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The Mental Health Act (MHA) 2007 made some significant changes from the Mental Health Act 1983, including the fact that detention is now only allowed if an appropriate medical treatment is available to the patient at the time . There was considerable concern at the time that the 2007 Act would lead to an increase in detentions.
The primary objective is to assess how the change in the English law with the MHA 2007 has affected the number of detentions under the MHA.
A retrospective, observational and noninterventional study used anonymised and routinely collected data regarding 11,509 people who were formally assessed under the Mental Health Act during the period of 2001–2011 in the county of Norfolk. This included 7885 assessments before the 2007 MHA and 3620 done after implementation.
The proportion of people detained following assessment decreased from 53.2% before the 2007 MHA to 42.9% after implementation (P = .000). The total proportion of patients admitted (whether informally or detained) also decreased from 63.3% before the 2007 MHA to 52.8% thereafter (P = .000).
These results show a significant decrease in the rate of detentions under the MHA since the 2007 Act became law.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Lameness remains a significant cause of production losses, a growing welfare concern and may be a greater economic burden than clinical mastitis . A growing need for accurate, continuous automated detection systems continues because US prevalence of lameness is 12·5% while individual herds may experience prevalence's of 27·8–50·8%. To that end the first force-plate system restricted to the vertical dimension identified lame cows with 85% specificity and 52% sensitivity . These results lead to the hypothesis that addition of transverse and longitudinal dimensions could improve sensitivity of lameness detection. To address the hypothesis we upgraded the original force plate system to measure ground reaction forces (GRFs) across three directions. GRFs and locomotion scores were generated from randomly selected cows and logistic regression was used to develop a model that characterised relationships of locomotion scores to the GRFs. This preliminary study showed 76 variables across 3 dimensions produced a model with greater than 90% sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). The result was a marked improvement on the 52% sensitivity, and 85% specificity previously observed with the 1 dimensional model or the 45% sensitivities reported with visual observations. Validation of model accuracy continues with the goal to finalise accurate automated methods of lameness detection.
We discuss the idea that environmental factors influence the neural mechanisms that evolved to enable navigation, and propose that a capacity to learn different spatial relationship rules through experience may contribute to bicoded processing. Recent experiments show that free-flying bees can learn abstract spatial relationships, and we propose that this could be combined with optic flow processing to enable three-dimensional navigation.
We report production of a self-injected, collimated (8 mrad divergence), 600 pC bunch of electrons with energies up to 350 MeV from a petawatt laser-driven plasma accelerator in a plasma of electron density ne = 1017 cm−3, an order of magnitude lower than previous self-injected laser-plasma accelerators. The energy of the focused drive laser pulse (150 J, 150 fs) was distributed over several hot spots. Simulations show that these hot spots remained independent over a 5 cm interaction length, and produced weakly nonlinear plasma wakes without bubble formation capable of accelerating pre-heated (~1 MeV) plasma electrons up to the observed energies. The required pre-heating is attributed tentatively to pre-pulse interactions with the plasma.
Visual systems can undergo striking adaptations to specific visual environments during evolution, but they can also be very “conservative.” This seems to be the case in motion vision, which is surprisingly similar in species as distant as honeybee and goldfish. In both visual systems, motion vision measured with the optomotor response is color blind and mediated by one photoreceptor type only. Here, we ask whether this is also the case if the moving stimulus is restricted to a small part of the visual field, and test what influence velocity may have on chromatic motion perception. Honeybees were trained to discriminate between clockwise- and counterclockwise-rotating sector disks. Six types of disk stimuli differing in green receptor contrast were tested using three different rotational velocities. When green receptor contrast was at a minimum, bees were able to discriminate rotation directions with all colored disks at slow velocities of 6 and 12 Hz contrast frequency but not with a relatively high velocity of 24 Hz. In the goldfish experiment, the animals were trained to detect a moving red or blue disk presented in a green surround. Discrimination ability between this stimulus and a homogenous green background was poor when the M-cone type was not or only slightly modulated considering high stimulus velocity (7 cm/s). However, discrimination was improved with slower stimulus velocities (4 and 2 cm/s). These behavioral results indicate that there is potentially an object motion system in both honeybee and goldfish, which is able to incorporate color information at relatively low velocities but is color blind with higher speed. We thus propose that both honeybees and goldfish have multiple subsystems of object motion, which include achromatic as well as chromatic processing.