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Nanostructure design and structural properties of epitaxially grown quantum dots and nanowires
M. E. Reimer, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
N. Akopian, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
M. Barkelid, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
G. Bulgarini, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
R. Heeres, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
M. Hocevar, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
B. J. Witek, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
E. P. A. M. Bakkers, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands,
V. Zwiller, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Quantum dots have proven to be exciting systems to study light-matter interaction [32, 9]. Self-assembled quantum dots obtained by the Stranski–Krastanow growth mode have been the main system to date [32, 9]. Here we introduce a new type of quantum dot embedded in a one-dimensional nanowire. Quantum dots in nanowires offer a range of advantages over strain-driven Stranski–Krastanov quantum dots. In the case of quantum dots in nanowires, the light extraction efficiency can be very high for the quantum dot emission due to a waveguide effect in the nanowire [14, 45], theoretically approaching 100% according to simulations . Since strain is not the driving mechanism during growth, unprecedented material freedom is available to the quantum engineer in the choice of materials for the quantum dot and the barrier material. At the scale of nanowires, both zincblende and wurtzite crystal structures can coexist, opening the door to a new type of confinement based not only on the material composition, but also on the phase of the crystal lattice . The ability to electrically contact a single nanowire implies that all the current injected in a nanowire will flow through a single quantum dot, enabling an efficient interface between single electrons and single photons [33, 44]. In addition, electrostatic gating is highly versatile, allowing for coherent spin manipulation , charge state control , and the ability to control the exciton–biexciton splitting by an in-plane electric field .
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