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High resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy (HRXES) has been used to record the Si Kβ spectra of a variety of minerals. Distinct changes in peak profile can be related to mineral typo. Representatives spectra were chosen and incorporated, into a computer programme to allow the determination of free silica in binary and quaternary mixtures. The potential of HRXES for the analysis of airborne dust samples is discussed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Recent evidence from resting-state fMRI studies have shown that brain network connectivity is altered in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, few studies have examined the complete connectivity patterns of these well-reported RSNs using a whole brain approach and how they compare between dementias. Here, we used advanced connectomic approaches to examine the connectivity of RSNs in Alzheimer disease (AD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and age-matched control participants. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 44 participants [27 controls (66.4±7.6 years), 13 AD (68.5.63±13.9 years), 4 FTD (59.575±12.2 years)] from an ongoing study at Indiana University School of Medicine were used. Resting-state fMRI data was processed using an in-house pipeline modeled after Power et al. (2014). Images were parcellated into 278 regions of interest (ROI) based on Shen et al. (2013). Connectivity between each ROI pair was described by Pearson correlation coefficient. Brain regions were grouped into 7 canonical RSNs as described by Yeo et al. (2015). Pearson correlation values were then averaged across pairs of ROIs in each network and averaged across individuals in each group. These values were used to determine relative expression of FC in each RSN (intranetwork) and create RSN profiles for each group. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our findings support previous literature which shows that limbic networks are disrupted in FTLD participants compared with AD and age-matched controls. In addition, interactions between different RSNs was also examined and a significant difference between controls and AD subjects was found between FP and DMN RSNs. Similarly, previous literature has reported a disruption between executive (frontoparietal) network and default mode network in AD compared with controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our approach allows us to create profiles that could help compare intranetwork FC in different neurodegenerative diseases. Future work with expanded samples will help us to draw more substantial conclusions regarding differences, if any, in the connectivity patterns between RSNs in various neurodegenerative diseases.
Because horsenettle and tall ironweed are difficult to control in cool-season grass pastures, research was conducted in Tennessee and Kentucky in 2010 and 2011 to examine the efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor on these weeds. Aminocyclopyrachlor was evaluated at 49 and 98 g ai ha−1 alone and in mixtures with 2,4-D amine at 371 and 742 g ae ha−1. Aminopyralid was also included as a comparison treatment at 88 g ai ha−1. Treatments were applied at three POST timings to horsenettle and two POST timings to tall ironweed. By 1 yr after treatment (YAT) horsenettle was controlled 74% with aminocyclopyrachlor plus 2,4-D applied late POST (LPOST) at 98 + 742 g ha−1. By 1 YAT, tall ironweed was controlled ≥ 93% by aminocyclopyrachlor applied early POST (EPOST) or LPOST, at rates as low as 49 g ha−1. Similar control was achieved with aminopyralid applied LPOST. Both aminocyclopyrachlor and aminopyralid were found to reduce horsenettle and tall ironweed biomass the following year. Moreover, all LPOST applications of aminocyclopyrachlor alone or in mixtures with 2,4-D prevented regrowth of tall ironweed at 1 YAT. Based on these studies, a LPOST herbicide application in August or September when soil moisture is adequate is recommended for control of horsenettle and tall ironweed in cool-season grass pastures.
Throughout the triennium, Commission 6 has interacted with the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT), most ably headed by Brian Marsden. As will be seen from his report below, the use by scientists of the Circulars for rapid dissemination of astronomical and related news continues unabated.
A randomised, cross-over, controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of diets containing pistachios as a strategy for increasing total fat (TF) levels v. a control (step I) lower-fat diet. Ex vivo techniques were used to evaluate the effects of pistachio consumption on lipoprotein subclasses and functionality in individuals (n 28) with elevated LDL levels ( ≥ 2·86 mmol/l). The following test diets (SFA approximately 8 % and cholesterol < 300 mg/d) were used: a control diet (25 % TF); a diet comprising one serving of pistachios per d (1PD; 30 % TF); a diet comprising two servings of pistachios per d (2PD; 34 % TF). A significant decrease in small and dense LDL (sdLDL) levels was observed following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the 1PD dietary treatment (P= 0·03) and following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the control treatment (P= 0·001). Furthermore, reductions in sdLDL levels were correlated with reductions in TAG levels (r 0·424, P= 0·025) following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the control treatment. In addition, inclusion of pistachios increased the levels of functional α-1 (P= 0·073) and α-2 (P= 0·056) HDL particles. However, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated serum cholesterol efflux capacity (P= 0·016) and global serum cholesterol efflux capacity (P= 0·076) were only improved following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the 1PD dietary treatment when baseline C-reactive protein status was low ( < 103μg/l). Moreover, a significant decrease in the TAG:HDL ratio was observed following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the control treatment (P= 0·036). There was a significant increase in β-sitosterol levels (P< 0·0001) with the inclusion of pistachios, confirming adherence to the study protocol. In conclusion, the inclusion of pistachios in a moderate-fat diet favourably affects the cardiometabolic profile in individuals with an increased risk of CVD.