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of veterinary clinical assessments of lameness to probability estimates of lameness predicted from vertical kinetic measures. We hypothesized that algorithm-derived probability estimates of lameness would accurately reflect vertical measures in lame limbs even though vertical changes may not inevitably occur in all lameness. Kinetic data were collected from sound (n=179) and unilaterally lame (n=167) dairy cattle with a 1-dimensional, parallel force plate system that registered vertical ground reaction force signatures of all four limbs as cows freely exited the milking parlour. Locomotion was scored for each hind limb using a 1–5 locomotion score system (1=sound, 5=severely lame). Pain response in the interdigital space was quantified with an algometer and pain response in the claw was quantified with a hoof tester fitted with a pressure gage. Lesions were assigned severity scores (1=minimal pathology to 5=severe pathology). Lameness diminished the magnitude of peak ground reaction forces, average ground reaction forces, Fourier transformed ground reaction forces, stance times and vertical impulses in the lame limbs of unilaterally lame cows. The only effect of lameness on the opposite sound limb was increased magnitude of stance times and vertical impulses in unilaterally lame cows. Symmetry measures of the peak ground reaction forces, average ground reaction forces, Fourier transformed ground reaction forces, stance times and vertical impulses between the left and right hind limbs were also affected in unilateral lameness. Paradoxically, limbs with clinically similar lesion and locomotion scores and pain responses were associated with a broad range of load-transfer off the limb. Substantial unloading and changes in the vertical limb variables occurred in some lameness while minimal unloading and changes in vertical limb variables occurred in other lameness. Corresponding probability estimates of lameness accurately reflected changes in the vertical parameters of limbs and generated low probability estimates of lameness when minimal unloading occurred. Failure to transfer load off limbs with pain reactions, locomotion abnormalities and lesions explained much of the limited sensitivity in lameness detection with vertical limb variables.
To describe an outbreak of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection after percutaneous needle procedures (acupuncture and joint injection) performed by a single medical practitioner.
A medical practitioner's office and 4 hospitals in Perth, Western Australia.
Eight individuals who developed invasive MRSA infection after acupuncture or joint injection performed by the medical practitioner.
We performed a prospective and retrospective outbreak investigation, including MRSA colonization surveillance, environmental sampling for MRSA, and detailed molecular typing of MRSA isolates. We performed an infection control audit of the medical practitioner's premises and practices and administered MRSA decolonization therapy to the medical practitioner.
Eight cases of invasive MRSA infection were identified. Seven cases occurred as a cluster in May 2004; another case (identified retrospectively) occurred approximately 15 months earlier in February 2003. The primary sites of infection were the neck, shoulder, lower back, and hip: 5 patients had septic arthritis and bursitis, and 3 had pyomyositis; 3 patients had bacteremia, including 1 patient with possible endocarditis. The medical practitioner was found to be colonized with the same MRSA clone [ST22-MRSA-IV (EMRSA-15)] at 2 time points: shortly after the first case of infection in March 2003 and again in May 2004. After the medical practitioner's premises and practices were audited and he himself received MRSA decolonization therapy, no further cases were identified.
This outbreak most likely resulted from a breakdown in sterile technique during percutaneous needle procedures, resulting in the transmission of MRSA from the medical practitioner to the patients. This report demonstrates the importance of surveillance and molecular typing in the identification and control of outbreaks of MRSA infection.
Some 2,000 orphaned chicks of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus were hand-reared and released back into the wild on Robben and Dassen Islands following the Treasure oil spill in June 2000. Of these chicks, 1,787 were flipper banded. This paper reports on the subsequent survival rate and breeding success of those individuals seen on Robben Island from 2001–2006. Survival to breeding age and their subsequent breeding success of hand-reared chicks was no different from that of naturally-reared chicks. Over a four-year period, pairs where at least one partner was a hand-reared chick produced an average of more than 1.6 chicks per year. Combining the data on survival with that on breeding success indicates that 1,000 hand-reared chicks will produce around 1,220 chicks themselves over their lifetimes, making this a worthwhile conservation intervention.
The neural blackboard architecture is a localist structured connectionist model that employs a novel connection matrix to implement dynamic bindings without requiring propagation of temporal synchrony. Here I note the apparent need for many distinct matrices and the effect this might have for scale-up to semantic processing. I also comment on the authors' initial foray into the symbol grounding problem.
