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The extent to which weed species vary in their ability to acquire and use different forms of nitrogen (N) (inorganic and organic) has not been investigated but could have important implications for weed survival and weed–crop competition in agroecosystems. We conducted a controlled environment experiment using stable isotopes to determine the uptake and partitioning of organic and inorganic N (amino acids, ammonium, and nitrate) by seven common weed and non-weed species. All species took up inorganic and organic N, including as intact amino acids. Concentrations of 15N derived from both ammonium and amino acids in shoot tissues were higher in large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] and barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv] than in common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench × Sorghum bicolor (L.) ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet & Harlan]. In contrast, the concentration of 15N derived from nitrate was higher in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) shoots than in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) shoots. Root concentration of 15N derived from ammonium was lower in sorghum-sudangrass compared with other species, except for A. retroflexus and A. fatua, while root concentration of 15N derived from nitrate was lower in A. retroflexus compared with other species, except for C. album and S. arvensis. Discriminant analysis classified species based on their uptake and partitioning of all three labeled N forms. These results suggest that common agricultural weeds can access and use organic N and differentially take up inorganic N forms. Additional research is needed to determine whether species-specific differences in organic and inorganic N uptake influence the intensity of competition for soil N.
Despite replicated cross-sectional evidence of aberrant levels of peripheral inflammatory markers in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), there is limited literature on associations between inflammatory tone and response to sequential pharmacotherapies.
To assess associations between plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers and treatment response to escitalopram and adjunctive aripiprazole in adults with MDD.
In a 16-week open-label clinical trial, 211 participants with MDD were treated with escitalopram 10– 20 mg daily for 8 weeks. Responders continued on escitalopram while non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole 2–10 mg daily for 8 weeks. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers – C-reactive protein, Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, Interferon gamma (IFN)-Γ, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, and Chemokine C–C motif ligand-2 (CCL-2) - measured at baseline, and after 2, 8 and 16 weeks were included in logistic regression analyses to assess associations between inflammatory markers and treatment response.
Pre-treatment levels of IFN-Γ and CCL-2 were significantly higher in escitalopram non-responders compared to responders. Pre-treatment IFN-Γ and CCL-2 levels were significantly associated with a lower of odds of response to escitalopram at 8 weeks. Increases in CCL-2 levels from weeks 8 to 16 in escitalopram non-responders were significantly associated with higher odds of non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole at week 16.
Pre-treatment levels of IFN-Γ and CCL-2 were predictive of response to escitalopram. Increasing levels of these pro-inflammatory markers may predict non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole. These findings require validation in independent clinical populations.
The deformable wing structure can change its aerodynamic shape according to the change of flight mission and flight environment, so as to obtain better lift-drag, stability and control characteristics, which is considered as one of the future research directions of aviation technology. Considering the current technology maturity and reliability, a gradient corrugated fin is designed to realise the bending deformation of the wing. The structure of the skin is optimised to keep the skin smooth during deformation. In addition, a progressive push and pull rod is proposed to drive the wing deformation, and the fluid-structure interaction simulation is carried out for the wing deformation. At the same time, the changes of wing aerodynamic characteristics under different angles of leading and trailing edges and different push rod action schemes are analysed. Finally, a dry wind tunnel simulation test of the designed progressive flexible variable bending wing is carried out. The results of fluid-structure interaction simulation and dry wind tunnel test show that the progressive flexible variable bending wing proposed in this paper has a simple and reliable structure and remarkable deformation effect. It has advantages in increasing lift and reducing drag, ensuring high lift-drag ratio and providing wing trim moment. The deformable wing dry wind tunnel test platform designed by this method is structurally reliable, easy to operate, and can accurately reflect the influence of wing deformation on its aerodynamic force, which provides a verification means for the development of the design method and the design of practical aircraft in the future.
