To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The investigation adopted a One Health approach and was comprised of three complimentary components: a case–control study examining human risk factors; environmental and animal sampling; and genomic analysis of human, animal and environmental isolates. Forty-eight human S. Wangata cases were interviewed during a 6-month period from November 2016 to April 2017, together with 55 Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) controls and 130 neighbourhood controls. Indirect contact with bats/flying foxes (S. Typhimurium controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–6.48)) (neighbourhood controls (aOR 8.33, 95% CI 2.58–26.83)), wild frogs (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.32–10.07) and wild birds (aOR 6.93, 95% CI 2.29–21.00) were statistically associated with illness in multivariable analyses. S. Wangata was detected in dog faeces, wildlife scats and a compost specimen collected from the outdoor environments of cases’ residences. In addition, S. Wangata was detected in the faeces of wild birds and sea turtles in the investigation area. Genomic analysis revealed that S. Wangata isolates were relatively clonal. Our findings suggest that S. Wangata is present in the environment and may have a reservoir in wildlife populations in north-eastern NSW. Further investigation is required to better understand the occurrence of Salmonella in wildlife groups and to identify possible transmission pathways for human infections.
An integrated study of sedimentological, sequence-stratigraphic and palaeodispersal analysis was applied to the Upper-Permian clastic sedimentary succession in the Northern Sydney Basin, Australia. The succession is subdivided into fifteen facies and three facies associations. The facies associations are further subdivided into eight sub-facies associations. The sedimentary evolution involves progradation from delta-front to delta-plain to fluvial depositional environments, with a significant increase in sediment grain size across the unconformable contact that separates the deltaic from the overlying fluvial system. In contrast to the delta front that is wave/storm- and/or river-influenced, the delta plain is significantly affected by tides, with the impact of tidal currents decreasing up-sequence in the delta plain. The general lack of wave-influenced sedimentary structures suggests low wave energy in the delta plain. The abrupt termination of the tidal impact in the fluvial realm relates to the steep topographic gradients and high sediment supply, which accompanied the uplift of the New England Orogen. The sequence-stratigraphic framework includes highstand (deltaic forest and topset) and lowstand (fluvial topset) systems tracts, separated by a subaerial unconformity. In contrast to most of the mud-rich modern counterparts, this is an example of a sand-rich tidally influenced deltaic system, developed adjacent to the source region. This investigation presents a depositional model for tidal successions in regions of tectonic uplift and confinement.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our objective was to assess and compare the attitudes of patients with head and neck cancer and their clinicians regarding the commercialization of genetic research data. We explored whether such opinions changed when profits from such transactions were used to fund 1) cancer research, 2) academic research generally, or 3) if patients were given personalized genetic information in return. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This qualitative analysis was nested within a prospective precision oncology genomic sequencing study in an NCI-designated cancer center. We conducted paired, semi-structured interviews with enrolled participants with head & neck cancer and with their doctors (medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and radiation oncologists). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded for analysis. Codes were developed through an iterative process until saturation was reached, and all transcripts were double-coded (and discrepancies reconciled) to ensure reliability. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified three main themes from the patients and clinicians: (1) Both clinicians and their patients were unclear about how the study protocol and informed consent form authorized patients’ genetic data to be used and commercialized in the future. (2) Patients with cancer were generally more comfortable than their clinician thought they were regarding the ongoing research use of their genetic data and commercialization thereof. (3) There is a strong interest among patients and clinicians in focusing academic medical center profits from commercialization back into the research program from which the data was acquired, rather than being invested into academic research more broadly. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Given patients’ strong feelings about the commercialization of their data, our results highlight the need for greater transparency—both with patients and with their clinicians—about potential future use of research data. Clinicians appear inclined to be particularly cautious regarding access to and commercialization of patients’ data, however patients generally hope that their data may be used to help future cancer patients. Explicit discussions with patients about specific future uses of profits derived from commercialization of research data can ensure both transparency and participation in future primary and secondary precision health research programs.