Although the cadmium chloride treatment is an essential process for high efficiency thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic devices, the precise mechanisms involved that improve the cadmium telluride layer are not well understood. In this investigation we apply advanced micro-structural characterization techniques to study the effect of varying the time of the cadmium chloride annealing treatment on the micro-structure of cadmium telluride solar cells deposited by close spaced sublimation (CSS) and relate this to cell performance. A range of techniques has been used to observe the morphological changes to the micro-structure as well as the chemical and crystallographic changes as a function of treatment parameters. Electrical tests that link the device performance with the micro-structural properties of the cells have also been undertaken. Techniques used include Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for sub-grain analysis and XPS for composition-depth profiling. The study provides a new insight in to the mechanisms involved in the initiation and the subsequent complete re-crystallization of the cadmium telluride layer.
The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6 % (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22 %. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.
This study investigated the effect of water restriction on wool and blood cortisol concentrations and water consumption patterns in heat-stressed sheep. Nine Corriedale female sheep (average BW=43±6.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirement in metabolic crates. They were assigned to three treatments according to a Latin square design (3×3) for three periods with a 21-day duration for each period (nine sheep per treatment). Treatments included free access to water (FAW), 2 h water restriction (2hWR) and 3 h water restriction (3hWR) after feeding. Average temperature–humidity index in the experimental room was 27.9 throughout the experiment that defines heat stress conditions. Wool samples were taken at the end of each period on day 21. No differences were found in cortisol concentration in each fragment (dried, washed and residual extract) of wool (P<0.05). Total wool cortisol concentration was higher in the 3hWR group than the other treatments (P<0.05). Blood cortisol was not different among the treatments (P>0.05) and resulted in higher variable data compared with wool cortisol. Blood neutrophils and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio suppressed in FAW and 3hWR groups compared with the 2hWR group (P<0.05). The duration of water consumption recorded after feeding in the 3hWR group was higher than in the 2hWR group when recorded in the afternoon (P<0.01). Water consumption rate was higher in the 3hWR group than in the 2hWR group (P<0.01). However, total water consumed was lower in the 3hWR group compared with other treatments (P>0.05). It can be concluded that wool cortisol provides more precise and accurate data than blood cortisol during heat stress conditions. Water restriction for 3 h after feeding can act as a stressor and is critical for sheep during heat stress as the consumption of water decreases with restriction.
To review our institutional experience with Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery in treating focally recurrent high grade glial neoplasms of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or IV.
We conducted a retrospective cohort review of all patients treated with GK for focally recurrent high grade gliomas at our institution between November 2003 and April 2013. Data on age, sex, tumor volume, location and maximal diameter, presenting clinical status, complications and clinical outcome was recorded.
A total of 33 patients were identified. Four were lost to follow-up. Average post-GK and overall survival was 20.4 months (range: 3 – 72) and 63.3 months (range: 10 – 214) respectively. For WHO grade IV gliomas, the average post-GK and overall survival was 15.8 months (range: 3 – 77) and 40.1 months (range: 13 – 148) respectively. Similarily, for WHO grade III gliomas, the average post-GK and overall survival was 34.9 months (range: 6 – 72) and 136.4 months (range: 22 – 214) respectively. Twenty-two patients (75.9%) had post-GK edema, with 14 requiring dexamethasone and eight being asymptomatic. Four patients (13.8%) had imaging defined radiation necrosis.
Gamma Knife SRS affords an extension of local tumor control, acceptable morbidity, and potentially prolonged survival, for highly selected patients with focally recurrent high grade glial neoplasms.
Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic medication approved for the treatment of schizophrenia over a dose range of 40–160 mg/day. This study examined D2 receptor occupancy and its association with clinical improvement and side effects in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder following repeated doses of 80, 120, or 160 mg/day of lurasidone.
Twenty-five patients with The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were washed out of their antipsychotic medications (5 half-lives) and randomly assigned to 80, 120, or 160 mg/day of lurasidone. Subjects were imaged with 18F-fallypride at baseline and at steady-state lurasidone treatment to determine D2 receptor occupancy.
Blood lurasidone concentration (plus major metabolite), but not dose, significantly correlated with D2 receptor occupancy. D2 receptor occupancy in several subcortical structures is associated with positive but not negative symptom improvement or the presence of movement symptoms.
