interventions appear to be cost-effective. However, realising efficiency gains in the population is ultimately dependent on ensuring successful system-level implementation.
Accurate astrometric and photometric calibrations of all-sky photographic surveys, such as the Palomar Quick-V survey and the UK SERC-J survey, digitised for the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope Guide Star Catalog, are of extreme astrophysical value. Their wide range of applications includes, for example, galactic structure, stellar populations, extragalactic studies, and deep sky catalogs for mission planning and telescope operations. The Guide Star Photometric Catalog (GSPC-I, Lasker et al. 1988) provides stellar calibration sequences, placed approximately in the center of each survey plate, with a limiting magnitude of V = 15 mag. The goal of our program is to extend these calibrators to V = 20 mag in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins B, V and R passbands, with an accuracy of 0.05 mag. This is accomplished by taking CCD frames centered on the faintest star of each GSPC-I sequence. Typically, both long and short exposures are acquired in each field in order to link the bright and faint ends of the sequence.
It has been recently shown (Bodo et al 1989) that filamentary structures observed in some extended radio sources (e.g. Cygnus A and M 87) can be related with thermal instabilities arising in the gas with a synchrotron radiating relativistic component. In particular is has been shown that, with the typical parameters of radio sources, two kind of unstable modes can develop on time scale comparable with the synchrotron cooling time: condensation stationary modes and travelling slow MHD waves. Both these kind of perturbations should lead to the formation of structures basically parallel to the magnetic field direction, as observed, however their general evolution, in particular if they will lead to the formation of dark or bright structures, cannot be extrapolated from the linear perturbative analysis.
We discuss the non-linear evolution of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in Herbig-Haro jets performing numerical simulations by means of a PPM hydro-code modified as to include non-equilibrium, optically thin, radiation losses and heating. In this paper we discuss in particular the effects of different functional dependences of heating on density. The results obtained show a weak dependency of the instability evolution on the different forms of the heating function, that is largely unknown, therefore the simple assumption of constant heating, adopted in previous papers on this matter, does not lead to severe limitations on the general applicability of the results to the astrophysical jets and, in particular, to the origin of the emission knots.
Since the pioneering work by Norman et al. (1982), many numerical studies have been devoted to the analysis of the propagation of a supersonic jet shot into an ambient medium (see Massaglia, Bodo & Ferrari 1995, hereinafter Paper I, and references therein). In spite of these strong efforts many aspects of this problem are still not well understood. This is due to the complexity of the jet-cocoon structure: in fact, the cocoon excites perturbations to the jet flow, which in turn can be amplified by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism and induce a strong activity of the jet's head that affects the cocoon structure. Thus a complex feedback loop mechanism establishes between jet and cocoon which make the dynamics of the interaction very complex.
Several different properties of extragalactic radio sources have been attributed to the effects of turbulence. The morphological appearance of FRI sources has been often interpreted as the result of turbulent entrainment in subsonic or transonic flows (Bicknell 1984, 1986). Moreover, particle acceleration by MHD turbulence via a second order Fermi process is one of the possible ways for accelerating the synchrotron emitting relativistic particles (see Ferrari, Trussoni & Zaninetti 1979). Turbulence appears therefore as an important ingredient in the theoretical modelling of extragalactic radio sources; however, we do not have, unfortunately, any direct evidence of it.
One of the key processes governing the structure and evolution of astrophysical jets is their interaction with the surrounding medium. A jet can deposit momentum and energy in the ambient medium, and entrain external material. The main physical process responsible for mixing between a jet flow and the ambient medium is the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. We have previously analysed the 2D evolution of the axisymmetric modes of a cylindrical jet (Bodo et al 1994) and of the antisymmetric modes of a planar slab jet (Bodo et al 1995). These last are thought to give indications of the 3D evolution of the helical modes of a cylinder, since the linear behavior is very similar. In this contribution we present some preliminary results of fully 3D simulations comparing them with the mentioned 2D results.
The Einstein Observatory survey of stellar coronae (Vaiana et al. 1981) and, specifically, the results on cool, low luminosity stars has suggested a correlation between stellar X-ray luminosity and stellar rotational velocity (Pallavicini et al. 1982, Walter 1981, Vaiana et al. 1981). In addition the Skylab observations of the solar corona have demonstrated a tight correlation between photospheric surface magnetic structures, which emerge from the interior in the form of “loops” above the photosphere by, viz., buoyancy instabilities, (Parker 1979; see also Acheson 1979, Schmitt & Rosner 1982, and references therein), and coronal X-ray emission (Golub et al. 1980). It therefore becomes important to ask how a coronal state (i.e. low density and high temperature plasma) of a stellar atmosphere is formed , presumably from a pure radiative equilibrium configuration.