Evidence from animal models indicates that exposure to an obesogenic or hyperglycemic intrauterine environment adversely impacts offspring kidney development and renal function. However, evidence from human studies has not been evaluated systematically. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize current research in humans that has examined the relationship between gestational obesity and/or diabetes and offspring kidney structure and function. Systematic electronic database searches were conducted of five relevant databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Scopus). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines were followed, and articles screened by two independent reviewers generated nine eligible papers for inclusion. Six studies were assessed as being of ‘neutral’ quality, two of ‘negative’ and one ‘positive’ quality. Observational studies suggest that offspring exposed to a hyperglycemic intrauterine environment are more likely to display markers of renal dysfunction and are at higher risk of end-stage renal disease. There was limited and inconsistent evidence for a link between exposure to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and offspring renal outcomes. Offspring renal outcome measures across studies were diverse, with a large variation in offspring age at follow-up, limiting comparability across studies. The collective current body of evidence suggests that intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity and/or diabetes adversely impacts renal programming in offspring, with an increased risk of kidney disease in adulthood. Further high-quality, longitudinal, prospective cohort studies that measure indicators of offspring renal development and function, including fetal kidney volume and albuminuria, at standardized follow-up time points, are warranted.
A total of 592 people reported gastrointestinal illness following attendance at Street Spice, a food festival held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North East England in February/March 2013. Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken to identify the source and prevent further cases. Several epidemiological analyses were conducted; a cohort study; a follow-up survey of cases and capture re-capture to estimate the true burden of cases. Indistinguishable isolates of Salmonella Agona phage type 40 were identified in cases and on fresh curry leaves used in one of the accompaniments served at the event. Molecular testing indicated entero-aggregative Escherichia coli and Shigella also contributed to the burden of illness. Analytical studies found strong associations between illness and eating food from a particular stall and with food items including coconut chutney which contained fresh curry leaves. Further investigation of the food supply chain and food preparation techniques identified a lack of clear instruction on the use of fresh uncooked curry leaves in finished dishes and uncertainty about their status as a ready-to-eat product. We describe the investigation of one of the largest outbreaks of food poisoning in England, involving several gastrointestinal pathogens including a strain of Salmonella Agona not previously seen in the UK.
Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother–child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23.1 weeks) and offspring BMI and adiposity (abdominal circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness) in early childhood (mean age 23.4 months). Maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations were positively associated with infant birth weight (P=0.005) and GROW customized birth weight centiles (P=0.008). There was a significant association between maternal percentage body fat (P=0.02) and visceral fat area (P=0.00) with infant body weight in early childhood. Body mass index (BMI) in early childhood was significantly higher in offspring born preterm compared with those born at term (P=0.03). GROW customized birth weight centiles was significantly associated with body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.007) and abdominal circumference (P=0.039) at early childhood. Our findings suggest that being born preterm, large for gestational age or exposed to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and higher maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations are associated with increased obesity risk in early childhood. Future strategies should aim to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women of child-bearing age and emphasize the importance of optimal glycemia during pregnancy, particularly in Indigenous women.
We report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.
A 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.
Active surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. We compared the ability of WGS and emm typing to correctly identify person-to-person transmission and to guide the management of the outbreak.
The study included 204 patients and 152 staff. We identified 35 patients and 2 staff members with S. pyogenes. WGS revealed polyclonal S. pyogenes infections with 3 genetically distinct phylogenetic clusters (C1–C3). Cluster C1 isolates were all emm type 4, sequence type 915 and had pairwise SNP differences of 0–5, which suggested recent person-to-person transmissions. Epidemiological investigation revealed that cluster C1 was mediated by dermal colonization and transmission of S. pyogenes in a male residential ward. Clusters C2 and C3 were genomically diverse, with pairwise SNP differences of 21–45 and 26–58, and emm 11 and mostly emm120, respectively. Clusters C2 and C3, which may have been considered person-to-person transmissions by emm typing, were shown by WGS to be unlikely by integrating pairwise SNP differences with epidemiology.
WGS had higher resolution than emm typing in identifying clusters with recent and ongoing person-to-person transmissions, which allowed implementation of targeted intervention to control the outbreak.
