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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Pre-weaning animals exit a flock through death induced by various reasons, causing significant economic losses to the goat producers. In this study, we investigated the survival from birth to weaning of Sirohi goat kids within framework of the survival analysis. Kid records were accessed from 1997 to 2017, with the information on 4417 pre-weaning animals of farmed Sirohi goat native to the Rajasthan State of India. A multivariable Cox regression was fitted to the data after checking the assumptions of regression. The explanatory variables were sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight, doe weight at kidding and year of birth. Model selection eliminated doe weight from the model, and sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight and year of birth were retained in the model. With model calibration also, these five covariates were retained in the model. The mortality on the first day after birth was 0.3%, constituting 3.5% of all pre-weaning mortality. The mortality until the end of weaning period was 7.8%. Regression analysis revealed that the higher birthweight at kidding was associated with reduced hazard of death among the kids. Male kids had higher hazards of death compared with female kids. The single-born kids had lower risks of death compared with twin-born kids after accounting for heterogeneity. The winter season had a very high adverse effect on the survival of the kids. With each passing year, risks of death decreased. The results of this study indicate that better survival of kids can be achieved by controlling both environmental and animal-related factors.
Chloris spp. are warm-season grasses that outcompete crops for scarce resources throughout Australia. In Queensland, mild winters and increased adoption of conservation tillage practices have led to an increase of this warm-season grass family in winter crops. The objective of this study is to understand whether droplet size (nozzle type) effects herbicide efficacy of summer perennial grasses, as previous research found no effect of droplet size (nozzle type) on herbicide efficacy of winter annual grasses. A study to compare droplet-size (nozzle type) effects on control of windmillgrass and its domesticated relative, rhodesgrass, was conducted at the University of Queensland in Gatton, QLD, Australia. Results showed little difference in dry weight reductions for windmillgrass or rhodesgrass across droplet size (nozzle type). Paraquat applications with the TTI nozzle resulted in significantly lower dry weight reductions compared with other droplet-size sprays (nozzle types) for rhodesgrass. Glyphosate, imazamox plus imazapyr, and clodinafop resulted in commercially acceptable control for both species, regardless of the droplet size (nozzle type) selected, indicating droplet size (nozzle type) has relatively little impact on the efficacy of these herbicides. Proper nozzle selection can result in control of Chloris spp., a hard to control weed species, while reducing the occurrence of spray drift to nearby sensitive areas.
We describe a study of the E–W-trending South Wagad Fault (SWF) complex at the eastern part of the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) in Western India. This basin was filled during Late Cretaceous time, and is presently undergoing tectonic inversion. During the late stage of the inversion cycle, all the principal rift faults were reactivated as transpressional strike-slip faults. The SWF complex shows wrench geometry of an anastomosing en échelon fault, where contractional and extensional segments and offsets alternate along the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ). Geometric analysis of different segments of the SWF shows that several conjugate faults, which are a combination of R synthetic and R’ antithetic, propagate at a short distance along the PDZ and interact, generating significant fault slip partitioning. Surface morphology of the fault zone revealed three deformation zones: a 500 m to 1 km wide single fault zone; a 5–6 km wide double fault zone; and a c. 500 m wide diffuse fault zone. The single fault zone is represented by a higher stress accumulation which is located close to the epicentre of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7. The double fault zone represents moderate stress at releasing bends bounded by two fault branches. The diffuse fault zone represents a low-stress zone where several fault branches join together. Our findings are well corroborated with the available geological and seismological data.
The north-western Himalaya is one of the rich repositories of wheat genetic resources because of the preponderance of locally developed traditional crop varieties owing to high agro-climatic heterogeneity and local socio-cultural diversity. In the present study, 100 wheat landraces of this diversity rich region were evaluated for variability in physical parameters of seed to understand the basis of resistance against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. The evaluation was based on the parameter of growth index (GI) of S. oryzae in different landraces. GI was correlated with different quantitative physical seed parameters, viz. hardness, length, width, length × width, test weight and qualitative parameter seed colour were studied to work out if these were related to resistance/susceptibility. Based on the parameter of GI, the six landraces viz. IC266831, IC266872, IC393109, IC392578, IC444217 and IC589276 were identified as resistant. Correlation coefficients between GI of S. oryzae and physical parameters of wheat landraces indicated that GI had significant positive relation with length × width (r = +0.573) and test weight (r = +0.549) indicated that small seeds confer resistance to S. oryzae. Also significant negative relation (r = −0.457) with GI of S. oryzae and seed hardness, indicated that hard seeds were relatively more resistant to S. oryzae.
