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This combined numerical/laboratory study investigates the effect of stratification form on the shoaling characteristics of internal solitary waves propagating over a smooth, linear topographic slope. Three stratification types are investigated, namely (i) thin tanh (homogeneous upper and lower layers separated by a thin pycnocline), (ii) surface stratification (linearly stratified layer overlaying a homogeneous lower layer) and (iii) broad tanh (continuous density gradient throughout the water column). It is found that the form of stratification affects the breaking type associated with the shoaling wave. In the thin tanh stratification, good agreement is seen with past studies. Waves over the shallowest slopes undergo fission. Over steeper slopes, the breaking type changes from surging, through collapsing to plunging with increasing wave steepness $A_w/L_w$ for a given topographic slope, where $A_w$ and $L_w$ are incident wave amplitude and wavelength, respectively. In the surface stratification regime, the breaking classification differs from the thin tanh stratification. Plunging dynamics is inhibited by the density gradient throughout the upper layer, instead collapsing-type breakers form for the equivalent location in parameter space in the thin tanh stratification. In the broad tanh profile regime, plunging dynamics is likewise inhibited and the near-bottom density gradient prevents the collapsing dynamics. Instead, all waves either fission or form surging breakers. As wave steepness in the broad tanh stratification increases, the bolus formed by surging exhibits evidence of Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities on its upper boundary. In both two- and three-dimensional simulations, billow size grows with increasing wave steepness, dynamics not previously observed in the literature.
Cardiac intensivists frequently assess patient readiness to wean off mechanical ventilation with an extubation readiness trial despite it being no more effective than clinician judgement alone. We evaluated the utility of high-frequency physiologic data and machine learning for improving the prediction of extubation failure in children with cardiovascular disease.
This was a retrospective analysis of clinical registry data and streamed physiologic extubation readiness trial data from one paediatric cardiac ICU (12/2016-3/2018). We analysed patients’ final extubation readiness trial. Machine learning methods (classification and regression tree, Boosting, Random Forest) were performed using clinical/demographic data, physiologic data, and both datasets. Extubation failure was defined as reintubation within 48 hrs. Classifier performance was assessed on prediction accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.
Of 178 episodes, 11.2% (N = 20) failed extubation. Using clinical/demographic data, our machine learning methods identified variables such as age, weight, height, and ventilation duration as being important in predicting extubation failure. Best classifier performance with this data was Boosting (prediction accuracy: 0.88; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.74). Using physiologic data, our machine learning methods found oxygen saturation extremes and descriptors of dynamic compliance, central venous pressure, and heart/respiratory rate to be of importance. The best classifier in this setting was Random Forest (prediction accuracy: 0.89; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.75). Combining both datasets produced classifiers highlighting the importance of physiologic variables in determining extubation failure, though predictive performance was not improved.
Physiologic variables not routinely scrutinised during extubation readiness trials were identified as potential extubation failure predictors. Larger analyses are necessary to investigate whether these markers can improve clinical decision-making.
The Mormon cricket (MC), Anabrus simplex Haldeman, 1852 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), has a long and negative history with agriculture in Utah and other western states of the USA. Most A. simplex populations migrate in large groups, and their feeding can cause significant damage to forage plants and cultivated crops. Chemical pesticides are often applied, but some settings (e.g. habitats of threatened and endangered species) call for non-chemical control measures. Studies in Africa, South America, and Australia have assessed certain isolates of Metarhizium acridum as very promising pathogens for Orthoptera: Acrididae (locust) biocontrol. In the current study, two isolates of Metarhizium robertsii, one isolate of Metarhizium brunneum, one isolate of Metarhizium guizhouense, and three isolates of M. acridum were tested for infectivity to MC nymphs and adults of either sex. Based on the speed of mortality, M. robertsii (ARSEF 23 and ARSEF 2575) and M. brunneum (ARSEF 7711) were the most virulent to instars 2 to 5 MC nymphs. M. guizhouense (ARSEF 7847) from Arizona was intermediate and the M. acridum isolates (ARSEF 324, 3341, and 3609) were the slowest killers. ARSEF 2575 was also the most virulent to instar 6 and 7 nymphs and adults of MC. All of the isolates at the conidial concentration of 1 × 107 conidia ml−1 induced approximately 100% mortality by 6 days post application of fungal conidia. In conclusion, isolates ARSEF 23, ARSEF 2575, and ARSEF 7711 acted most rapidly to kill MC under laboratory conditions. The M. acridum isolates, however, have much higher tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation, which may be critical to their successful use in field application.
