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Piglets can often suffer impaired antioxidant status and poor immune response during post-weaning, especially when chronic inflammation takes place, leading to lower growth rates than expected. Oral administration of dietary antioxidant compounds during this period could be a feasible way to balance oxidation processes and increase health and growth performance. The aim of the trial was to study the effects of an antioxidant feed supplement (melon pulp concentrate) that contains high concentration of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) on inflammation, antioxidant status and growth performance of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged weaned piglets. In total, 48 weaned piglets were individually allocated to four experimental groups in a 2×2 factorial design for 29 days. Two different dietary treatments were adopted: (a) control (CTR), fed a basal diet, (b) treatment (MPC), fed the basal diet plus 30 g/ton of melon pulp concentrate. On days 19, 21, 23 and 25 half of the animals within CTR and MPC groups were subjected to a challenge with intramuscular injections of an increasing dosage of LPS from Escherichia coli (serotype 0.55:B5) (+) or were injected with an equal amount of PBS solution (−). Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the trial and under the challenge period for interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor α, haptoglobin, plasma SOD activity, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species, red blood cells and plasma resistance to haemolysis, and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine. Growth performance was evaluated weekly. A positive effect of melon pulp concentrate was evidenced on total antioxidant capacity, half-haemolysis time of red blood cells, average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake, while LPS challenge increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and haptoglobin serum concentrations, with a reduced feed intake and gain : feed (G : F). The obtained results show that oral SOD supplementation with melon pulp concentrate ameliorates the total antioxidant capacity and the half-haemolysis time in red blood cell of post-weaning piglets, with positive results on growing performance.
At the QEII Health Sciences Centre Emergency Department (ED) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, advanced care paramedics (ACPs) perform procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) for many indications, including orthopedic procedures. We have begun using ACPs as sedationists for emergent upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. This study compares ACP-performed ED PSA for UGI endoscopy and orthopedic procedures in terms of adverse events, airway intervention, vasopressor requirement, and PSA medication use.
A data set was built from an ED PSA quality control database matching 61 UGI endoscopy PSAs to 183 orthopedic PSAs by propensity scores calculated using age, gender, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Outcomes assessed were hypotension (systolic BP<100 mm Hg or a 15% decrease from baseline), hypoxia (SaO2<90%), apnea (>30 sec), vomiting, arrhythmias, death, airway intervention, vasopressor requirement, and PSA medication use.
UGI endoscopy patients experienced hypotension more frequently than orthopedic patients (OR=4.11, CI: 2.05-8.22) and required airway repositioning less often (OR=0.24, CI: 0.10-0.59). They received ketamine more frequently (OR=15.7, CI: 4.75-67.7) and fentanyl less often (OR=0.30, CI: 0.15-0.63) than orthopedic patients. Four endoscopy patients received phenylephrine, and one required intubation. No patient died in either group.
In ACP-led sedation for UGI endoscopy and orthopedic procedures, adverse events were rare with the notable exception of hypotension, which was more frequent in the endoscopy group. Only endoscopy patients required vasopressor treatment and intubation. We provide preliminary evidence that ACPs can manage ED PSA for emergent UGI endoscopy, although priorities must shift from pain control to hemodynamic optimization.
Half the US population takes dietary supplements, but surveillance systems available to regulatory and public health authorities to determine whether specific dietary supplements present a risk are inadequate and numerous severe injuries and deaths have occurred from their consumption. Uniformed military personnel regularly use dietary supplements and are more likely to use potentially dangerous supplements than civilians. Recently, the supplement 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) was marketed for physical performance-enhancement and weight loss. However, after over 100 reports of illness attributed to DMAA, including six deaths, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning to cease its sale.
When DMAA was legal (2010–2011), we conducted, using convenience samples, supplement surveys of service members and determined prevalence of use and self-reported symptoms of DMAA use.
We surveyed 4374 armed forces personnel using a standardized dietary supplement survey administered by local health-care professionals.
Overall, 11 % of survey respondents used dietary supplements labelled as containing DMAA at least once/week. Regular users were over two times more likely to report tachycardia (P<0·0001), tremors (P<0·0001) and dizziness (P=0·0004), and over three times more likely to report numbness/tingling (P<0·0001) than non-users.
Military services could readily monitor adverse events associated with dietary supplements using electronic surveys and medical records. Since armed forces personnel are much more likely than civilians to use potentially dangerous dietary supplements like DMAA, near real-time surveillance of them using electronic surveys and medical records would provide early warning to regulatory agencies and the medical and public health communities when high-risk dietary supplements are introduced.
