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The majority of lambs in the United States are born from late winter to early spring and pregnant ewes are generally sheared in the last third of pregnancy. Although there are benefits to shearing before parturition, shorn animals may be more vulnerable to the cold, highly variable climatic conditions associated with these seasons. The objective of this study was to determine if late gestation shearing induces differences in individual BW, dry matter intake (DMI) and plasma metabolite concentration of finewool ewes managed outdoors during winter. Thirty-six mature, pregnant Rambouillet ewes (3.8±0.45 years; 76.8±11.4 kg) were managed in a drylot with ad libitum access to pelleted alfalfa in bunks capable of measuring individual daily DMI. The treatment group consisted of ewes sheared at ~5 weeks before the estimated parturition date (shorn; n=18). Unshorn ewes (n=18) remained in full fleece throughout the experiment and were shorn on the last day of the experiment ~2 weeks before the estimated parturition date. Blood was collected on days 0 (before shearing shorn group), 7, 14 and 21 (before shearing unshorn group) of the trial, and plasma was isolated and analyzed for non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose (GLU) concentrations. There was no effect of shearing on ewe DMI or BW during the trial (P⩾0.35). Plasma NEFA and GLU concentrations were similar (P⩾0.36) between shearing groups, though plasma BHB concentration was 103.7 μmol/l greater (24.1%; P<0.01) in unshorn ewes. Lamb BW at birth was not affected (P=0.30) by ewe shearing treatment. Under conditions of this study, no differences in economically important aspects of sheep production were observed between shorn and unshorn pregnant ewes.
We report on evidence for weak large scale (r ≥ 6 arcmin) X-ray emission from Cassiopeia A. We investigate several mechanisms for producing such an X-ray halo. Further observations will be required to determine which mechanism is operative.
Einstein X-ray observations of the young supernova remnants Cassiopeia A (Murray et al. 1980) and Tycho (Seward, Gorenstein and Tucker 1982) indicate that the swept-up mass does not much exceed that of the observed ejecta. The initial density distribution of the ejecta and surrounding material is then important in determining the X-ray structure and evolution. Some aspects of this behaviour have been dealt with in previous numerical (e.g. Gull 1973; Itoh 1977; Jones, Smith and Straka 1981) and analytical (e.g. Chevalier 1982a,b) studies. We present here results obtained from numerical models covering a wider range of initial conditions. In particular, we consider the effect of a constant stellar wind from the progenitor star on the expansion of the remnant. We have previously suggested that variable mass loss from SN1006 may explain its warm filled interior (Fabian, Stewart and Brinkmann 1982).
The study purpose was to provide evidence of validity for the Primary Health Care Engagement (PHCE) Scale, based on exploratory factor analysis and reliability findings from a large national survey of regulated nurses residing and working in rural and remote Canadian communities.
There are currently no published provider-level instruments to adequately assess delivery of community-based primary health care, relevant to ongoing primary health care (PHC) reform strategies across Canada and elsewhere. The PHCE Scale reflects a contemporary approach that emphasizes community-oriented and community-based elements of PHC delivery.
Data from the pan-Canadian Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II (RRNII) survey were used to conduct an exploratory factor analysis and evaluate the internal consistency reliability of the final PHCE Scale.
The RRNII survey sample included 1587 registered nurses, nurse practitioners, licensed practical nurses, and registered psychiatric nurses residing and working in rural and remote Canada. Exploratory factor analysis identified an eight-factor structure across 28 items overall, and good internal consistency reliability was indicated by an α estimate of 0.89 for the final scale. The final 28-item PHCE Scale includes three of four elements in a contemporary approach to PHC (accessibility/availability, community participation, and intersectoral team) and most community-oriented/based elements of PHC (interdisciplinary collaboration, person-centred, continuity, population orientation, and quality improvement). We recommend additional psychometric testing in a range of health care providers and settings, as the PHCE Scale shows promise as a tool for health care planners and researchers to test interventions and track progress in primary health care reform.
Positive psychological constructs have been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, and interventions to cultivate positive feelings have the potential to reduce suicide risk. This study compares the efficacy of a 6-week, telephone-based positive psychology (PP) intervention against a cognition-focused (CF) control intervention among patients recently hospitalized for depression and suicidal ideation or behavior.
