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In this paper we derive sufficient conditions for the permanence and ergodicity of a stochastic predator–prey model with a Beddington–DeAngelis functional response. The conditions obtained are in fact very close to the necessary conditions. Both nondegenerate and degenerate diffusions are considered. One of the distinctive features of our results is that they enable the characterization of the support of a unique invariant probability measure. It proves the convergence in total variation norm of the transition probability to the invariant measure. Comparisons to the existing literature and matters related to other stochastic predator–prey models are also given.
Approximately one in three patients with a successful epilepsy surgery will have seizure recurrence following antiepileptic drugs (AED) withdrawal. The value of postoperative testing for predicting seizure relapse after AED tapering is not clear. The purpose of this study was to review the literature for evidence on the use of postoperative investigations before AED discontinuation after successful epilepsy surgery. We were unable to identify studies on the prognostic value of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and AED blood levels. The literature review yielded seven studies on the predictive value of electroencephalography. Four studies found no association between interictal discharges (IED) and seizure relapse. These studies suffered from various limitations due to their retrospective design and generally small cohorts. Two of the three studies reporting a positive association were prospective and provided strong evidence of an increased risk of seizure recurrence with presence of postoperative IED in successfully operated patients undergoing AED withdrawal.
Epilepsy is a common medical condition for which physicians perform driver fitness assessments. The Canadian Medical association (CMA) and the Canadian Council of Motor transportation administrators (CCMTA) publish documents to guide Canadian physicians’ driver fitness assessments.
We aimed to measure the consistency of driver fitness counseling among epileptologists in Canada, and to determine whether inconsistencies between national guidelines are associated with greater variability in counseling instructions.
We surveyed 35 epileptologists in Canada (response rate 71%) using a questionnaire that explored physicians’ philosophies about driver fitness assessments and counseling practices of seizure patients in common clinical scenarios. Of the nine scenarios, CCMTA and CMA recommendations were concordant for only two. Cumulative agreement for all scenarios was calculated using Kappa statistic. Agreement for concordant (two) vs. discordant (seven) scenarios were split at the median and analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test.
Overall the agreement between respondents for the clinical scenarios was not acceptable (Kappa=0.28). For the two scenarios where CMa and CCMta guidelines were concordant, specialists had high levels of agreement with recommendations (89% each). A majority of specialists disagreed with CMa recommendations in three of seven discordant scenarios. The lack of consistency in respondents’ agreement attained statistical significance (p<0.001).
Canadian epileptologists have variable counseling practices about driving, and this may be attributable to inconsistencies between CMa and CCMta medical fitness guidelines. This study highlights the need to harmonize driving recommendations in order to prevent physician and patient confusion about driving fitness in Canada.
The effects of dc chuck self-bias and high density source power (which predominantly control ion energy and ion flux, respectively) on the electrical properties of n-GaN Schottky diodes exposed to Inductively Coupled Plasma of Cl2/Ar were examined. Both parameters were found to influence the diode performance, by reducing the reverse breakdown voltage and Schottky barrier height. All plasma conditions were found to produce a nitrogen-deficient surface, with a typical depth of the non-stoichiometry being ∼ 500 Å. Post-etch annealing was found to partially restore the diode characteristics.
Different ions (Ti+, O+, Fe+, Cr+) were implanted at multiple energies into GaN field effect transistor structures (n and p-type). The implantation was found to create deep states with energy levels in the range EC −0.20 to 0.49 eV in n-GaN and at EV +0.44 eV in p-GaN after annealing at 450-650 °C. The sheet resistance of the GaN was at a maximum after annealing at these temperatures, reaching values of ∼4×1012 Ω/□ in n-GaN and ∼1010 Ω/□ in p-GaN. The mechanism for the implant isolation was damage-related trap formation for all of the ions investigated, and there was no evidence of chemically induced isolation.
