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An inline metal organic chemical vapor deposition system was used to deposit tin sulfide at temperatures >500 °C. Tetramethyltin was used as the tin source and diethyldisulfide as the sulfur source. An overhead injector configuration was used delivering both precursors directly over the substrate. The tin and sulfur precursors were premixed before injection to improve chemical reaction in the gas phase. Growth temperatures 500 – 540 °C were employed producing films with approximate 1:1 stoichiometry of Sn and S detected by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed there to be mixed phases with Sn2S3 present with SnS.
The relationship between DIBs and dust is still unknown. The correlation between reddening and DIB strength means that the DIBs are mixed in with the dust and gas in interstellar clouds. The DIBs are relatively stronger in the diffuse interstellar medium than in dense clouds. There is only a weak correlation between the DIBs and the UV extinction parameters including the 2175 Å bump strength and the far-UV rise. In addition, the bump dust grains are sometimes polarized, while the DIBs are not. However, observations of DIBs in the SMC show that when the 2175 Å bump is weak or missing so are the DIBs. Two of the four sightlines that deviate strongly from the CCM UV extinction in the Galaxy show weak DIBs.
Thin film deposition process and integrated scribing technologies are key to forming large area Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) modules. In this paper, baseline Cd1-xZnxS/CdTe solar cells were deposited by atmospheric-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (AP-MOCVD) onto commercially available ITO coated boro-aluminosilicate glass substrates. Thermally evaporated gold contacts were compared with a screen printed stack of carbon/silver back contacts in order to move towards large area modules. P2 laser scribing parameters have been reported along with a comparison of mechanical and laser scribing process for the scribe lines, using a UV Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm and 532 nm fiber laser.
Antibiotic production by dermatophyte fungi has been demonstrated in vivo in the lesions of patients with dermatomycoses. Patients infected with antibiotic-producing strains more frequently carried cocci resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics than did patients infected with non-producer strains. The total bacterial load was less in lesions caused by producer fungi. In vitro studies demonstrated the selection of penicillin-resistant S. aureus from mixed populations of resistant and sensitive cells.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
Elemental Composition: Orbital and in situ Surface Measurements
C. N. Foley, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW Washington, DC 20015-1305, USA,
T. E. Economou, Laboratory for Astrophysics & Space Res. University of Chicago, 933 East 56th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA,
R. N. Clayton, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, RI 440 Chicago, IL 60637, USA,
J. Brückner, Geochemistry Department, Max Planck Institut für Chemie, PO Box 3060, Mainz D-55020, Germany,
G. Dreibus, Cosmochemistry Deparment, Max Planck Institut für Chemie, PO Box 3060, Mainz D-55020, Germany,
R. Rieder, Cosmochemistry Deparment, Max Planck Institut für Chemie, PO Box 3060, Mainz D-55020, Germany,
H. Wänke, Abteilung Kosmochemie Max Planck Institut für Chemie, PO Box 3060, Mainz D-55020, Germany
The Mars Pathfinder Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) was utilized to determine the major and minor elemental abundances of rocks and soils at the 1997 landing site in Ares Vallis. The determined abundances suggest that: (1) the rocks are covered with various amounts of soil; (2) the Soil-Free Rock (SFR) chemistry is similar to that of an evolved SNC-like (SNC – Shergottite, Nakhlite, and Chassignite) igneous tholeiitic basalt-andesite to andesite that is minimally altered (possibly similar to Type 2 TES material); (3) the carbon content is below detection limits for all samples, implying < 5% as MgCO3 (Brückner et al., 1999); (4) the α-mode oxygen abundance indicates that mineral-bound water, above the value for igneous rocks, is present in some rocks and is therefore indicative of some nonigneous alteration and therefore possibly rock-rinds that obscure the petrology of the SFR; and (5) the Pathfinder soils are similar to the Viking fines and may be composed of mafic igneous material like the SNC meteorites and of volatiles deposited from volcanic emissions, as previously suggested by Clark (1993) for the Viking soils.