Manual documentation has an inherent problem of improper communication, manipulation, and validity. An electronic medical record (EMR) is a computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital. EMRs tend to be a part of a local, stand-alone, health information system that allows for storage and retrieval.
The objective of this study was to assess the perception of emergency care providers toward the implementation of an EMR System in the emergency department of a Level-1 Trauma Center.
A qualitative survey was conducted among consenting doctors and nurses in the emergency department of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences February to October 2010. Data were collected from a sample of 22—eight doctors and 14 nurses. The collection tool was a structured, closed-ended questionnaire of 12 questions based on usability, applicability, and security, of EMR. A Likert scale (LS) was used (1 = worst, 4 = best). Surveys were done on Day 20, Day 45, and after nine months of implementation of. Responses of emergency care providers were compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 16.
Three surveys consisted of 22 participants in each survey. The survey domain of usability improved on Survey 3 (LS = 2.57), Survey 2 (LS = 2.46), Survey 1 (LS = 2.24). Application of EMR improved from Survey 1 to Survey 3. The data regarding perception of security concerns such as manipulation of data, transparency, and accountability were comparable among Survey 1, Survey 2, and Survey 3. Initial satisfaction was strongly associated with perception of usefulness of data mining for research purposes.
Satisfaction with an EMR system at its implementation generally persisted through the first year of use. Implementation plans must include positive reinforcement regarding EMR among emergency care providers.
Appropriate triage shortens the delay in definitive care. this study examined whether the implementation of START triage criteria in emergency departments (ED) reduces over- and under-triage of patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of START triage criteria on over and under-triage subjects.
The study was performed between 01 January to 15 September 2008. All patients presenting to the ED were recruited. A triage nurse tagged the patients with a red, yellow, and or green wristband, as per START triage protocol. Over-triage was defined as patients who were re-triaged from red (R) to yellow (Y) or Y to green (G) within 30 minutes of arrival. Under-triage was defined as patients re-triaged from Y to R or G to Y within 30 minutes of arrival.
Of 25,928 patients, triage was performed for 25,468 (98.2%) subjects. A total of 8,303 were triaged during the morning shift, 6,994 during the evening shift, and 9,978 during the night shift. A total of 1,431 (5.6%) subjects were tagged as R, 10,634 (41.7%) with Y, and 13,424 (52.7%) were tagged as G. Four hundred seventy-four (1.9%) patients were over-triaged. Two hundred twenty (0.9%) were under-triaged.
The START triage criteria reduce over- and under-triage of patients.
Acute care addresses immediate resuscitation and early disposition to definitive care. Delay in final disposition from the emergency department (ED) affects outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality. An audit was performed to assess the impact of protocols on red area disposition time.
An audit of red (resuscitation) area disposition time was performed among patients with compromised airway, breathing, and circulation. The red area disposition time was defined as the time from ED arrival to red area disposition. Pre-protocol data from nursing report books were reviewed for ED to operating room (OR), ED to intensive care unit (ICU), and overall disposition time between September 2007 and January 2008. Similar outcomes were documented after implementation of protocols during February to December 2008.
In the pre-protocol period, 992 red area patients were enrolled out of 10,000 ED visits. Out of which 527 (53.1%) were shifted to the OR and 222 (22.3%) to ICU. The average ED disposition time was 3.5 hours (range 2–5). Similarly, 1797 red area patients were enrolled in the post-protocol period out of 25,928. Of these, 453 (25.2%) patients were shifted to the OR, and 423 (23.7%) were shifted to the ICU. The average ED disposition time was 1.5 hours (range 10 minutes–3 hours).
Implementation of protocols improves the red area disposition time of the ED. Auditing is an important tool to address patient safety issues.