Background: Low-intensity transcranial ultrasound (TUS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, which in theta burst mode (tbTUS) can increase cortical excitability. Parkinson’s disease (PD) has altered cortical excitability of motor cortex (M1). We evaluated the neurophysiological and clinical effects of M1 tbTUS in PD patients. Methods: Sixteen PD patients (4F, 59.5±9.7 years) in ON and OFF dopaminergic medication states, and 15 controls (5F, 61.9±8.7 years) were evaluated. tbTUS was applied for 80 seconds at M1 with 20W/cm2. Motor evoked potential (MEP) was recorded at baseline, at 5-minutes (T5), T30, and T60 after tbTUS. Motor (m)UPDRS was evaluated in PD at baseline and T60. Results: A linear mixed model on MEP amplitudes comparing PD-ON, PD-OFF and controls showed significant effect of time (F=4.83, p=0.003). Post-hoc analysis showed significant difference between baseline and T30 timepoints (p=0.0003). The MEP increase at T30 was higher in controls (66%), followed by PD-ON (41%) and PD-OFF (21%). PD-ON showed reduced mUPDRS at T60 when compared to PD-OFF, with significant effect of time (F=6.14, p=0.017) and group (F=5.39, p=0.025). Conclusions: tbTUS induced motor cortical plasticity is reduced in PD-OFF, that is partially restored by dopaminergic medications.Repeated sessions of tbTUS can be further investigated as a novel non-invasive treatment for PD.
Background: The late-onset cerebellar ataxias (LOCAs) have until recently resisted molecular diagnosis. Contributing to this diagnostic gap is that non-coding structural variations, such as repeat expansions, are not fully accessible to standard short-read sequencing analysis. Methods: We combined bioinformatics analysis of whole-genome sequencing and long-read sequencing to search for repeat expansions in patients with LOCA. We enrolled 66 French-Canadian, 228 German, 20 Australian and 31 Indian patients. Pathogenic mechanisms were studied in post-mortem cerebellum and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons from 2 patients. Results: We identified 128 patients who carried an autosomal dominant GAA repeat expansion in the first intron of the FGF14 gene. The expansion was present in 61%, 18%, 15% and 10% of patients in the French-Canadian, German, Australian and Indian cohorts, respectively. The pathogenic threshold was determined to be (GAA)≥250, although incomplete penetrance was observed in the (GAA)250-300 range. Patients developed a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome at an average age of 59 years. Patient-derived post-mortem cerebellum and induced motor neurons both showed reduction in FGF14 RNA and protein expression compared to controls. Conclusions: This intronic, dominantly inherited GAA repeat expansion in FGF14 represents one of the most common genetic causes of LOCA uncovered to date.
This abstract is based on unpublished data. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The estimates of unbiased first-degree relatives (FDRs) risk of cancers would enhance genetic counseling of at-risk FDRs in families where the pancreatic cancer (PC) proband carrying a germline variant. This study aims at quantifying gene-specific risks of six cancers among FDRs of PC patients with germline variants in cancer-associated genes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In the prospective, clinic-based Mayo Clinic Biospecimen Resource for Pancreas Research registry, 4,562 PC patients had previously undergone germline genetic testing for pancreatic cancer-associated genes through either research studies or clinical testing. Of these, 234 PC probands were found to carry germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (PLPV) among 9 genes of interest and had provided detailed demographic and cancer data on their FDRs by questionnaire. We focused on six cancer types (ovary, breast, uterus, pancreas, colon, and malignant melanoma) in FDRs as reported by the probands. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated to estimate risk of six cancers among FDRs of PC patients carrying PLPV by gene. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 1,670 FDRs (mean age 58.1+17.8SD; 48.9% female) were included in the study. We found significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer in female FDRs of PC probands who carry PLPV in BRCA1 (SIR 9.49, 95%CI:3.06-22.14) or BRCA2 (3.72, 95%CI:1.36-8.11), and breast cancer risks were higher with BRCA2 (2.62, 95%CI:1.89-3.54). Uterine cancer risk was increased in FDRs of PC probands who carry PLPV for Lynch Syndrome mismatch repair (MMR) (6.53, 95%CI:2.81-12.86). PC risk was also increased (ATM 4.53, 95% CI:2.69-7.16; BRCA2 3.45, 95%CI:1.72-6.17; CDKN2A 7.38, 95%CI:3.18-14.54; PALB2 5.39, 95%CI:1.45-13.79). Increased colon cancer risk was observed in FDRs of probands who carried MMR PLPV (5.83, 95%CI:3.70-8.75), while melanoma risk was elevated for FDRs of probands with CDKN2A PLPV (7.47, 95%CI:3.97-12.77). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: PLPV in nine syndrome-associated genes in PC probands are associated with increased risk of six cancers in FDRs. The findings underscore the importance of risk estimation of various other cancers in PC families for screening, early detection, intervention, and cascade genetic testing.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health challenge negatively affecting victims’ health. Telomere length (TL), a marker for biological ageing, might be reflective of the mechanisms through which IPV leads to adverse health outcomes. The objective of the current study was to explore the association between IPV and leucocyte TL.