The research described here investigates the hypothesis that nanoarchitecture contained in a nanowire array is capable of attenuating the adverse host response, biofouling, generated when medical devices, such as sensors, are implanted in the body. This adverse host response generates an avascular fibrous mass transfer barrier between the device and the analyte of interest, disabling the sensor. Numerous studies have indicated that surface chemistry and architecture modulated the host response. These findings lead us to hypothesize that nanostructured surfaces will significantly inhibit the formation of an avascular fibrous capsule. We are investigating whether vibrating magnetostrictive nanowires, formed in nanowire arrays, can prevent protein and cell adhesion. Magnetostrictive nanowires are fabricated by electroplating a ferromagnetic metal alloy into the pores of a nanoporous alumina template. The ferromagnetic nanowires are made to vibrate by altering the magnetic field surrounding the wires. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and other protein assays were used to study protein adhesion on the nanowire arrays. These results display a reduced protein adhesion per surface area of static nanowires. The vibrating nanowires show a further reduction in protein adhesion, compared to static wires. Studies were also preformed to investigate the effects of nanoarchitecture have on cell adhesion. These studies were performed with both static and vibrating nanowires. Preliminary protein adhesion studies have shown that a nanowire arrays modulate protein adhesion in vitro.
Uncontrolled kochia plants that regrow after small-grain harvest can produce substantial numbers of seeds. An average of 4,100 seeds per plant were produced between harvest (late July to mid August) and the first killing frost (late September) at three locations in Montana. Field experiments were conducted to determine the optimal timing of postharvest herbicide applications to prevent kochia from producing viable seeds. Herbicide treatments were applied at three timings from late August to mid September. The most effective treatments were glyphosate (631 g/ha) and paraquat (701 g/ha) applied at the second application timing (late August to early September). These treatments reduced kochia seed production by 92% or greater at each site. Kochia regrowth by this time had sufficient leaf area for herbicide absorption, but few viable seed had been produced. Herbicide treatments at the first and third application timings were generally less effective and more variable in reducing kochia seed production. Sulfentrazone (157 g/ha) and 2,4-D (561 g/ha) were not as effective at reducing seed production as other herbicide treatments.
Background and objective: This study investigated the distribution of pressures within a model trachea, produced by five different tracheal gas insufflation devices. The aim was to suggest a suitable design of a tracheal gas insufflation device for clinical use.
Methods: Each device was tested using insufflation flow rates of 5 and 10 L min−1. For each flow rate, the pressure within the tracheal model was measured at 33 fixed points.
Results: The Boussignac tracheal tube produced the most even pressure distribution, while a reverse-flow catheter produced pressure changes of the smallest magnitude.
Conclusions: We suggest that catheters producing the lowest pressure changes are likely to be safer for clinical use.
A combination of archaeological and palaeo-environmental field work in the Avon Levels, western England, has enabled a much better understanding to be reached of the complex Holocene sedimentation in this part of the Severn Estuary, and of the close relationship between the upper part of that sequence and opportunities for exploitation of this wetland region during the later prehistoric and Romano-British periods. This paper explores that relationship, focusing in particular on two Iron Age to Romano-British sites. Both sites, at Hallen and Northwick, appear to have been short-lived and only seasonally occupied in order to exploit rich grazing but this occupation took place at different times and within rather different patterns of land-use. The paper concludes with an outline model for the human use of the Avon Levels from the Neolithic to Romano-British periods.
Thalli of the lichens Buellia frigida and Xanthoria elegans were collected from five different locations each 5-15 km apart in the Vestfold Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, eastern Antarctica. A further collection was made from Mawson Station, Mac Robertson Land, eastern Antarctica, 660 km away. DNA was extracted from whole thalli and the ribosomal ITS region amplified by PCR using fungal specific primers. Resulting products were sequenced to gain an indication of whether or not variation was present within populations of lichen-forming fungi from continental Antarctica, and therefore of the availability of genetic resources to react to pressures such as climate change. Three genotypes of B. frigida and two of X. elegans were detected in the Vestfold Hill collections. However, these differed by only one nucleotide position suggesting the presence of relatively little genetic variation, if the ITS region is indicative of the overall genome. Buellia frigida collected from Mawson Station had an identical ITS region sequence to the most common Vestfold Hills genotype, indicating that this species may have a low level of genetic variation across much of eastern Antarctica. In contrast, X. elegans collected from Mawson showed considerable genetic variation from the Vestfolds thalli, differing at 14·2% of nucleotide positions and had an identical ITS region sequence to an isolate from maritime Antarctica 4960 km away. Samples from the Vestfold Hills formed a distinct cluster in a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences from a worldwide collection of X. elegans isolates.
