When argon gas is injected into the caster moulds, the similarity between water models and
actual casting conditions comes into question. This is why LTV decided to investigate new
technologies. The paper presents these technologies and discusses the programme results.
PIV is a powerful laser-based technology that was used on the LTV 0.4 and full-scale water
models to determine water velocities. MFC sensors are magnetic sensors that were installed on
the LTV Cleveland-East 2-strand slab caster to measure actual liquid steel velocities. In addition,
nails boards, X-ray and SEM analyses were extensively used to determine molten slag layer
thickness profiles during casting, gas bubbles/pinholes location and steel defect composition,