We conducted an analysis using a subset of the UK Biobank (N = 144 049). Physical, sexual and emotional IPV were reported by the participants. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. TL was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used multivariable linear regressions to test the associations between IPV and TL adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, education, as well as symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in a sensitivity analysis.
After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, any IPV was associated with 0.02-s.d. shorter TL (β = −0.02, 95% CI −0.04 to −0.01). Of the three types of IPV, physical violence had a marginally stronger association (β = −0.05, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.02) than the other two types. The associations of numbers of IPV and TL showed a dose–response pattern whereby those who experienced all three types of IPV types had the shortest TL (β = −0.07, 95% CI −0.12 to −0.03), followed by those who experienced two types (β = −0.04, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.01). Following additional adjustment for symptoms of depression and PTSD, the associations were slightly attenuated but the general trend by number of IPVs remained.
Victims of IPV, particularly those exposed to multiple types of IPVs, had shorter TL indicative of accelerated biological ageing. Given that all three types of IPV are linked to TL, clinical practitioners need to comprehensively identify all types of IPV and those who received multiple types. Further studies should explore the association of violence with changes in TL over time, as well as to which extent biological ageing is a mechanistic factor.
Se is an essential trace element associated with animal growth and antioxidant and metabolic processes. However, whether Se, especially organic Se with higher bioavailability, can alleviate the adverse effects of low salinity stress on marine economic crustacean species has not been investigated. Accordingly, juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were reared in two culture conditions (low and standard salinity) fed diets supplemented with increasing levels of l-selenomethionine (0·41, 0·84 and 1·14 mg/kg Se) for 56 d, resulting in four treatments: 0·41 mg/kg under standard seawater (salinity 31) and 0·41, 0·84 and 1·14 mg/kg Se under low salinity (salinity 3). The diet containing 0·84 mg/kg Se significantly improved the survival and weight gain of shrimp under low salinity stress and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the hepatopancreas. The increased numbers of B and R cells may be a passive change in hepatopancreas histology in the 1·14 mg/kg Se group. Transcriptomic analysis found that l-selenomethionine was involved in the regulatory pathways of energy metabolism, retinol metabolism and steroid hormones. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0·84 mg/kg Se (twice the recommended level) effectively alleviated the effects of low salinity stress on L. vannamei by regulating antioxidant capacity, hormone regulation and energy metabolism.
We investigated whether the one-time application of polymer-coated urea (PCU) before transplanting could simultaneously improve the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of japonica-indica hybrid rice (JIHR) through a field experiment. The local high-yield JIHR cultivar Chunyou-927 was field grown during the rice-growing seasons in 2019 and 2020. The experiment consisted of three treatments: no nitrogen application (0N), application of conventional urea (CU), and the one-time application of PCU. Grain yield was 1.0–1.3 t/ha higher, and agronomic NUE (kg grain yield increase per kg N applied) was 5.2–5.9 kg/kg higher, respectively, under the PCU treatment compared with the CU treatment across the two study years. When compared with the CU treatment, the PCU treatment could (1) improve root morphological trait, (2) reduce redundant vegetative growth during the early growth period, (3) increase matter production during the mid and late growth period, and (4) increase plant activity during the grain-filling period. Overall, our findings indicate that one-time PCU application before transplanting of the JIHR cultivar holds great promise for increasing grain yield and NUE.
Consumption of unpasteurised milk in the United States has presented a public health challenge for decades because of the increased risk of pathogen transmission causing illness outbreaks. We analysed Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System data to characterise unpasteurised milk outbreaks. Using Poisson and negative binomial regression, we compared the number of outbreaks and outbreak-associated illnesses between jurisdictions grouped by legal status of unpasteurised milk sale based on a May 2019 survey of state laws. During 2013–2018, 75 outbreaks with 675 illnesses occurred that were linked to unpasteurised milk; of these, 325 illnesses (48%) were among people aged 0–19 years. Of 74 single-state outbreaks, 58 (78%) occurred in states where the sale of unpasteurised milk was expressly allowed. Compared with jurisdictions where retail sales were prohibited (n = 24), those where sales were expressly allowed (n = 27) were estimated to have 3.2 (95% CI 1.4–7.6) times greater number of outbreaks; of these, jurisdictions where sale was allowed in retail stores (n = 14) had 3.6 (95% CI 1.3–9.6) times greater number of outbreaks compared with those where sale was allowed on-farm only (n = 13). This study supports findings of previously published reports indicating that state laws resulting in increased availability of unpasteurised milk are associated with more outbreak-associated illnesses and outbreaks.