Mesa and planar geometry GaN Schottky rectifiers were fabricated on 3-12µm thick epitaxial layers. In planar diodes utilizing resistive GaN, a reverse breakdown voltage of 3.1 kV was achieved in structures containing p-guard rings and employing extension of the Schottky contact edge over an oxide layer. In devices without edge termination, the reverse breakdown voltage was 2.3 kV. Mesa diodes fabricated on conducting GaN had breakdown voltages in the range 200-400 V, with on-state resistances as low as 6m Ω·cm−2.
Undoped, 4µm thick GaN layers grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition were used for fabrication of high stand off voltage (356 V) Schottky diode rectifiers. The figure of merit VRB2/RON, where VRB is the reverse breakdown voltage and RON is the on-resistance, was ~ 4.53 MW-cm−2 at 25°C. The reverse breakdown voltage displayed a negative temperature coefficient, due to an increase in carrier concentration with increasing temperature. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurements showed that Si and O were the most predominant electrically active impurities present in the GaN.
We describe the characteristics of a series of thin film tin oxide films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire substrates over a range of flux and substrate temperature conditions. A mixture of both SnO2 and SnO are detected in several films, with the amount depending on growth conditions, most particularly the substrate temperature. Electrical measurements were not possible on all samples due to roughness related issues with contacting, but at least one film exhibited p-type characteristics depending on measurement conditions, and one sample exhibited significant persistent photoconductivity upon ultraviolet excitation in a metal-semiconductor-metal device structure.
The effects of dc chuck self-bias and high density source power (which predominantly control ion energy and ion flux, respectively) on the electrical properties of n-GaN Schottky diodes exposed to Inductively Coupled Plasma of Cl2/Ar were examined. Both parameters were found to influence the diode performance, by reducing the reverse breakdown voltage and Schottky barrier height. All plasma conditions were found to produce a nitrogen-deficient surface, with a typical depth of the non-stoichiometry being ∼500 Å. Post-etch annealing was found to partially restore the diode characteristics.
Mesa and planar geometry GaN Schottky rectifiers were fabricated on 3-12µm thick epitaxial layers. In planar diodes utilizing resistive GaN, a reverse breakdown voltage of 3.1 kV was achieved in structures containing p-guard rings and employing extension of the Schottky contact edge over an oxide layer. In devices without edge termination, the reverse breakdown voltage was 2.3 kV. Mesa diodes fabricated on conducting GaN had breakdown voltages in the range 200-400 V, with on-state resistances as low as 6m Ωcm−2.
Different ions (Ti+, O+, Fe+, Cr+) were implanted at multiple energies into GaN field effect transistor structures (n and p-type). The implantation was found to create deep states with energy levels in the range EC –0.20 to 0.49 eV in n-GaN and at EV +0.44 eV in p-GaN after annealing at 450-650 oC. The sheet resistance of the GaN was at a maximum after annealing at these temperatures, reaching values of ∼4×1012 Ω/⊏ in n-GaN and ∼1010 Ω/⊏ in p-GaN. The mechanism for the implant isolation was damage-related trap formation for all of the ions investigated, and there was no evidence of chemically induced isolation.
The development of a self-aligned fabrication process for small emitter contact area (2×4 um2) GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors is described. The process features dielectric-spacer sidewalls, low damage dry etching and selected-area regrowth of p-GaAs(C) on the base contact or n-GaN/AlGaN on the emitter contact. Series resistance effects are still found to influence the device performance.
Recent advances in developing process modules for GaN power devices are reviewed. These processes include damage removal in dry etched n- and p-GaN, implant doping and isolation, novel gate dielectrics, improved Schottky and ohmic contacts and deep via etching of SiC for hybrid GaN/SiC structures.
Low resistance ohmic contacts are difficult to form to p-type GaN and AlGaN due to the unavailability of growth methods for highly p-doped GaN and AlGaN. A p-type carbon-doped GaAs regrowth on p-GaN prior to ohmic metallization has been shown in previous work to improve contact resistance to p-GaN . Applying the regrowth method to the p-base regions of npn structured bipolar transistors, AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors have been demonstrated. GaN/AlGaN epilayers were grown with a molecular beam epitaxy system. Highly carbon-doped p-GaAs (1020 cm−3) was regrown on the devices (∼500 Å) in the base contact region by metal organic chemical vapor deposition after emitter mesa etching. Emitter and base mesa structures were formed by Inductively Coupled Plasma etching under low damage conditions with a Cl2/Ar chemistry. SiO2 was used for emitter sidewall formation to reduce leakage current to the emitter, as well as for a mask for GaAs base regrowth. Very high current densities were obtained for common base operation in both device types. The devices were operable at 250 °C.