A total of 65 adults with a current major depressive episode reporting suicidal ideation or a recent suicide attempt were enrolled from participating in-patient psychiatric units. Prior to discharge, participants were randomized to the PP (n = 32) or CF (n = 33) intervention. In both interventions, participants received a treatment manual, performed weekly PP (e.g. gratitude letter) or CF (e.g. recalling daily events) exercises, and completed weekly one-on-one telephone sessions over 6 weeks. Between-group differences in hopelessness (primary outcome), depression, suicidality and positive psychological constructs at 6 and 12 weeks were tested using mixed-effects models accounting for intensity of post-hospitalization psychiatric treatment.
Compared with PP, the CF intervention was associated with significantly greater improvements in hopelessness at 6 weeks (β = −3.15, 95% confidence interval −6.18 to −0.12, effect size = −0.84, p = 0.04), but not 12 weeks. Similarly, the CF intervention led to greater improvements in depression, suicidal ideation, optimism and gratitude at 6 and 12 weeks.
Contrary to our hypothesis, the CF intervention was superior to PP in improving hopelessness, other suicide risk factors and positive psychological constructs during a key post-discharge period among suicidal patients with depression. Further study of this CF intervention is warranted in populations at high suicide risk.
Cyathostomins are ubiquitous nematodes of horses. Once ingested, they can spend a substantial time as encysted larvae in the intestinal wall. The larvae can comprise up to 90% of the total burden, with up to several million worms reported in individuals. These stages can emerge in large numbers to cause life-threatening colitis. Direct methods for detection of encysted larval burdens in live horses do not exist. Previously, two antigen complexes were identified as promising markers for infection. A component of these, cyathostomin gut associated larval antigen-1 (Cy-GALA-1), was identified following immunoscreening of a complementary DNA library. Serum immunoglobulin G(T) (IgG(T)) responses to Cy-GALA-1 were shown to inform on larval infection. Sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction products amplified from individual worms indicated that Cy-GALA-1 was derived from Cyathostomum pateratum. As cyathostomin infections always comprise multiple species, a diagnostic test must account for this. Here, segments of the Cy-gala gene were isolated from four common species, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus ashworthi, Cylicostephanus goldi and Cylicostephanus longibursatus, and the associated proteins expressed in recombinant form. The specificity and immunogenicity of each protein was confirmed. Each protein was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for its ability for informing on the presence of encysted larval infection and the level of burden.
Emission features from ionized carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were measured in the 1900- to 4300-Å spectral region. The Lyman-α 1216-Å line of atomic hydrogen and the 1304-, 1356-, and 2972-Å lines of atomic oxygen were observed.
The Laser Intensity Modulation Method, LIMM, has been used to investigate the poling state of ceramic piezoelectric thin films. The frequency of the system has been extended to 70MHz to enable films of thicknesses down to 100nm to be measured. A unique development has been to sweep the DC bias applied to the sample whilst performing the LIMM measurement, thus giving pseudo PE loops. These PE loops are unique in that they represent the polarization state within a distinct depth of the film, whereas normally PE loops are a result of the complete film. This allows us to investigate processes occurring within different regions of the film.
To report the development and psychometric evaluation of a scale to measure rural and remote (rural/remote) nurses’ perceptions of the engagement of their workplaces in key dimensions of primary health care (PHC).
Amidst ongoing PHC reforms, a comprehensive instrument is needed to evaluate the degree to which rural/remote health care settings are involved in the key dimensions that characterize PHC delivery, particularly from the perspective of professionals delivering care.
This study followed a three-phase process of instrument development and psychometric evaluation. A literature review and expert consultation informed instrument development in the first phase, followed by an iterative process of content evaluation in the second phase. In the final phase, a pilot survey was undertaken and item discrimination analysis employed to evaluate the internal consistency reliability of each subscale in the preliminary 60-item Primary Health Care Engagement (PHCE) Scale. The 60-item scale was subsequently refined to a 40-item instrument.
The pilot survey sample included 89 nurses in current practice who had experience in rural/remote practice settings. Participants completed either a web-based or paper survey from September to December, 2013. Following item discrimination analysis, the 60-item instrument was refined to a 40-item PHCE Scale consisting of 10 subscales, each including three to five items. Alpha estimates of the 10 refined subscales ranged from 0.61 to 0.83, with seven of the subscales demonstrating acceptable reliability (α⩾0.70). The refined 40-item instrument exhibited good internal consistency reliability (α=0.91). The 40-item PHCE Scale may be considered for use in future studies regardless of locale, to measure the extent to which health care professionals perceive their workplaces to be engaged in key dimensions of PHC.