In recent years, we have been studying the energy distribution of RS CVn binaries from UV to far IR wave lengths, in order to derive general properties of the systems and to better understand their evolutionary scenario, including the history of mass loss (Busso et al., 1987, 1988). In this framework, we have so far analyzed, at different level of accuracy, a total of about 60 sources, among which 30 have been the object of detailed studies, on the basis of broad band photomertic observations from 0.35 to 60 µm, using ground-based telescopes (mainly at La Silla, ESO) and IRAS-PSC information. For these 30 binaries, the quasi-periodic variations due to the presence of photospheric spots have been carefully subtracted, to derive the energy distributions of the unperturbed systems.
The evolution of low and intermediate mass (1-8 M⊙) stars along the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) is ruled by processes of mass loss, causing the whole convective envelope to be gradually ejected into space. If the stellar mass is sufficiently high (M ≥ 1.5 M⊙) the envelope itself becomes enriched in nucleosynthesis products (carbon and s-process nuclei) and the star evolves into a C-rich phase. AGB stars are hence surrounded by O-rich or C-rich envelopes, opaque at optical wavelengths, which are best studied through direct imaging in the infrared (IR).
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
Carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc have been used to form high quality Schottky diodes on p-Si. Energetic deposition with an applied substrate bias of -1 kV and with a substrate temperature of 100 °C has produced carbon diodes with rectification ratios of ∼ 3 × 106, saturation currents of ∼0.02 nA and ideality factors close to unity (n = 1.05). Simulations were used to estimate the effective work function and the thickness of an interfacial mixed (C/SiO2) layer from the current/voltage characteristics of the diodes.
Welfare Quality® (WQ) assessment protocols place the emphasis on animal-based measures as an indicator for animal welfare. Stakeholders, however, emphasize that a reduction in the time taken to complete the protocol is essential to improve practical applicability. We studied the potential for reduction in time to complete the WQ broiler assessment protocol and present some modifications to the protocol correcting a few errors in the original calculations. Data was used from 180 flocks assessed on-farm and 150 flocks assessed at the slaughter plant. Correlations between variables were calculated, and where correlation was moderate, meaningful and promising (in terms of time reduction), simplification was considered using one variable predicted from another variable. Correlation analysis revealed a promising correlation between severe hock burn and gait scores on-farm. Therefore, prediction of gait scores using hock burn scores was studied further as a possible simplification strategy (strategy 1). Measurements of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait score on-farm correlated moderately to highly with slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and/or hock burn, supporting substitution of on-farm measurements with slaughter plant data. A simplification analysis was performed using footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait scores measured on-farm predicted from slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and hock burn (strategy 2). Simplification strategies were compared with the full assessment protocol. Close agreement was found between the full protocol and both simplification strategies although large confidence intervals were found for specificity of the simplified models. It is concluded that the proposed simplification strategies are encouraging; strategy 1 can reduce the time to complete the on-farm assessment by ~1 h (25% to 33% reduction) and strategy 2 can reduce on-farm assessment time by ~2 h (50% to 67% reduction). Both simplification strategies should, however, be validated further, and tested on farms with a wide distribution across the different welfare categories of WQ.
X Per is a variable emission line star which shows among other peculiarities a weak X-ray emission (4U 0352+30) and a strongly variable IR excess (Ferrari-Toniolo et al. 1978, Viotti et al. 1980). In the past decade the star has undergone three phases of enhanched “activity” (1972–73, 1978 and 1980) characterized by brighter visual luminosity, excess in the Balmer continuum and in the IR, stronger X-ray emission, with intermediate periods of minimum activity (1974–77, 1979) when the optical-infrared energy distribution was closer to that of a normally reddened early type star (figure 2). But during most of its history the energy distribution largely deviated from that of a non-emission line early type star, and the first problem is to determine the interstellar extinction, disregarding any “local” effect. The strength of the 2200 A band in the UV spectrum of X Per is consistent with E(B-V)=0.35, a value close to the extinction towards other Per II stars: Per (0.34), o Per (0.31), Per (0.32, Viotti & Lamers 1975). The i.s. Ly∝ line observed in the high resolution IUE spectrum of X Per obtained on 1979, December 23, has a FWHM of 11.0 A corresponding to N(HI)=4.9 1020 cm−2. The Copernicus observation of H2 lines (of not good quality) gives N(H2)≅1.1 1021 (Mason et al. 1976). A much lower value of 3–5 1020was derived by Snow (1976, 1977) for o and Per. Taking for X Per N(H2)≅5 1020we have N(H total)≅1.5 1021, yielding to N(H)/E(B-V)=4.3 1021 cm−2/mag in agreement with Bohlin law (1975).
