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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The particle size of the forage has been proposed as a key factor to ensure a healthy rumen function and maintain dairy cow performance, but little work has been conducted on ryegrass silage (GS). To determine the effect of chop length of GS and GS:maize silage (MS) ratio on the performance, reticular pH, metabolism and eating behaviour of dairy cows, 16 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four periods each of 28-days duration. Ryegrass was harvested and ensiled at two mean chop lengths (short and long) and included at two ratios of GS:MS (100:0 or 40:60 dry matter (DM) basis). The forages were fed in mixed rations to produce four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets: long chop GS, short chop GS, long chop GS and MS and short chop GS and MS. The DM intake (DMI) was 3.2 kg/day higher (P<0.001) when cows were fed the MS than the GS-based diets. The short chop length GS also resulted in a 0.9 kg/day DM higher (P<0.05) DMI compared with the long chop length. When fed the GS:MS-based diets, cows produced 2.4 kg/day more (P<0.001) milk than when fed diets containing GS only. There was an interaction (P<0.05) between chop length and forage ratio for milk yield, with a short chop length GS increasing yield in cows fed GS but not MS-based diets. An interaction for DM and organic matter digestibility was also observed (P<0.05), where a short chop length GS increased digestibility in cows when fed the GS-based diets but had little effect when fed the MS-based diet. When fed the MS-based diets, cows spent longer at reticular pH levels below pH 6.2 and pH 6.5 (P<0.01), but chop length had little effect. Cows when fed the MS-based diets had a higher (P<0.05) milk fat concentration of C18 : 2n-6 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with when fed the GS only diets. In conclusion, GS chop length had little effect on reticular pH, but a longer chop length reduced DMI and milk yield but had little effect on milk fat yield. Including MS reduced reticular pH, but increased DMI and milk performance irrespective of the GS chop length.
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania for which there is a paucity of effective viable non-toxic drugs. There are 1·3 million new cases each year causing considerable socio-economic hardship, best measured in 2·4 million disability adjusted life years, with greatest impact on the poorest communities, which means that desperately needed new antileishmanial treatments have to be both affordable and accessible. Established medicines with cheaper and faster development times may hold the cure for this neglected tropical disease. This concept of using old drugs for new diseases may not be novel but, with the ambitious target of controlling or eradicating tropical diseases by 2020, this strategy is still an important one. In this review, we will explore the current state-of-the-art of drug repurposing strategies in the search for new treatments for leishmaniasis.
We have discovered that warm gas flows along galaxy major and minor axes detected out to 200 kpc. Our results are derived from a sample of HST-imaged isolated galaxies with nearby background quasars used to probe their 105K CGM detected in HST/COS UV spectra (traced by Ovi absorption). We constrain the geometry of the gas to reside between 20-40 degrees of the projected major axis and within 60 degrees of the projected minor axis, with little-to-no gas found in between. Furthermore, strong absorption systems tend to be found along the minor axes of star-forming galaxies. All of our results are consistent with the current view of the CGM originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows.
We use high-resolution Keck, VLT, or Hubble Space Telescope spectra of background quasars to examine the kinematic properties of the multiphase, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium in the outskirts of galaxies at 0.08 < zgal < 1.0, focusing on the low-ionization Mgii and high-ionization Ovi doublets. The absorption kinematics of low-ionization gas in the circumgalactic medium depend strongly on the star formation activity and the location about the host galaxy, where the largest velocity dispersions are associated with blue, face-on galaxies probed along the minor axis. Conversely, high-ionization gas kinematics are independent of galaxy star formation activity and orientation.
The hospice movement has shown that, even when underlying pathologies are incurable, there may be considerable scope for providing symptomatic relief through optimal use of pharmacological agents. Symptomatic palliative treatment has revolutionised terminal care, especially the management of severe pain. Could this principle equally be applied to the treatment of low-grade misery and everyday unhappiness?
The “somatic marker mechanism” (SMM; Damasio 1994) is proposed as the cognitive and neural basis of the theory of mind mechanism. The SMM evolved for evaluating the intentions, dispositions, and relationships of conspecifics; hence, it is adaptive in the social domain. It is predicted that chimpanzees will indeed have theory of mind (ToM) ability, but that this will be socially domain-specific. Domain-general ToM will be found only in primates with abstract, symbolic language (adult humans). Putative ToM tests require revision in the light of these distinctions.
Steven Rose regards oversimplification of biology as the supreme
sin, inevitably leading to evil consequences, and requiring an unique
distortion of scientific practice to avoid it. To avoid this, he
proposes a short-cut to scientific knowledge by defining certain areas
of biology that are intrinsically flawed. But this achieves only a
subordination of science to politics. There are no general-purpose
shortcuts for evaluating the validity of theories, and no substitutes
for testing specific theories using relevant evidence.
The same aggressive act will – all else being equal
– have a different behavioral significance according to whether
it is performed by a man or a woman. Such a perspective should have
profound implications for legal and psychiatric practice, and for
social policy in general.
As part of a programme of research to improve mission effectiveness by studying pilot workload and task performance in mission-oriented flight tasks, a methodology has been developed in which wavelet analysis is used to extract information from records of vehicle response and of pilot control activity. By decomposing the records into discrete wavelets, components of vehicle agility and pilot workload are derived in the form of wavelet-based ‘quickness’ parameters for vehicle agility and so-called ‘attack’ parameters for pilot workload. It is shown how individual wavelet components in the records of pilot control activity, referred to as ‘worklets', can be associated with the sub-tasks of ‘guidance’ and ‘stabilisation'. It is demonstrated how these concepts can be applied to quantify changes in pilot control activity associated with increasing task difficulty or changes in aircraft handling qualities. Two examples are presented, one from a flight trial in which the task difficulty was increased by changes in a prescribed ground track and the other from a simulation trial in which an increased time delay was introduced into the response of the flight control system.
Photonic band gap (PBG) structures are multidimensional lattices, formed by a strong modulation of dielectric constant which prevent the propagation of photons over a forbidden energy range1. Since the first demonstration of a PBG at microwave frequencies2-7, it has proved technologically difficult to create a PBG in the optical region of the spectrum8-11 since the band gap centre wavelength is of the order of twice the lattice pitch. Recently, we have succeeded in fabricating novel waveguide designs which incorporate a TE polarised visible photonic band gap12,13 By reducing the band gap to visible wavelengths, we greatly simplify the experimental investigation of the behaviour of these complicated structures.
In this paper, we present the fabrication and initial optical testing of devices with band gaps in the visible wavelength range 545nm-632.8nm. These devices demonstrate unusual optical effects dependent upon the number of lattice periods such as: broadband wavelength filtering, wavelength dependent beam splitting, and broadband polarisation selective routing. In contrast to the well known active applications of PBGs, we suggest a host of new passive applications for PBGs in optical computing and wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) communications.
Single issue political movements (such as feminism, anti-racism, Marxism, homosexual liberation, animal rights etc) have been a major characteristic of the post-1960s radical scene in the United States and Western Europe. While such movements typically start out doing a good job, it is my assertion that they have now reached the point of posing a serious threat to medicine at large, and to psychiatry in particular.
First of all, some definitions. In general, psychotherapy is what happens when a doctor speaks to a patient. More specifically, psychotherapy is talk as therapy: it involves the physician assuming a role of expertise in talking.