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Discussions exist in the literature concerning the application of single x-ray diffraction profile analysis to determine the average particle size, particle size distribution and root mean squared strain in catalytic systems. Nandi et al. have shown that the single order analysis can give erroneous strain results and is subject to error in the large particle size range. They further indicated that the initial slope of Stokes corrected Fourier coefficients gives more reliable average p article size than that which is calculated from single order peak shape analysis. There is apparent agreement that the average particle size and the particle size distribution measured by single order profile analysis, in small metal particle systems, are reliable.
We report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.
A 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.
Active surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. We compared the ability of WGS and emm typing to correctly identify person-to-person transmission and to guide the management of the outbreak.
The study included 204 patients and 152 staff. We identified 35 patients and 2 staff members with S. pyogenes. WGS revealed polyclonal S. pyogenes infections with 3 genetically distinct phylogenetic clusters (C1–C3). Cluster C1 isolates were all emm type 4, sequence type 915 and had pairwise SNP differences of 0–5, which suggested recent person-to-person transmissions. Epidemiological investigation revealed that cluster C1 was mediated by dermal colonization and transmission of S. pyogenes in a male residential ward. Clusters C2 and C3 were genomically diverse, with pairwise SNP differences of 21–45 and 26–58, and emm 11 and mostly emm120, respectively. Clusters C2 and C3, which may have been considered person-to-person transmissions by emm typing, were shown by WGS to be unlikely by integrating pairwise SNP differences with epidemiology.
WGS had higher resolution than emm typing in identifying clusters with recent and ongoing person-to-person transmissions, which allowed implementation of targeted intervention to control the outbreak.
The generalized theory of terawatt laser pulse interaction with a low-dense porous substance of light chemical elements including laser light absorption and energy transfer in a wide region of parameter variation is developed on the base of the model of laser-supported hydrothermal wave in a partially homogenized plasma. Laser light absorption, hydrodynamic motion, and electron thermal conductivity are implemented in the hydrodynamic code, according to the degree of laser-driven homogenization of the laser-produced plasma. The results of numerical simulations obtained by using the hydrodynamic code are presented. The features of laser-supported hydrothermal wave in both possible cases of a porous substance with a density smaller and larger than critical plasma density are discussed along with the comparison with the experiments. The results are addressed to the development of design of laser thermonuclear target as well as and powerful neutron and X-ray sources.
Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) equipment has been used to analyze impurities in polar ice. A customized sample holder has been developed and the μXRF equipment has been adapted with a thermal control system to keep samples unaltered during analyses. Artificial ice samples prepared from ultra-pure water were analyzed to investigate possible contamination and/or experimental artefacts. Analyses of polar ice from Antarctica (Dome C and Vostok) confirm this μXRF technique is non-destructive and sensitive. Experiments can be reproduced to confirm or refine results by focusing on interesting spots such as crystal grain boundaries or specific inclusions. Integration times and resolution can be adjusted to optimize sensitivity. Investigation of unstable particles is possible due to the short analysis time. In addition to identification of elements in impurities, μXRF is able to determine their speciations. The accuracy and reliability of the results confirm the potential of this technique for research in glaciology.
Pellets made of pure sodalite blended with commercial glass frit and pellets made
of sodalite, glass frit and a mixture of chloride salts, synthesized through dry
pressing and subsequent thermal treatment, were evaluated as a potential matrix
for confinement of spent chloride salts coming from pyroprocesses. The sodalite
pellets were leached at 23°C and 90°C for 28 days, according
to the ASTM C1220-10 procedure. Normalized release rates were estimated for the
following elements: Li, Na, Al, Si, K, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, La, Nd and compared with
literature results. SEM investigations, carried out before and after the
leaching tests, show dissolution and re-precipitation phenomena at
e-ASTROGAM is a gamma-ray observatory operating in a broad energy range, 0.15 MeV – 3 GeV, recently proposed as the M5 Medium-size mission of the European Space Agency. It has the potential to revolutionize the astronomy of medium-energy gamma-rays by increasing the number of known sources in this domain by more than an order of magnitude and providing gamma-ray polarization information for many of these sources. In these proceedings, we discuss the expected capacity of the mission to study the physics of supernovae, both thermonuclear and core-collapse, as well as the origin of cosmic rays in SN shocks.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole dried citrus pulp (DCP) on the antioxidant status of lamb tissues. In total, 17 lambs were divided into two groups and fed for 56 days: a barley-based concentrate diet (CON – eight animals), or a concentrate-based diet including 35% DCP to partially replace barley (CIT – nine animals). The CIT diet contained a double concentration of phenolic compounds than the CON diet (7.9 v. 4.0 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively), but had no effect (P>0.05) on the overall antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic fraction of blood plasma, liver and muscle. The CIT diet contained clearly more α-tocopherol than the CON diet (45.7 v. 10.3 mg/kg DM), which could explain the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in liver, plasma and muscle (P<0.05). The dietary treatment had no effect on the extent of lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances assay (TBARS values) in the faeces, small intestine, liver, plasma and muscle. Nevertheless, when muscle homogenates were incubated in the presence of Fe3+/ascorbate to induce lipid peroxidation, the muscle from lambs fed DCP displayed lower TBARS values (P<0.01), which negatively correlated with the concentration of α-tocopherol in muscle. These results showed that feeding whole DCP to ruminants increases the antioxidant status of muscle through an increase in the deposition of α-tocopherol.