Areas of coastal marshland formed an important and distinctive part of the landscape of Roman Britain, and current work is showing that different wetlands were utilised in very different ways. Some areas, for example in Essex and Kent, were simply exploited for their natural resources to produce salt and support seasonal grazing. Parts of Fenland were also used in this way, though the higher coastal siltlands were modified through the creation of drainage systems in order to improve agricultural opportunities within a landscape that was still liable to tidal flooding. A third strategy towards wetland exploitation is reclamation: a major transformation of the natural environment, involving the construction of a sea wall along the coast to keep tidal waters out and a system of drainage ditches cut into the surface of the former saltmarsh to lower the water table and remove surface run-off from the surrounding uplands.
A protocol is described to enable the production of reliable genetic fingerprints of lichen-forming fungi using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Key features of the method are the use of mycobiont DNA extracted from axenic cultures by a phenol-chloroform procedure, and PCR amplification using DyNAzyme II DNA polymerase. RAPD-PCR fingerprints of Graphis scripta, G. elegans and Phacographis dendritica were successfully generated using this protocol and individual isolates could be identified on the basis of differences in banding patterns produced. DNA extracted from whole thalli of G. scripia was also subjected to RAPD-PCR but the fingerprints produced differed from those given by axenic cultures of the mycobiont. Therefore difficulties of interpretation may arise when whole thalli are used in RAPD analysis.
Amounts of spring nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0–240 kg/ha),
combined with three timing treatments
(single, divided early or divided late), were tested at 14 sites in England
and Wales between 1984 and
1988 to determine the optimum fertilizer N requirement for winter oats.
The trials were superimposed
on commercial crops of the cultivars Pennal (9 sites) or Peniarth (5 sites).
Optimum amounts of N
ranged from nil to 202 kg/ha (mean 119) and optimum yields varied between
5·8 and 9·9 t/ha (mean
7·3). Much (c. 60%) of the inter-site variation in N optimum
was explained by differences in soil N
supply, as indicated by N offtake in the grain at nil applied N. Mean yield
differences between single
and early (+0·08 t/ha) or late (−0·04 t/ha)
divided dressings were slight, although significant
(P<0·05) but inconsistent yield effects were obtained
from early N at two sites and late N at three sites.
Lodging occurred at 11 of the 12 sites where lodging scores were recorded
and always increased
significantly (P<0·05) with applied N. The amount of
crop lodging at N optimum was, on an area
basis, <50% at nine of the sites. The overall extent of site lodging
was also influenced by soil N
fertility and hence inversely related to N optimum. However, multiple regression,
using site lodging
as well as soil N supply, only accounted for slightly more (65%) of the
variation in N optimum, which
suggests that lodging was not a major limiting factor. Lodging was unexpectedly
less from early N
(mean 43%), but more from late N (53%) divided dressings, compared with
a single N dressing
(49%). Early N reduced lodging significantly (P<0·05)
at four sites, although the actual reduction
was only large at one site where early N also increased yield significantly
Grain N concentrations increased significantly (P<0·05)
with applied N, on average by 0·12% per
40 kg/ha N increment. Timing effects on grain N concentration were
very small, with mean values
of 1·94, 1·91 and 1·96%N respectively from single,
early and late divided dressings. Apparent
recovery in grain of fertilizer N at the optimum amount ranged from 13
to 57% (mean 37), with better
N recovery at the more yield-responsive sites. Changes in mean grain weight
due to the amount and
timing of fertilizer N were small, with an average reduction of 0·6
mg/grain per 40 kg/ha N applied.
The adverse effects of N fertilizer on grain quality were slight and unlikely
to have commercial
significance. The agronomic implications of these results on the N fertilization
of winter oats are
Shastri & Ajjanagadde (1993) (S&A) argue convincingly that both structured connectionist networks and parallel dynamic inferencing are necessary for reflexive reasoning - a kind of inferencing and reasoning that occurs rapidly, spontaneously, and without conscious effort, and which seems necessary for everyday tasks such as natural language understanding. As S&A describe, reflexive reasoning requires a solution to the dynamic binding problem, that is, how to encode systematic and abstract knowledge and instantiate it in specific situations to draw appropriate inferences. Although symbolic artificial intelligence systems trivially solve the dynamic binding problem using computers' registers and pointers, it has remained a difficult problem for connectionist systems (see Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988). S&A's temporal synchrony solution to the dynamic binding problem using synchronous firing of argument units and the entities that are bound to them illustrates one way in which connectionist networks can do thisusing a constrained but important class of long-term knowledge rules. Their structured connectionist solution allows dynamic inferencing to proceed in parallel and therefore has a number of advantages for reflexive reasoning over most other connectionist and symbolic systems.