Background. Previous research suggests that childhood sexual abuse is associated with high rates of retrospectively reported medical utilization and medical problems as an adult. The goal of this study was to determine if abused females have higher rates of medical utilization using self-report and objective measures, compared with non-abused females. A further goal was to determine whether findings of prior research would be replicated when childhood physical abuse level was controlled. This study also examined the moderating impact of depressed mood on current health measures in this population.
Methods. Six hundred and eight women recruited from a health maintenance organization completed self-report measures of health symptoms for the previous month and doctor visits for the previous year. Objective doctor records over a 2 year period were examined for a subset of 136 of these women.
Results. Results showed significantly more self-reported health symptoms and more self-reported doctor visits in abused participants compared with those who reported no childhood history of sexual abuse. Objective doctor visits demonstrated the same pattern with abused participants exhibiting more visits related to out-patient surgery and out-patient internal medicine. In addition, persons who were both sexually abused and depressed tended to visit the emergency room more frequently and to have more in-patient internal medicine and ophthalmology visits than sexually abused participants who reported low depressed mood and non-abused controls.
Conclusions. These results replicate prior studies and suggest that current depression may moderate the relationship between sexual abuse and medical problems in adulthood.
We describe a patient who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma following the application of topical intranasal cocaine. A 46-year-old woman underwent an elective antral washout under general anaesthesia and with local application of 25 per cent cocaine paste to the nasal mucosa. Twenty-four hours post-operatively the patient developed sudden painful blindness which was found to be due to acute glaucoma. Cocaine with its indirect sympathomimetic activity causes mydriasis, that can precipitate acute angle-closure glaucoma in predisposed individuals with a shallow anterior chamber. Although the incidence is rare, otolaryngologists need to be aware of this potential complication.
Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) has been used to deposit chromium nitride coatings using 1200 eV nitrogen ions from an RF-type ion source and thermally evaporated chromium. The ion/atom arrival ratio R was varied from 0 to 8 to modify the coating composition, microstructure, growth rate and stress state in order to optimize the properties of the material for use as a possible substitute for electroplated chromium in a number of anti-corrosion and tribological applications. The coatings were examined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contained up to 44 at % nitrogen in a mixture of bcc Cr-N, Cr2N, and CrN. The microstructure of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the tribological behavior of the coatings was examined using an automated scratch testing and nanoindentation. XPS examination of the coatings indicates that nitrogen near the surface was bound to the metal as CrN and Cr2N in most of the coatings studied by XPS, which is expected to significantly affect their corrosion behavior. The high R values needed to form large amounts of the CrN phase in the bulk of the coating causes significant sputtering during deposition. This study indicates that it is not possible to form a coating consisting solely of cubic CrN by IBAD under these experimental conditions (room temperature substrate and partial pressure of nitrogen of 1.8 × 10−2 Pa). Nevertheless, the IBAD coatings produced were hard, in a compressive stress state, and highly adherent, all properties that make them candidates for use in selected Army applications.
This paper describes a natural language text extraction system, called MEDLEE, that has been applied to the medical domain. The system extracts, structures, and encodes clinical information from textual patient reports. It was integrated with the Clinical Information System (CIS), which was developed at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC) to help improve patient care. MEDLEE is currently used on a daily basis to routinely process radiological reports of patients at CPMC.
In order to describe how the natural language system was made compatible with the existing CIS, this paper will also discuss engineering issues which involve performance, robustness, and accessibility of the data from the end users' viewpoint.
Also described are the three evaluations that have been performed on the system. The first evaluation was useful primarily for further refinement of the system. The two other evaluations involved an actual clinical application which consisted of retrieving reports that were associated with specified diseases. Automated queries were written by a medical expert based on the structured output forms generated as a result of text processing. The retrievals obtained by the automated system were compared to the retrievals obtained by independent medical experts who read the reports manually to determine whether they were associated with the specified diseases. MEDLEE was shown to perform comparably to the experts. The technique used to perform the last two evaluations was found to be a realistic evaluation technique for a natural language processor.