We know from Copernicus ultraviolet observations that all O-type stars are losing mass by stellar wind. The ionized expanding circumstellar envelope formed by the stellar wind is emitting through free-free and bound-free radiation processes. This radiation is detectable at the infrared wavelengths where the stellar continuum is negligible. The measurement of the IR excess (defined as the difference between the total flux and the stellar continuum at a given wavelength) and the knowledge of the terminal velocity of the envelope, allow us to derive for OB stars the mass loss rate. From the analysis of our IR observations of two O stars, HDE 226868 and HDE 245770, identified as optical counterpart of X-ray sources, we give an estimate of their mass loss rate. The IR observations were carried out with the Jungfraujoch 76 cm telescope using a GE bolometer with a focal plane chopping system and with the Merate 132 cm telescope using an InSb detector.
Recent VLA observations of the lobes of Cygnus A exhibit complex “filamentary” structures, with typical scale width ~ 1 arcsec (Dreher, Carilli and Perley, 1987, Perley, 1987). The filaments appear aligned with the magnetic field, as results from polarization measures, suggesting that the field may play a fundamental role in the process of their formation.
We propose a mechanism for the possible formation of these filaments based upon a thermal instability connected with synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. This type of instability was studied by Simon and Axford (1967), who discussed it in connection with the Crab Nebula filaments, and by Eilek and Caroff (1979), who generalized the previous study for application to quasar atmospheres.
Many instruments have been developed and validated to assess the stigma associated with mental disorders and its various domains across different populations. To our knowledge, the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) is the only validated questionnaire to analyse the presence of reported and intended stigmatising/discriminatory behaviours towards people with mental health problems in the general population. The aims of the study presented herein are to translate and validate the RIBS in Italian language and to adapt it to the Italian socio-cultural background (RIBS-I).
The RIBS considers reported and intended behaviours across four different domains: (1) living with, (2) working with, (3) living nearby and (4) continuing a relationship with someone with a mental health problem. The validation process included four phases: (1) translation/back translation of the questionnaire from English to Italian and vice versa; (2,3) face validity and reliability of RIBS-I; (4) description of model fit through confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of the general public via distribution in public places such as shopping centres, markets, squares, cinemas and other gathering places. Questionnaires were administered by trained mental health professionals.
A total of 447 lay respondents were recruited. The mean age was 38.08 (s.d. = ±14.74) years. Fifty-seven per cent of the sample (n = 257) were female. The Cronbach alpha of RIBS-I was 0.83. All indices of model fit were above the reference values: Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.987 (GFI > 0.9); Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) = 0.975 (AGFI > 0.9); Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.994 (CFI > 0.9); and Root-Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.023 (RMSEA < 0.05). The χ2 = 23.60 (df = 19; p = 0.21) and χ2/df = 1.24 supported the model.
The RIBS-I demonstrated good psychometric properties and it can be considered a useful tool to: (1) assess stigmatising (actual or potential) behaviours in the general population; (2) test the efficacy of anti-stigma campaigns and actions; (3) design further studies to better understand the relationship between the three different components of stigmatisation: knowledge, attitudes and behaviours.
Mental and substance use disorders are common and often persistent, with many emerging in early life. Compared to adult mental and substance use disorders, the global burden attributable to these disorders in children and youth has received relatively little attention.
Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 was used to investigate the burden of mental and substance disorders in children and youth aged 0–24 years. Burden was estimated in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), derived from the sum of years lived with disability (YLDs) and years of life lost (YLLs).
Globally, mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disability in children and youth, accounting for a quarter of all YLDs (54.2 million). In terms of DALYs, they ranked 6th with 55.5 million DALYs (5.7%) and rose to 5th when mortality burden of suicide was reattributed. While mental and substance use disorders were the leading cause of DALYs in high-income countries (HICs), they ranked 7th in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to mortality attributable to infectious diseases.
Mental and substance use disorders are significant contributors to disease burden in children and youth across the globe. As reproductive health and the management of infectious diseases improves in LMICs, the proportion of disease burden in children and youth attributable to mental and substance use disorders will increase, necessitating a realignment of health services in these countries.
In this paper we present an innovative on-chip platform suitable for the simultaneous manipulation and detection of the transit of a single magnetic bead. This system is based on the controlled displacement of constrained magnetic domain walls (DWs) that are used to move and sense particles in suspension over the chip. To this scope, the high stray field from the transverse DWs created at the corners of ferromagnetic zig-zag structures is used for particles manipulation, while electrical contacts flanking a single corner are employed to simultaneously monitor the DW passage through that corner, via anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) measurements. A single DW carrying a magnetic particle is nucleated and manipulated within the zig-zag shaped magnetic conduit, trough the action of external magnetic fields. At the same time, the variation of the voltage drop across a corner flanked by a pair of electrical leads is measured, allowing to detect the transit of the DW thanks to the change of the relative orientation of current and spins at the corner related to the peculiar micromagnetic configuration of the DW (AMR). Work is in progress in order to selectively distinguish the transit of a naked DW from that of a DW bound to a magnetic particle. This work paves the way to the development of a closed-loop microlfuidic platform for on-chip bead manipulation, where single bead can be finely moved and their motion continuously checked, via AMR electrical detection and without need of optical monitoring, in a fully integrated closed-loop system.