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers (Re) of 550, 1000 and 1500 are used to analyse the turbulent production, transfer and dissipation mechanisms in the compound space of scales and wall distances by means of the Kolmogorov equation generalized to inhomogeneous anisotropic flows. Two distinct peaks of scale-energy source are identified. The first, stronger one, belongs to the near-wall cycle. Its location in the space of scales and physical space is found to scale in viscous units, while its intensity grows slowly with
, indicating a near-wall modulation. The second source peak is found further away from the wall in the putative overlap layer, and it is separated from the near-wall source by a layer of significant scale-energy sink. The dynamics of the second outer source appears to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds number. The detailed scale-by-scale analysis of this source highlights well-defined features that are used to make the properties of the outer turbulent source independent of Reynolds number and wall distance by rescaling the problem. Overall, the present results suggest a strong connection of the observed outer scale-energy source with the presence of an outer region of turbulence production whose mechanisms are well separated from the near-wall region and whose statistical features agree with the hypothesis of an overlap layer dominated by attached eddies. Inner–outer interactions between the near-wall and outer source region in terms of scale-energy fluxes are also analysed. It is conjectured that the near-wall modulation of the statistics at increasing Reynolds number can be related to a confinement of the near-wall turbulence production due to the presence of increasingly large production scales in the outer scale-energy source region.
The development of high-intensity lasers has opened the field of nuclear reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particles. One possible application is the production of aneutronic fusion reactions for clean fusion energy production. We propose an innovative scheme based on the use of two targets and present the first results obtained with the ELFIE facility (at the LULI Laboratory) for the proton–boron-11 (p–11B) fusion reaction. A proton beam, accelerated by the Target Normal Sheat Acceleration mechanism using a short laser pulse (12 J, 350 fs, 1.056 µm, 1019 W cm−2), is sent onto a boron target to initiate fusion reactions. The number of reactions is measured with particle diagnostics such as CR39 track-detectors, active nuclear diagnostic, Thomson Parabola, magnetic spectrometer, and time-of-flight detectors that collect the fusion products: the α-particles. Our experiment shows promising results for this scheme. In the present paper, we discuss its principle and advantages compared with another scheme that uses a single target and heating mechanisms directly with photons to initiate the same p–11B fusion reaction.
As a major foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter is frequently isolated from food sources of animal origin. In contrast, human Campylobacter illness is relatively rare, but has a considerable health burden due to acute enteric illness as well as severe sequelae. To study silent transmission, serum antibodies can be used as biomarkers to estimate seroconversion rates, as a proxy for infection pressure. This novel approach to serology shows that infections are much more common than disease, possibly because most infections remain asymptomatic. This study used antibody titres measured in serum samples collected from healthy subjects selected randomly in the general population from several countries in the European Union (EU). Estimates of seroconversion rates to Campylobacter were calculated for seven countries: Romania, Poland, Italy, France, Finland, Denmark and The Netherlands. Results indicate high infection pressures in all these countries, slightly increasing in Eastern EU countries. Of these countries, the differences in rates of notified illnesses are much greater, with low numbers in France and Poland, possibly indicating lower probability of detection due to differences in the notification systems, but in the latter case it cannot be excluded that more frequent exposure confers better protection due to acquired immunity.
Theoretical evaluation of stability and efficiency of two-junction two-terminal amorphous tandem solar cells is performed using an analytical model which takes into account not only optical characteristics and transport properties but also photodegradation effects due to dangling bond formation under light exposure.
Requirements for material quality and device design are particularly investigated.
The thermal stresses induced by temperature variations that exist during steady-state Czochralski growth produce plastic deformations in the crystal by dislocation motion and generation. The temperature variations in the crystal are calculated numerically by the finite element method (FEM). Employing the Haasen-Sumino viscoplastic response function for silicon and the calculated temperature profile, the thermal stresses, the dislocation densities, and the residual stresses in the crystal are also calculated. Only low dislocation densities are of interest and hence the associated viscoplastic deformations are found to be small. The assumption is made that there is a very low dislocation density along the solid-melt interface. The Haasen-Sumino material model is modified to include a back-stress to account for the locking effects due to the impurity concentration in the crystal. This analysis provides guidance for growing large diameter crystal of materials with known constitutive relations which have a low dislocation density and low thermal stresses.