The results of a reconnaissance apatite fission track study from southeast Ireland are compared with modelled ages and length distributions predicted using both traditional thermal histories and the thermal history indicated by the fission track age and length data. All samples have experienced total annealing during the Variscan orogeny. There is strong evidence for significant post-Variscan, pre-Mid Jurassic heating and cooling. The modelling also recognizes a third thermal event subsequent to 100 Ma. The implications of these results are examined in terms of the timing and extent of subsidence and inversion along the northern margin of the North Celtic Sea Basin.
The speciation of radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes subjected to microbial action is important in determining the extent of stabilization in a disposal environment. As part of an ongoing study, we investigated the reduction of uranium by a Clostridium sp. using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS analysis of uranyl acetate containing hexavalent uranium exhibited a binding energy of 382.0eV at the U 4f7/2 peak. The sample incubated in the presence of bacteria was shifted to lower binding energy (380.6eV), confirming the reduction of U6+ to U4+ at the bacterial surface. XANES analysis, using an electron yield detector, was performed at the Mv absorption edge (3d--> 5f). The absorption peak energy of the sample exhibited a shift from 3551.1eV to 3550.1eV which is higher than uranium metal (3549.6eV) but lower than U4+ (3550.4eV). This indicates the presence of U3+ which is probably located beneath the surface within the biomass. Anaerobic bacterial treatment of wastes containing uranyl ion can result in the stabilization of uranium.
Nineteen patients with an episode of major depressive disorder who did not recover within two years of prospective follow-up were compared with an equal number who recovered within a year of the initial evaluation and remained well through the two-year follow-up date. The groups were individually matched for age, sex, primary/secondary status, and prior duration of episode. The only psycho-social variable that predicted chronicity was increased neuroticism on self-report personality inventories administered during the index evaluation. Early loss, recent life events, and recent social supports were not predictive of outcome.
New IUE observations confirm the differences between the Galactic and LMC ultraviolet extinction curves and show some evidence for variations within the LMC. Visual and infrared photometry and polarimetry show that the anomalous properties of the LMC dust do not extend to longer wavelengths. Despite the much different dust to gas ratios in the Galaxy and the Magellanic clouds, the dust formation efficiency is similar when the abundances are included.
Annealing in the 600–900°C temperature range, using either a halogen lamp for periods of seconds or a furnace for periods of minutes, has been applied to activate Be implanted InP samples. The Be was ion-implanted at room temperature into InP substrates. The substrates were uncapped and in close contact with another smooth surface during annealing.
It was found that in the 1017–1019/cm3 range, the acceptor concentration increased with the temperature of anneal. It was also found that redistribution effects decreased with decreasing anneal time. For short anneals, the optimum condition for an 80–90% activation in the 1017–1018/cm3 range was estimated to be 10 seconds at 950°C. It was also found that after rapid anneal, the carrier concentration profile closely approximated the asimplanted Be profile. In the case of 1018–1019/cm3 implants, which were rapidly annealed, there was a low concentration component (1016–1017/cm3) to the redistribution; this ancillary component to the main active distribution was detected by SIMS and was electrically inactive. For long term annealing this electrically inactive Be component was partly converted to substitutional Be and became electrically active. Rapid thermal annealing eliminated this conversion.
Ion beam irradiation of metal film/SiO2 interfaces causes reactions when the metals are those chemically capable of reducing SiO2. These reactions result in the formation of metal rich silicides in the region of the interface and an increase in the adhesion of the film to the substrate. For other nonreactive metals ion irradiation causes lateral transport of metal atoms resulting in the formation of an island structure. The results obtained by ion irradiation are compared with previous studies of high temperature thermal processing of metal films on SiO2.
Mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples were implanted with 100 key nitrogen ions to a fluence of 5.1017 ions/cm2 at two different bulk tenneratures: 370°C and 470°C. Wear tests were carried out with a reciprocating slidina tribotester. Structural modifications and wear morphologies were studied by TEM and SEM. 370°C implanted sample showed the same wear behavior as unimplanted ones, while 470°C implanted sample showed better wear resistance because of a TiN hardened layer. Correlations- between microstructural modifications, wear behavior and mechanisms are reported: results agree with the delamination theory. Comparison with ion- and gas-nitrided samples are presented.