In the MEETINGDEM project, the Meeting Centers Support Program (MCSP) was adaptively implemented and evaluated in three European countries: Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate overall and country-specific facilitators and barriers to the implementation of MCSP in these European countries.
A qualitative multiple case study design was used. Based on the theoretical model of adaptive implementation, a checklist was composed of potential facilitators and barriers to the implementation of MCSP. This checklist was administered among stakeholders involved in the implementation of MCSP to trace the experienced facilitators and barriers. Twenty-eight checklists were completed.
Main similarities between countries were related to the presence of suitable staff, management, and a project manager, and the fact that the MCSP is attuned to needs and wishes of people with dementia and informal caregivers. Main differences between countries were related to: communication with potential referrers, setting up an inter-organizational collaboration network, receiving support of national organizations, having clear discharge criteria for the MCSP and continuous PR in the region.
The results of this study provide insight into generic and country specific factors that can influence the implementation of MCSP in different European countries. This study informs further implementation and dissemination of MCSP in Europe and may also serve as an example for the dissemination and implementation of other effective psychosocial support interventions for people with dementia and their informal caregivers across and beyond Europe.
In the last decades, a new awareness on human nutrition has increased and the concept of ‘food’ has changed from ‘source of nutrients for body’s needs’ to ‘health promoter’. Fruits and vegetables have always been considered beneficial for human health. More recent studies have demonstrated that bioactive components are also present in animal-derived foods, such as milk and dairy products. A broader concept of ‘nutritional safety’ implies the knowledge of how the nutrients contained in animal-derived foods positively affect human health, and how to increase their content. The improvement of dairy products fatty acid (FA) composition can involve strategies in animal nutrition. This review aims to discuss the role of FAs supplementation in ameliorating milk fat composition, environmental impact and animal health. In particular, we have focused on the role of n-3 and CLA FAs and how animal nutrition strategies can positively affect both human and animal health. Several studies have demonstrated that through adequate nutritional strategies is possible to manipulate and improve FA composition of milk and derived products (cheese). Moreover, feeding animals with n-3 FAs has proved to reduce emission of methane (CH4), but further nutritional strategies are needed in order to address this crucial environmental issue. In relation to animal health, n-3 FAs have been proved to modulate immune and inflammatory response in dairy ruminants. Recent studies have addressed the potential programming effects of increased maternal n-3 polyunsaturated FAs intake on offspring’s immune functions showing that feeding bioactive FAs to pregnant animals can affect progeny health status.
Introduction: Acute upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a relatively common emergency resulting in death in 6 to 8% of cases. UGI endoscopy is the intervention of choice which requires procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). The Halifax Infirmary emergency department (ED) performs 1000 PSAs annually, performed by advanced care paramedics (ACPs). This has been shown safe for other indications for PSA, such as orthopedic procedures. Considering that UGI endoscopy involves upper airway manipulation, and patients are at an increased risk of massive bleeding, this procedure would be expected to be more complex and have an increased risk of adverse events (AEs). This study aims to compare PSA for UGI endoscopy performed by ACPs to that for orthopedic procedures for AEs, airway intervention and medication use. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of an ACP-performed ED PSA quality control database. A dataset was built matching 64 UGI endoscopy PSAs to 192 orthopedic PSAs by propensity scores calculated using age, gender and ASA classification. Outcomes assessed were hypotension (SBP < 100, or 15% decrease from baseline), hypoxia (SaO2 < 90), apnea (> 30sec), vomiting, arrhythmias and death in the ED. The need for airway intervention and medication use was assessed. Results: The UGI endoscopy group was 4.60 times more likely to suffer hypotension than the orthopedic group (OR=4.6, CI:2.2-9.6), and a fifth as likely to require airway repositioning (OR=0.2, CI:0.1-0.5). One endoscopy patient required endotracheal intubation. No patient died in either group. Compared to the orthopedic group, the UGI endoscopy group was one-third as likely to receive fentanyl (OR=0.3, CI:0.2-0.6). When fentanyl was administered, endoscopy patients received an average 26.7 mcg less than orthopedic patients. The endoscopy group was 15.4 times more likely to receive ketamine (OR=15.4, CI:4.7-66.5), and received 34.4 mg less on average. Four endoscopy patients received phenylephrine compared to none in the orthopedic group. There were no other differences. Conclusion: ED PSA for UGI endoscopy appears to differ significantly from that performed for orthopedic procedures. It was associated with more frequent hypotension and increased use of ketamine as a sedative. Patients undergoing UGI endoscopy were less likely to receive fentanyl and require airway repositioning. Only patients in the endoscopy group required intubation or a vasopressor agent.