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm coverage is one of the key technologies for multi-UAV cooperation, which plays an important role in collaborative investigation, detection, rescue and other applications. Aiming at the coverage optimisation problem of UAV in the target area, a collaborative visual coverage control method under positioning uncertainty is presented. First, the visual perception area with imprecise localisation, UAV model and sensor model are created based on the given task environment. Second, a regional division algorithm for the target task area is designed based on the principle of Guaranteed Voronoi (GV) diagram. Then a visual area coverage planning algorithm is designed, in which the task area is allocated to the UAV according to the corresponding weight coefficient of each area, and the input control law is adjusted by the expected state information of the UAV, so that the optimal coverage quality target value and the maximum coverage of the target area can be achieved. Finally, three task scenarios for regional division and coverage planning are simulated respectively, the results show that the proposed area coverage planning algorithm can realise the optimal regional distribution and can obtain more than 90% coverage in different scenarios.
Cognitive impairments are well-established features of psychotic disorders and are present when individuals are at ultra-high risk for psychosis. However, few interventions target cognitive functioning in this population.
To investigate whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n−3 PUFA) supplementation improves cognitive functioning among individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.
Data (N = 225) from an international, multi-site, randomised controlled trial (NEURAPRO) were analysed. Participants were given omega-3 supplementation (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo over 6 months. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Mixed two-way analyses of variance were computed to compare the change in cognitive performance between omega-3 supplementation and placebo over 6 months. An additional biomarker analysis explored whether change in erythrocyte n−3 PUFA levels predicted change in cognitive performance.
The placebo group showed a modest greater improvement over time than the omega-3 supplementation group for motor speed (ηp2 = 0.09) and BACS composite score (ηp2 = 0.21). After repeating the analyses without individuals who transitioned, motor speed was no longer significant (ηp2 = 0.02), but the composite score remained significant (ηp2 = 0.02). Change in erythrocyte n-3 PUFA levels did not predict change in cognitive performance over 6 months.
We found no evidence to support the use of omega-3 supplementation to improve cognitive functioning in ultra-high risk individuals. The biomarker analysis suggests that this finding is unlikely to be attributed to poor adherence or consumption of non-trial n−3 PUFAs.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
Heterogeneity in the course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following a major life trauma such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can be attributed to numerous contextual factors, psychosocial risk, and family/peer support. The present study investigates a comprehensive set of baseline psychosocial risk and protective factors including online behaviors predicting empirically derived PTSS trajectories over time. Females aged 12–16 years (N = 440); 156 with substantiated CSA; 284 matched comparisons with various self-reported potentially traumatic events (PTEs) were assessed at baseline and then annually for 2 subsequent years. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to derive PTSS trajectories, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression was used to investigate psychosocial predictors including online behaviors of trajectories. LGMM revealed four PTSS trajectories: resilient (52.1%), emerging (9.3%), recovering (19.3%), and chronic (19.4%). Of the 23 predictors considered, nine were retained in the LASSO model discriminating resilient versus chronic trajectories including the absence of CSA and other PTEs, low incidences of exposure to sexual content online, minority ethnicity status, and the presence of additional psychosocial protective factors. Results provide insights into possible intervention targets to promote resilience in adolescence following PTEs.
Trace fossils record foraging behaviors, the search for resources in patchy environments, of animals in the rock record. Quantification of the strength, density, and nature of foraging behaviors enables the investigation of how these may have changed through time. Here, we present a novel approach to explore such patterns using spatial point process analyses to quantify the scale and strength of ichnofossil spatial distributions on horizontal bedding planes. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we use two samples from the terminal Ediacaran Shibantan Member in South China (between 551 and 543 Ma) and the early Cambrian Nagaur Sandstone in northwestern India (between 539 and 509 Ma). We find that ichnotaxa on both surfaces exhibited significant nonhomogeneous lateral patterns, with distinct levels of heterogeneity exhibited by different types of trace fossils. In the Shibantan, two ichnotaxa show evidence for mutual positive aggregation over a shared resource, suggesting the ability to focus on optimal resource areas. Trace fossils from the Nagaur Sandstone exhibit more sophisticated foraging behavior, with greater niche differentiation. Critically, mark correlation functions highlight significant spatial autocorrelation of trace fossil orientations, demonstrating the greater ability of these Cambrian tracemakers to focus on optimal patches. Despite potential limitations, these analyses hint at changes in the development and optimization of foraging at the Ediacaran/Cambrian transition and highlight the potential of spatial point process analysis to tease apart subtle differences in behavior in the trace fossil record.