The morphology of nickel-containing phases at each stage during the treatment of a 12%Ni/SiO2 catalyst was studied. Liquid impregnated catalyst initially shows nickel nitrate uniformly dispersed on the surface of the silica in the form of a film. After calcining, large rafts of NiO with faceted surface pits are seen. The reduced catalyst contains bunched nickel particles or large rafts on the surface of the silica.
Two different methods have been used to synthesize sodalite for conditioning of chloride salt wastes coming from pyroprocesses: the first one, starting from kaolinite through the intermediate nepheline phase; the second one, starting from silica and sodium aluminate reagents, directly. The obtained products have been characterized by means of several analyses. In particular, different instrumental techniques – stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEMEDS), density measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, X-rays diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy – were performed revealing that the synthesis from kaolinite is the best method, provided that rigorous conditions are followed. The use of an argon atmosphere for the preparation of pellets of reagents is strictly necessary for the obtainment of a good quality product.
This work was aimed at decreasing the glycaemic index (GI) of white wheat bread. Breads made with wheat flour (WF) or wholemeal flour (WMF) and fermented with baker's yeast had similar values of resistant starch (RS; 1·4–1·7 %, starch basis). Sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum P1 and Lactobacillus brevis P2 favoured the highest formation of RS (approximately 5 %) when fermented with WF and WMF. The mixture (1:1) of WF and WMF (WF/WMF) was selected. The effect of dietary fibres, chemical or sourdough acidification on the hydrolysis index (HI) of WF/WMF bread was determined. Among fibres, only the addition of oat fibre (5 %) decreased the HI to 90·84 %. Lactic acid determined the lowest HI, and the effect was related to the decrease of pH. For the same decrease of pH, breads fermented with L. plantarum P1 and L. brevis P2 (sourdough WF/WMF) showed values of HI lower than chemical acidification. The glucose response and GI of WF bread or sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre was determined by using fifteen healthy volunteers. Anhydrous glucose was used as reference. The area under the glucose response curve and the value of GI (72 %) of WF bread were significantly (P < 0·05) higher than sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre (GI = 53·7 %). The decrease of GI of the sourdough WF/WMF bread may be due to both fibre content and decreased pH. Compared to WMF bread, sourdough WF/WMF bread, enriched with oat fibre, had higher specific volume, better cell crumb structure and more appreciated acidulous smell, taste and aroma.
Four semi-hard Italian goats' milk cheeses, Flor di Capra (FC), Caprino di Cavalese (CC), Caprino di Valsassina (CV) and Capritilla (C), were compared for compositional, microbiological, biochemical, volatile profile and sensory characteristics. Mean values for the gross composition in part differed between cheeses. At the end of ripening, cheeses contained 7·98−8·51 log10 cfu/g of non-starter lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were dominant in almost all cheeses. As shown by the Principal Component Analysis of RP-FPLC data for the pH 4·6-soluble fractions and by the determination of free amino acids, secondary proteolysis of CC and CV mainly differed from the other two cheeses. A total of 72 volatile components were identified by steam distillation-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free fatty acids and esters qualitatively and quantitatively differentiated the profile of CV and CC, respectively. The lowest concentrations of volatile components characterized FC. Descriptive sensory analysis using 17 flavour attributes was carried out by a trained panel. Different flavour attributes distinguished the four goats' cheeses and relationships were found with volatile components, biochemical characteristics and technology.
A case of intestinal anisakiasis caused by Anisakis sp. larva type I in a woman from Italy who consumed raw marinated anchovies, is reported. The diagnosis was based on the morphological features characteristic of anisakid larval stages, which were readily recognized in a large granuloma removed after emergency surgical treatment.
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were utilized to
express Rev-binding sequences inside the nucleolus and
to test whether they are substrates for Rev binding and
transport. We show that U16 snoRNA containing the minimal
binding site for Rev stably accumulates inside the nucleolus
maintaining the interaction with the basic C/D snoRNA-specific
factors. Upon Rev expression, the chimeric RNA is exported
to the cytoplasm, where it remains bound to Rev in a particle
devoid of snoRNP-specific factors. These data indicate that
Rev can elicit the functions of RNA binding and transport
inside the nucleolus.
An interesting recent paper by Falk and Kaufmann notes, with an element of surprise, that the percentile bootstrap applied to construct confidence intervals for quantiles produces two-sided intervals with coverage error of size n−½, where n denotes sample size. By way of contrast, the error would be O(n−1) for two-sided intervals in more classical problems, such as intervals for means or variances. In the present note we point out that the relatively poor performance in the case of quantiles is shared by a variety of related procedures. The coverage accuracy of two-sided bootstrap intervals may be improved to o(n−½) by smoothing the bootstrap. We show too that a normal approximation method, not involving the bootstrap but incorporating a density estimator as part of scale estimation, can have coverage error O(n−1+∈), for arbitrarily small ∈ > 0. Smoothed and unsmoothed versions of bootstrap percentile-t are also analysed.