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability. Using high-resolution primary data from the North Wyke Farm Platform, an intensively instrumented farm-scale ruminant research facility located in southwest United Kingdom, this paper proposes a novel, information-driven approach to carry out comprehensive assessments of economic-environmental trade-offs inherent within pasture-based cattle and sheep production systems. The results of a data-mining exercise suggest that a potentially systematic interaction exists between ‘soil health’, ecological surroundings and livestock grazing, whereby a higher level of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock is associated with a better animal performance and less nutrient losses into watercourses, and a higher stocking density with greater botanical diversity and elevated SOC. We contend that a combination of farming system-wide trials and environmental instrumentation provides an ideal setting for enrolling scientifically sound and biologically informative metrics for agricultural sustainability, through which agricultural producers could obtain guidance to manage soils, water, pasture and livestock in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner. Priority areas for future farm-scale research to ensure long-term sustainability are also discussed.
The site country rock is greywacke and shale of Llandovery age (Silurian). There may be dykes of porphyrite in the near vicinity. This stone, with altered country rock, is worked at Tongland Quarry, 3/4 mile due south of the site.
It was not possible to visit the site during the excavation; the identifications are of samples taken from features on site by the excavator. Samples were supplied from:-
a. outcrop to west of the site and recorded by Coles as one of an outer arc of low standing stones
b. outcrop to north of the site and recorded by Coles (1895) as one of an outer arc of low standing stones
All three pots contain quartz (often milky), feldspar and small lumps of grey granite (Biotite Granite) which looks very similar to the Gatehouse-of-Fleet granite and Creetown Granite. This suggests that the source of this material lies to the west of Kirkcudbright rather than to the east. Hence the grits from all three pots, and therefore the manufacture, are likely to have been quite local to the site.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
Paleontologists learn and tell the history of life; it is our job. You might suspect that paleontologists spend most of their time studying fossils. While fossils are an important source of information for the paleontologist, other types of evidence can also tell us about biological history. For instance, the rocks themselves provide important information, especially about past climates. It makes perfect sense that organisms are more easily understood if you know the environment in which they lived. A third important source of information is all around us.
Paleontologists learn and tell the history of life; it is our job. You might suspect that paleontologists spend most of their time studying fossils. While fossils are an important source of information for the paleontologist, other types of evidence can also tell us about biological history. For instance, the rocks themselves provide important information, especially about past climates. It makes perfect sense that organisms are more easily understood if you know the environment in which they lived. A third important source of information is all around us. The organisms alive today are the current products of the various processes of evolution that have been at work for more than three billion years. Organisms carry the legacy of their histories with them, in their anatomy, behavior, and genes. By studying and comparing living organisms, we learn about the past. Advances in technology have made the abundant historical information contained in biological molecules, chiefly genes and their RNA and protein products, easier to obtain. Thus, it is not too surprising to see today's paleontologist setting about his or her business with a rock hammer in one hand and a pipettor in the other.
We report the first results from a programme recently set up to directly measure the thermal conductivity of young sea ice.
An array of thermistors frozen into first-year Antarctic sea ice provides temperature vs depth data, which is fitted directly with a partial differential equation for heat conduction. Temperatures are recorded every hour at 20 vertical intervals of 100 mm over a period of 5 months, allowing accurate and direct estimation of the thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicate that the thermal conductivity is in the expected range, with some evidence of non-linear effects deeper in the ice. A larger variance in data is evident at higher temperature gradients and at greater depths in the ice.
Preliminary modelling of the impact of brine migration on heat transport through first-year sea ice is presented. Diffusion-driven brine pocket migration is too slow to contribute significantly to heat flow, but the convective instability of inclined brine slots or tubes is a promising mechanism.
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a significant problem in the under-six population in the Midlands, Ireland. VTEC spreads by person-to-person transmission and children attending childcare facilities are excluded until they achieve two consecutive negative stool samples. This report analyses 10 years data on the number of days children under the age of six take to microbiologically clear VTEC. We identified from our data that the median clearance time for VTEC was 39 days, interquartile range (IQR) 27–56 days, maximum clearance time 283 days. At 70 days from onset of infection, 90% of children had cleared the infection. These findings were slightly more prolonged but consistent with international literature on VTEC clearance times for children. Asymptomatic children cleared VTEC infection significantly faster (median time 25 days IQR 13–43 days) than symptomatic children (median time 43 days IQR 31–58 days). Symptomatic children older than 1 year of age cleared VTEC infection significantly faster (median time 42 days IQR 31–57) than symptomatic children year under 1 year (median time 56 days IQR 35–74 days). This report identifies clear data which can be used to more accurately advise parents on time periods required to achieve microbiological clearance from VTEC.