Blood concentrations greater than 70 ng/mL may be required to achieve a 65% occupancy level in subcortical areas. Intersubject blood concentrations at fixed dose were highly variable and may account for the lack of dose correlations.
Positron emission tomography (PET) occupancy data suggest that greater than 65% occupancy can be achieved across the dose range of 80–160 mg/day and that some patients require higher doses to achieve antipsychotic efficacy; this finding supports prior randomized clinical trial results.
Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas can offer a means of tumor and biologic control with acceptable risk and low complication rates.
Retrospective review of all the patients treated at our center with GK for pituitary adenomas from Nov 2003 to June 2011.
We treated a total of 86 patients. Ten were lost to follow-up. Mean follow was 32.8 months. There were 21 (24.4%) growth hormone secreting adenomas (GH), 8 (9.3%) prolactinomas (PRL), 8 (9.3%) adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting (ACTH) adenomas, 2 (2.3%) follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone secreting (FSH/LH) adenomas, and 47 (54.7%) null cell pituitary adenomas that were treated. Average maximum tumor diameter and volume was 2.21cm and 5.41cm3, respectively. The average dose to the 50% isodose line was 14.2 Gy and 23.6 Gy for secreting and non-secreting adenomas respectively. Mean maximal optic nerve dose was 8.87 Gy. Local control rate was 75 of 76 (98.7%), for those with followup. Thirty-three (43.4%) patients experienced arrest of tumor growth, while 42 (55.2%) patients experienced tumor regression. Of the 39 patients with secreting pituitary tumors, 6 were lost to follow-up. Improved endocrine status occurred in 16 (50.0%), while 14 (43.8%) demonstrated stability of hormone status on continued pre-operative medical management. Permanent complications included: panhypopituitarism (4), hypothyroidism (4), hypocortisolemia (1), diabetes insipidus (1), apoplexy (1), visual field defect (2), and diplopia (1).
Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective means of achieving tumor growth control and endocrine remission/stability in pituitary adenomas.
To review our institutional experience with Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery in treating large vestibular schwannomas (VS) of 3 to 4 cm diameter.
We conducted a retrospective cohort review of all patients treated with GK for VS at our institution between November 2003 and March 2012. Data on age, sex, VS volume, location and maximal diameter, House-Brackmann (HB) facial nerve scores pre and post-GK, Gardner-Robertson (GR) hearing score pre and post-GK, GK treatment parameters, VS response time, complications and clinical outcome was recorded.
A total of 28 patients during the defined time period were identified. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up was 34.5 months. Tumor control occurred in 92%, and was maintained in 85.7% at two years. Facial nerve or hearing preservation occurred in all treated compared to pre-GK status, as per HB and GR grading. Transient complications occurred in 80%. Temporary vestibular dysfunction occurred in seven patients (28%). One patient (4%) had the permanent complication of worsening pre-GK hemifacial spasm. Four patients (16%) developed hydrocephalus post-GK.
GK stereotactic radiosurgery as a primary treatment modality for large VS can provide acceptable tumor control rates with good facial nerve and hearing preservation, and low complication rates.
We study the mutual effects of photoinduced processes (irradiation effects) and plasmonic emission enhancement in close-packed CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots in the vicinity of gold metallic nanoparticles with two significantly different size distributions. For this we examine the impact of the heat generated by the metallic nanoparticles, the strength of plasmonic field enhancement, and the rate of energy transfer from the quantum dots to metallic nanoparticles in the presence of a laser field with low and moderate intensities. Our results show that the interplay between the photophysics of the quantum dots and their plasmonic emission enhancement is significantly pronounced when the metallic nanoparticles are large. In such a case we observed large suppression of photoinduced fluorescence enhancement (PFE). For smaller metallic nanoparticles the results suggest mostly an overall time-independent suppression of the quantum dots’ emission with no significant impact on PFE.
It is well known that the cadmium chloride annealing treatment is an essential step in the manufacture of efficient thin film cadmium telluride solar cells. It has been recognized that the combination of annealing at ∼4000C together with the addition of cadmium chloride at the surface induces re-crystallisation of the cadmium telluride layer and also affects the n-type cadmium sulfide. We have applied advanced micro-structural characterization techniques to distinguish the effect of the annealing and the cadmium chloride treatments on the properties of the cadmium telluride deposited via close space sublimation (CSS) and relate these observations to device performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has shown a variation in stacking fault density with annealing temperature and annealing time. Stacking faults observed within the cadmium telluride grains in TEM were partially removed post annealing; these findings show that temperature alone has a role in the reduction of stacking faults. However, since we have previously observed almost complete removal of stacking faults with annealing in combination with cadmium chloride, the cadmium chloride is essential to defect removal and high efficiency cells.