Although fertility rates are dependent on both sexes, this characteristic is most often associated with males. For example, the practice of spiking, in which males with undesirable characteristics are replaced with younger males, is often used to improve fertility rates. Dietary restrictions may offset genetic shortcomings to some extent, but nutritional deficiencies due to dietary restrictions may themselves reduce the efficiency of breeding systems. Thus, the challenge is to maintain rooster fertility even when they are receiving diets that meet the nutritional requirements for females. Subjective visual selection is often used for diagnosis of roosters as being unfit for reproduction, with those deemed as overweight or underweight, or those with too small a comb and/or too slightly pigmented, among other phenotypic parameters, being removed. Diagnosis of infertility may only be confirmed after sperm quality evaluation, with reliance on visual diagnosis often resulting in discarding of roosters suitable for reproduction but with unfavourable visual characters. This review aims to characterise reproductive management of roosters in Brazil, highlight aspects of their physiological and sperm quality parameters, and explore nutritional strategies that might contribute to extending their reproductive life.
We present a nano-patterning process for semiconducting polymeric composites that could potentially be utilized for the development of polymer-based data storage devices. Nano-patterning (writing) operates on the basis of the mechanical interaction between the electrically unbiased tip of an atomic force microscope and the surface of polymeric composite films. Via friction forces, the tip/sample interaction produces a local increase of molecular disorder in the polymer matrix, inducing a localized lowering in the conductivity of the organic semiconductor. Herein we suggest a figure of merit for quantifying the efficiency of pattern formation and we address the dependence of the writing process on the thermal annealing temperature of the composite film. Control experiments on composite films deposited on substrates with different roughness suggest that the writing effect is invariant to the roughness of the substrate. The potential storage density of the writing process depends on the tip curvature.
High-redshift quasars are unique probes of the evolution of supermassive black holes and the intergalactic medium at the end of the epoch of reionization. We present the optical spectra of eight new z ~ 6 quasars selected from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1). Details of the selection strategy can be found in Bañados et al. (2014). With this work we increase the number of known quasars at z < 5.7 by more than 10%. The quasars discovered here span a large range of luminosities (19.6 ≤ zP1 ≤ 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show weak or no Lyα emission line. We find a larger fraction of weak–line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies, although still based on low number statistics, this may imply that the quasar population could be more diverse than previously thought.
Since their discovery, four species of human bocavirus (HBoV) have been described in patients with respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. However, a clear causal association between HBoV-1 and gastroenteritis has not been demonstrated. In this study, we describe the detection and quantification of HBoV-1 in stools from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HBoV-1 genome was detected in 10·6% of stools with frequent association with rotavirus and norovirus. The median of HBoV-1 viral load was 1·88 × 104 genome/ml, lower than previously shown in secretions of patients with respiratory infections, without any obvious association between high viral load and presence of HBoV as single agent. Thus, although HBoV-1 was frequently detected in these patients, there is no clear causal association of this agent with diarrhoea. Indeed, HBoV-1 DNA in stools of patients with gastroenteritis without respiratory symptoms may be a remnant of previous infections or associated with prolonged shedding of virus in the respiratory or digestive tracts.
Increasing irrigation efficiency is a major goal for fruit production in dry Mediterranean environments. The present study was conducted in three consecutive years (2007–09) under typical Mediterranean conditions and tested the effect of partial rootzone drying (PRD) on yield and fruit quality of two apple cultivars: Gala, with fruit maturing in summer and Fuji, with fruit maturing in autumn. Three irrigation treatments were imposed: conventional irrigation (CI), PRD (0·50 of CI water on one side of the rootzone, which was alternated periodically) and continuous deficit irrigation (DI, 0·50 of CI water on both sides of the rootzone). During the 2008 and 2009 irrigation seasons, DI reduced tree water status, and to some extent soil moisture, compared with CI and PRD. In all the years and both cultivars, DI reduced crop load by 11 and 5% over CI and PRD, respectively. In cvar Fuji, DI reduced production per tree by 9% and yield efficiency by 16% compared with CI. In all years for cvar Gala and in 2 of the 3 years for cvar Fuji, PRD and DI increased fruit soluble solid content by 5–6%, whereas PRD improved peel colour only in cvar Fuji and in 2 of the 3 years. In cvar Gala, DI fruit showed 27% more sorbitol and 55% more sucrose than PRD fruit. In both cultivars, PRD determined greater marketable yield and profit than DI. Irrigation water productivity (IWP) was increased by both PRD and DI, and in Fuji, PRD induced 18% greater IWP than DI. The different responses of the two cultivars to irrigation treatments can be attributed to differences in canopy size, crop load and mostly to the different timing of fruit growth. In particular, undergoing fast fruit growth during the irrigation period seems to induce permanent yield reductions in DI (but not PRD) trees of cvar Fuji, whereas water deficit during late fruit growth and lower crop load may have cancelled the negative effect of DI in the smaller trees of cvar Gala.
The effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD) and rootstock vigour on dry matter accumulation and partitioning among leaves, shoots, fruits, frame and roots of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. cvar Pink Lady) were investigated in 2005 near Caltavuturo, in Sicily. In a first field trial, trees on MM.106 rootstock were subjected to: conventional irrigation (CI), maintaining soil moisture above 0·80 of field capacity; PRD irrigation, where alternating sides of the rootzone received 0·50 of the CI irrigation water; and continuous deficit irrigation (DI), where 0·50 of the CI water was equally applied to both sides of the rootzone. In a second trial, trees on M.9 or MM.106 were subjected to CI and PRD irrigation. In trial 1, dry matter accumulation was markedly reduced by DI irrigation and to a lesser extent by PRD; PRD trees partitioned 20% less to leaves, 31% less to fruits and 24% more to woody components than CI trees; DI trees partitioned 14% less to current shoots and 18% more to fruits than CI and had the highest fruit:leaf ratio. In trial 2, there was no interaction between rootstock and irrigation treatments. MM.106 induced greater leaf, shoot, frame and root dry weights (DWs) than M.9, resulting in more vegetative growth and larger trees. PRD reduced leaf, shoot, frame and fruit DWs, while root DWs were similar to CI, and thus PRD trees were 18% smaller than CI trees. Neither rootstock nor irrigation affected dry matter partitioning among organs or root:canopy ratio, whereas PRD trees or trees on MM.106 showed better water use efficiency than CI and M.9, respectively. The results show that PRD trees did not activate drought tolerance strategies in terms of dry matter allocation that could improve acquisition of water resources, regardless of rootstock. PRD irrigation increased above-ground dry matter partitioning towards woody components at the expense of leaves and fruits.
We investigate the relationships among all currently known X-ray structures of crystalline pentacene by calculating their “inherent” structures of minimum potential energy. We are thus able to show that two distinct bulk crystalline phases of pentacene exist, with very subtle but clear di.erences. We then assess the effects of temperature on the crystal structures, by including both inter- molecular and low-frequency intra-molecular phonons in the framework of quasi harmonic lattice dynamics methods. In this way we properly reproduce the experimental thermal expansion, and obtain a reliable description of the phonon dynamics and of its temperature dependence. The calculated phonon frequencies compare well with the experimental Raman spectrum.
We analysed a large series of axillary lymph nodes, with and without metastases following radical mastectomy for breast cancer. We found left/right asymmetry in numbers of lymph nodes, and also asymmetry of lymph node dimensions, which could have been the caused by tumoral antigenic stimulation. The distribution of hyperplastic node patterns differed significantly.
We investigate the existence of MHD leaky waves in compressible
plasmas. We consider perturbations of complex frequency in a slab
three layers. We develop a general method that includes the ‘cubic
well as other kinds of leaky waves, and allows us to derive many results in
closed form. There are several physical mechanisms that
can produce leakage.
We give two numerical examples to exhibit the different behaviours that can
arise. Finally we comment on the connection of the present
results with those
obtained by other authors, and correct some errors.
We assessed total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) in thirty-four non-ascitic cirrhotics and twenty healthy controls by 2H2O and Br dilution. In the same subjects, bioelectric impedance (BI) was recorded at multiple frequencies. Body hydration was similar for controls (mean 55·6 (SD 6·7)), less-severe cirrhotics (Child-Pugh classification A; CPA; n 21, mean 56·2 (SD 6·2)) and moderately-severe cirrhotics (Child-Pugh classification B; CPB; n 13, mean 57·2 (SD 5·4)). However, intracellular water standardized per litre TBW was significantly higher in CPB subjects (mean 27·0 (SD 7·5); P<0·01) compared with CPA (mean 21·3 (SD 10·6)) and control subjects (mean 18·0 (SD 9·8)). Published formulas for predicting TBW and ECW from BI at multiple frequencies were applied to the cirrhotics. These formulas gave accurate predictions of TBW and ECW, although standard errors of estimates were higher for CPB subjects (TBW ≤ 2·5 and ECW ≤ 2·11) than those for CPA (TBW ≤ 2·0 and ECW ≤ 1·81) and control (TBW 1·4 and ECW 0·9 1) subjects