Ecclesiastical courts were rightly seen by nineteenth-century thinkers as a closed shop, a court system separate from the general court system which had its own proctors, advocates and judges. These courts had jurisdiction over the laity in a number of matters such as marriage, burial and probate of wills, though this changed during the century. The chapter describes the attempts at reform, and the difficulties with discipline of the laity as well as clergy that were addressed in the course of legislative change. Appeal lay with the secular courts and here too lay problems, where the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council served as the final court of appeal
The Conclusion looks at what has happened from the twentieth century onwards, with social change affecting the relationship between Parliament and the Church of England. It traces the history of increasing lay involvement in a society that is growing ever more multicultural and multifaith. The Church of England has entered actively into ecumenical dialogue and inter-church cooperation. The wording of the liturgy has been modernised. The Conclusion looks at a series of attempts, still in train, to make more satisfactory provision for clergy discipline. It reviews the changes in property law as it affects the Church of England and modern Faculty jurisdiction. Parliament now exercises only a light touch in the making of the Church’s legislation.
This chapter sets the social and ecclesiastical scene. It introduces the place of ecclesiastical law in the law of England. It explores the changing place of the Church of England in the life of the nation from the early nineteenth century, the role of the universities in educating future clergy and the significant place of the bishops in political as well as pastoral and spiritual leadership. It describes the need for more churches as the Industrial Revolution took a growing proportion of the population from the country into the towns. It introduces the challenge of the Dissenters with their rival chapels and the complexities of applying ecclesiastical law when there were controversies.
Nineteenth-century England had a large population of Christians who did not belong to the Church of England, and a proportion of Jews, though as yet almost no Muslims. The civic position of Jews had partly improved by this time. There was growing interest in the problems presented by what would now be thought of as ‘ecumenical relations’, with the first Lambeth Conferences giving the matter consideration, though excluding the Roman Catholics. This chapter explores the relationships between the main categories of non-Anglican Protestant Christians, including the ways in which they might be regarded as being part of the Church, that is, having an authentic ecclesial identity. The refusal of the Friends (Quakers) to take oaths was accommodated and the rights of Roman Catholics were thought through, with particular reference to Ireland. Dissenting academies were providing an excellent higher education. Problems were arising about the payment of clerical income and the costs of maintaining churches because non-Anglicans resented having to make a contribution.
This chapter discusses a series of high-profile cases in which significant disputes arose involving the application of ecclesiastical law. It begins with Parliament’s debates on its role and authority in this area as it attempted more than once to frame legislation for clergy discipline and the discussions in Convocation. It considers the Gompertz case, raising questions about the role of the bishop; the contrasting churchmanships of Evangelicals and Tractarians; and the controversy about biblical interpretation prompted by the publication of Essays and Reviews. The case of James Shore tested the law on the effect of a clergyman’s finding his opinions had changed to such an extent that he was no longer a member of the Church of England, while still effectively retaining his Anglican priesthood. The chapter also covers the cases of William Bennett and the ‘real presence’, and George Denison’s lengthy dispute with the Bishop of Exeter on the effect of baptism. It ends with the case of Alexander Mackonochie and controversy over the regulation of public worship.
This chapter turns to the experiences of the laity when they found themselves in ecclesiastical courts in disputes over marriage, wills and burial, disorderly behaviour, or unacceptable use of language: speech crimes: brawling, defamation and blasphemy. It looks at examples of the costs and consequences to the laity of finding themselves in ecclesiastical courts, and the role of the debtors’ prisons.
This chapter explores the history and extent of the jurisdiction of Parliament over the ecclesiastical law of the Church of England and the role of bishops sitting as members of the House of Lords, some of them prominent and controversial. Among the ecclesiastical lawyers were several who served as Members of Parliament. The nineteenth century saw the revival of Convocation, the Church’s own Parliament, and the chapter follows it in its efforts to re-establish itself. The Church owned a great deal of property, and lay property holders had opportunities to exploit their rights to the gift of clerical livings. There were accusations of simony. In both contexts there were property disputes. All this sharpened the long-standing question of the relationship between temporalities which were the proper business of secular law and the spiritualities which were not.