1.1.1 The Faculty of Actuaries' Marketing Research Group was set up in May 1988 to research areas of interest to that new breed of Fellow, the “Marketing Actuary”.
In the initial meetings two general areas of interest were identified—namely the marketing of the actuarial profession, and the marketing of financial services products.
Whilst the group has spent time on both subjects this first paper is concerned with the marketing of the actuarial profession.
1.1.2 We felt that the starting point for a marketing audit of the profession was to conduct research amongst the members. In addition we have investigated the coverage achieved by the profession in the media, and looked into developments in North America, including a survey which ranked the actuarial profession against other forms of employment.
The XMM-Newton spectral-fit database is an ongoing ESA funded project aimed to construct a catalogue of spectral-fitting results for all the sources within the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue for which spectral data products have been pipeline-extracted (≳ 120,000 X-ray source detections). The fundamental goal of this project is to provide the astronomical community with a tool to construct large and representative samples of X-ray sources by allowing source selection according to spectral properties.
Background: Unawareness of cognitive deficit in people with dementia (PwD) has wide clinical implications, impacting on help-seeking behavior, treatment compliance, and patient safety. Most studies on unawareness among PwD have been conducted in small clinical samples. This study investigated the frequency of unawareness of memory impairment in dementia, exploring regional differences and sociodemographic and health status correlates in large population-based surveys.
Methods: Community samples (total n = 15,022) from three world regions (Latin America, China, and India) were obtained using cross-sectional population-based surveys. Out of these, 897 (5.97%) PwD with memory impairment were identified using standardized interviews, diagnostic algorithms (DSM-IV or 10/66 criteria), and neuropsychological memory assessment. Unawareness of memory deficits was ascertained from the participants’ subjective report. The frequency of unawareness was calculated for each region and associations with demographic variables and health status were investigated using prevalence ratios and Poisson regressions.
Results: Regional differences in frequency of unawareness were found, from 63% in China to 81% in India. Unawareness was associated with depression in China and Latin America, dementia severity in India and Latin America, and education and socioeconomic level in Latin America.
Conclusions: Unawareness of memory impairment in PwD varies across international regions. Our data support the notion that unawareness should be seen not only as a common neurobiological feature of dementia, increasing with severity of dementia, but also as a phenomenon influenced by social and cultural factors.
A wide variety of plant-microbe nitrogen-fixing symbioses which include cyanobacteria as the nitrogenfixing partner exist. While some information has been gathered on the biochemical changes in the cyanobacterium upon entering into symbiosis, very little is known about the accompanying changes at the genetic level. Much of our present knowledge of the organisation and control of expression of nitrogenfixation (nif) genes is derived from studies of the free-living diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae. This organism thus provides a model system and source of experimental material for the genetic analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. We describe the use of cloned K. pneumoniae genes for nitrogen fixation and its regulation in the genetic analysis' of nitrogen fixation in cyanobacteria which can enter into symbiosis with plants. These studies reveal some dissimilarities in the organisation of nif genes and raise questions as to the genetic control of nitrogen fixation in symbiosis.
Optical reflectance spectra in the range 30–35000 cm-1 and 4–300 K are presented on several YBa2CuxOy phases, as well as different forms of the superconducting YBa2CuxO7−x (polycrystalline pellets, textured pellets with ab-plane oriented surface, and single crystals).
A large amount of smelting slags, tuyeres and curved refractory materials used during pyrometallurgical activities have been found at Tharros (western-Sardinia, Italy) during an excavation stratigraphically related to the Phoenician-Punic period (VI-IV BC). The microchemical structure of the vitrified end of tuyeres and of the thick fragments of the smelting furnaces, has been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The results indicate that these materials can be associated with an iron smelting process. Furthermore, the temperature and duration of the smelting process has been estimated from the study of vitrification process and penetration depth of vitrification of the tips of some tuyeres combined with the study of pieces of clay taken from a unverified fragment of a tuyere and subjected to different thermal treatments under reducing atmosphere.