Acute pain assessment and management in trauma victims is often overlooked in emergency department (ED). Visual analogue scale is the preferred scale for assessment and management of pain however, its role in a busy ED is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of verbal and visual analogue scale among emergency care providers.
Emergency caregivers were instructed to use both pain scales wherever feasible for assessment, management, and monitoring of pain in 100 non-consecutive alert patients. A separate, pre-tested survey questionnaire addressing the feasibility of each pain scales was surveyed among emergency care providers (emergency physicians, nursing staff). A Likert scale (1 to 5) was assessed for cooperativeness, availability of time for assessment, the format, the peak period feasibility, the monitoring ease and the amount of work load. Binary scale (yes and no) was used to measure the overall utility in assessment and management of pain.
Out of 100 patients enrolled, the verbal analogue score was used in all patients and visual analogue score was used in 30 patients. The average Likert scale score for verbal analogue score questionnaire was 1.7 and the average Likert scale score for visual analogue score questionnaire was 3.9. On the overall utility both scales were found to be useful in all patients.
Both the scales were found to be useful in overall assessment and management of pain. However, there was a favorable trend towards using verbal analogue scale among emergency care providers.
When exposed to hot (22–35°C) and dry climatic conditions in the field during the final 4–6 weeks of pod filling, peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can accumulate highly carcinogenic and immuno-suppressing aflatoxins. Forecasting of the risk posed by these conditions can assist in minimizing pre-harvest contamination. A model was therefore developed as part of the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) peanut module, which calculated an aflatoxin risk index (ARI) using four temperature response functions when fractional available soil water was <0·20 and the crop was in the last 0·40 of the pod-filling phase. ARI explained 0·95 (P⩽0·05) of the variation in aflatoxin contamination, which varied from 0 to c. 800 μg/kg in 17 large-scale sowings in tropical and four sowings in sub-tropical environments carried out in Australia between 13 November and 16 December 2007. ARI also explained 0·96 (P⩽0·01) of the variation in the proportion of aflatoxin-contaminated loads (>15 μg/kg) of peanuts in the Kingaroy region of Australia during the period between the 1998/99 and 2007/08 seasons. Simulation of ARI using historical climatic data from 1890 to 2007 indicated a three-fold increase in its value since 1980 compared to the entire previous period. The increase was associated with increases in ambient temperature and decreases in rainfall. To facilitate routine monitoring of aflatoxin risk by growers in near real time, a web interface of the model was also developed. The ARI predicted using this interface for eight growers correlated significantly with the level of contamination in crops (r=0·95, P⩽0·01). These results suggest that ARI simulated by the model is a reliable indicator of aflatoxin contamination that can be used in aflatoxin research as well as a decision-support tool to monitor pre-harvest aflatoxin risk in peanuts.
To our knowledge, no comprehensive, interdisciplinary initiatives have been taken to examine the role of genetic variants on patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes. The overall objective of this paper is to describe the establishment of an international and interdisciplinary consortium, the GENEQOL Consortium, which intends to investigate the genetic disposition of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes. We have identified five primary patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes as initial targets: negative psychological affect, positive psychological affect, self-rated physical health, pain, and fatigue. The first tangible objective of the GENEQOL Consortium is to develop a list of potential biological pathways, genes and genetic variants involved in these quality-of-life outcomes, by reviewing current genetic knowledge. The second objective is to design a research agenda to investigate and validate those genes and genetic variants of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes, by creating large datasets. During its first meeting, the Consortium has discussed draft summary documents addressing these questions for each patient-reported quality-of-life outcome. A summary of the primary pathways and robust findings of the genetic variants involved is presented here. The research agenda outlines possible research objectives and approaches to examine these and new quality-of-life domains. Intriguing questions arising from this endeavor are discussed. Insight into the genetic versus environmental components of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes will ultimately allow us to explore new pathways for improving patient care. If we can identify patients who are susceptible to poor quality of life, we will be able to better target specific clinical interventions to enhance their quality of life and treatment outcomes.