We report on the dc performance of the first GaN pnp bipolar junction transistor. The structure was grown by MOCVD on c-plane sapphire substrates and mesas formed by low damage Inductively Coupled Plasma etching with a Cl2/Ar chemistry. The dc characteristics were measured up to VBC of 65 V in the common base mode and at temperatures up to 250°C. Under all conditions, IC ∼ IE indicated higher emitter injection efficiency. The offset voltage was ≤ 2 V and the devices were operated up to power densities of 13.9 kW·cm−2.
GaN and Al0.25Ga0.75N lateral Schottky rectifiers were fabricated either with (GaN) or without (AlGaN) edge termination. The reverse breakdown voltage VB (3.1 kV for GaN with both p+ guard rings and metal overlap edge terminations; 4.3 kV for Al0.25Ga0.75N without edge termination) displayed a negative temperature coefficient of −6.0 ± 0.4 V·K−1 for both types of rectifiers. The reverse current originated from contact periphery leakage at moderate bias, while the forward turn-on voltage at a current density of 100A·Cm−2 was ∼5 V for GaN and ∼7.5 V for AlGaN. The on-state resistances, RON, were 0.13 Δcm2 for GaN and 2.3 Δcm2 for AlGaN, producing figures-or-merit (VRB)2/RON of 73.9 and 8.2 MW.Cm−2, respectively. The activation energy of the reverse leakage was 0.13 eV at moderate bias.
High-temperature poly(arylene ether) and hydroxypolybenzoxazole polymers were toughened using dispersed rubbery phases. This rubbery phase was a hybrid material which was in-situ generated within the polymer matrix using mixtures of partially-hydrolyzable trialkoxy and dialkoxy organosilanes with a fully hydrolyzable tetraalkoxysilane. The resulting materials were characterized with regard to their structures, mechanical properties (modulus, ultimate strength, maximum extensibility, and toughness), thermal properties, optical properties, and tendencies to absorb water. Some of the results are presented here.
Silicon oxynitride films, fabricated by direct thermal growth and annealing in N2O or NO, were analyzed by Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). It is seen that for the samples processed in N2O, N is bonded as Si3N4 only, irrespective of whether the fabrication was done on bare Si or on an oxide pre-grown in O2. But the films processed in NO depict additional bonding arrangements, namely, non-stoichiometric SiOxNy, (Si-)2-N-O, and Si-N(-O)2. These bonding states are found to be concentrated in a higher proportion above the oxynitride/substrate interface. Further, it is seen that annealing of a pre-grown oxide in NO for 30 min incorporates the same bonding states as by direct growth in NO for as long as 120 min. Also, a critical N concentration (between 1.9% and 2.3%) is required for the incorporation of the Si-N(-O)2 structure, observed at 400.7 eV. Besides enhancing the overall understanding of the progress of silicon oxynitridation process in N2O and NO, these findings can help significantly towards developing process-property relationships for incorporation of N with the desired bonding state(s) at specific positions within an oxynitride film.
Ultra-thin silicon nitride films are being studied for use as high-dielectric constant (highk) materials in future gate dielectric applications, as Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors are scaled down to the sub-100nm regime. In this study, process modifications are proposed to reduce the total charge and interface trap densities in sub-3.5 nm-thick silicon nitride films, grown in NH3, in a conventional furnace at 900°C and 1 atm. It is shown that by employing a short (<1 min) oxynitridation step in NO, before nitridation, and oxynitridation/Ar-annealing steps, after nitridation, silicon nitride films can be thermally grown with a total charge density as low as about 2.5E10 q/cm2 and an interface trap density of about 2.1E11/(eV-cm2). Besides, the effect of using NO as opposed to N2O for oxynitridation steps is also discussed.