In the present investigation, the excitation of an upper hybrid wave (UHW) in a hot collisionless magneto-plasma by a relativistic laser beam propagating perpendicular to the static magnetic field and having its electric vector polarized along the direction of the static magnetic field (ordinary mode) is presented. Due to nonuniform intensity distribution of pump laser, the background electron concentration is modified. The amplitude of the UHW, which depends on the background electron concentration, is thus nonlinearly coupled with the laser beam. The effect of nonlinear coupling between the pump laser and UHW is studied. The effect of the relativistic electron mass nonlinearity and the relativistic self-focusing of the pump laser on the excitation of the UHW have been incorporated. The dynamics of the excitation of the UHW in different power domains of the laser beam is accordingly modified. It has been seen that the effect of changing the strength of the static magnetic field on the nonlinear coupling and the dynamics of the excitation of the UHW is significant. The focusing behavior of the UHW may find its relevance in the heating of plasmas near the upper hybrid resonance.
Germination response of perennial wall rocket to temperature, light, osmotic potential, and depth of burial emergence was evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. The effect of seed burial depth on seedling recruitment in the field was also investigated at Roseworthy, South Australia. Under optimal conditions (30 C, light/dark) germination of perennial wall rocket was rapid, with 90% of seeds germinating within 48 h of imbibition. Germination was reduced (20%) at lower, suboptimal temperatures (10 to 20 C) when seeds of perennial wall rocket were exposed to light. Germination declined with increasing osmotic potential and was completely inhibited at osmotic potentials of −1.5 MPa. Perennial wall rocket emergence was greatest from seeds placed on the soil surface, but some seedlings (< 10%) emerged from a depth of 0.5 to 2 cm. Under both field and growth-cabinet conditions, the greatest seedling emergence of perennial wall rocket occurred from seed present on the soil surface; however, the level of absolute recruitment from the seed bank was much lower (< 5%). Information gained from this study will further improve our understanding of the germination behavior of perennial wall rocket and contribute to developing sustainable strategies for its control.
Information on the influence of date of planting on protein, oil and fatty acid composition of soybean seeds is meagre, whilst similar studies on lipoxygenase isozymes and trypsin inhibitor contents are lacking. A field experiment was conducted with nine Indian genotypes and three planting dates (spread over 23 days) to study the influence of planting dates on these seed traits. Results based upon a one-year study indicated that oil content declined with delays in planting. Oleic acid content increased from the first to third planting, while the reverse trend was observed for linolenic acid. Lipoxygenase-1 activity was reduced by delayed plantings. Protein content was the lowest and trypsin inhibitor content was the highest for the second planting. However, no differences were observed for protein and trypsin inhibitor contents between the first and third planting. Significant interactions. observed between genotype and planting date for most of the seed compositional characters suggest that the influence of late planting is genotype-dependent.
Analyses of variance were conducted using two separate random sets of data (25 158 and 24 084 records) on first-lactation, milk-production records of progeny of 69 British Friesian-Holstein proven sires in order to examine the criteria of seasonal grouping for a sire-evaluation model fitting herd-year-season as a fixed effect. Five different seasonal groupings were chosen each comprising two or three seasons with equal or unequal number of months and with different trends in production within season.
The smallest herd-year × month of calving within-season interaction, smallest residual variance, largest effective number of daughters and smallest among-months, within-season variation were considered to be the appropriate criteria of seasonal grouping. None of the groupings examined satisfied all criteria. However, a small herd-year × month within season interaction and all small within-season variation would be desirable if milk records were pre-corrected for the effect of month of calving in sire evaluation, and the effective number of daughters should be large. Given this the grouping currently used in Britain (three seasons: December to March, April to July and August to November) was considered to be appropriate, although a grouping with two seasons: February to July and August to January gave similar results. The regional differences in production were observed to be large, but the region × month-of-calving interaction was small.
An immature parafilarial worm recovered from the anterior chamber of the eye of a buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is described. On the basis of characteristic cuticular ornamentation at the anterior extremity, an undivided short oesophagus and unequal spicules, the specimen has been identified tentatively as a male juvenile of Parafilaria bovicola. This is the first record for P. bovicola as an accidental infection of the eye of a buffalo.
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