To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Duck production has the potential to play a major role in agricultural economy. Asian countries alone contribute 84.2% of total duck meat produced in the world. Driven by the demand of processed foods among consumers, the global duck meat market is expected to grow at a steady pace, reaching a value of about $11.23 billion in the coming years. Duck meat has higher muscle fibre content in breast meat compared to chicken, and is considered as red meat. Moreover, due to a higher fat content (13.8%) than chicken and a stronger gamey flavour, duck meat can be less appreciated by the consumer. Development and diversification of ready-to-eat duck meat products is expected to increase consumption levels. Hence, the status of duck meat production, physicochemical properties, processing, including traditional products, and development of novel value-added ready-to-eat products from spent duck meat is discussed in detail to explore its importance as an alternative to chicken.
Metallo-dielectric screens are periodic structures, which are at resonance with the infrared (IR) wavelength of interest: a standing wave of surface charges is formed at resonance conditions, which enables transmission or, reflection of certain IR bands. Graphene is a monolayer thick crystal of carbon. It is chemically inert and exhibits very large electronic mobility. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating mono and a few-layered suspended graphene on top of these screens. We combined these two unique components in fabricating novel platforms, which enhance IR signals of soft bio-species. Specifically, we used these platforms to examine IR spectra of a model protein, cytochrome c from a bovine heart tissue. Clear Raman signal variation as a function of platform orientation has been demonstrated. Accentuation of the IR absorption spectra was shown as well.
In a refractory manufacturing industry with widely diversified products from silica (SiO2 ≥ 90%) to high alumina materials (Al2O3 ≥ 90%) and basic refractory from periclase (MgO ≥ 95%) to chrome-periclase (Cr2O3 ≤ 40%) mixtures, introduction of a single method of analysis is impractical both economically and precision-wise. Three different methods are proposed with a view to realistic needs: (a) Direct ratio method, (b) calibration curve ratio method, and (c) matrix normalization by fusing with Li2B4O7 and La2O3 into a glass bead followed by grinding and pelletizing. Statistical regression equations were used for the calibration curves from available NBS standards 15-20 samples previously analysed by wet chemical methods by ratioing with relevant reference samples. In most cases, the relative standard deviation was 2 - 8%.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
We could identify three categories of solar proton events (SPE) with distinct solar origin from an analysis of direct and indirect observations during the years 1561-2016 CE spanning 42 sunspot cycles. They are (i) 10 MeV SPE whose number of occurrences closely follow the sunspot cycles (ii) 30 MeV SPE which show secular changes with peaks near Gleissberg solar cycle minima and inferred to be associated with distinct enhancements in the efficiency of the solar dynamo and (iii) those associated with Impulsive and irregular solar activity changes such as the Carrington event of September 1859. The relevance of above results for stars exhibiting cyclic and irregular activity changes will be also discussed.
Recent helioseismic estimates of the deep solar meridional flow have been contradictory. Using two years worth of GONG data, I show here that the detection of the meridional flow is ambiguous below about 0.85 solar radii.
A number of complex systems arising in diverse disciplines may have certain quantitative features that are surprisingly similar which are classified under the paradigm of “universality”. The non-extensive Tsallis stastical mechanics and Lévy flight patterns provide a novel basis for analyzing non-equilibrium complex systems that may exhibit long-range correlations. The present work studies the scope of employing non-extensive Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) type law for the magnitude distribution of energy of solar wind, in order to investigate the existence of a universal behavior as well as to compute the relations of degree of non-extensivity and Lévy statistics in solar wind turbulence with heliographic distance during different solar cycles.
In this paper we will present our investigations on the characteristics of geomagnetic storms deduced from direct and proxy observations for the years 1601–2016 AD. We show that we could infer epoch of reversal of solar polar magnetic fields from geomagnetic data. Such an inference is done back to the 18th century using geomagnetic and Aurora observations. We could also infer secular changes in the intensity of geomagnetic storms for the past 415 years.
Hemispheric asymmetry is one of the significant parameters related to the action of solar dynamo. Comparison of hemispheric activities during various phases are found out for solar cycles 12 to 23. Asymmetry of solar activity shows extremum values during the cycles 14 and 19. Lowest and highest levels of north-south asymmetry are mainly observed during minimum and maximum phases respectively of solar cycles. A change of phase is found to be existing between the asymmetries at solar maxima and the whole cycle, after solar cycle 15 and 18. Also, for cycles 17-19, the behaviour of the asymmetry is observed to be peculiar and different from that of the other cycles. Periodic behaviour of north-south asymmetry mainly occurs in 8.8 years and noticed very high during the cycles 18-22.
We could find a new 5 year periodicity in the occurrences of peaks in sunspot activity and inferred deviations of annual Indian monsoon rainfall variations from the normal during the Maunder minimum (MM) period. This result is explained in terms of solar dynamo functioning in a different mode from normal during the MM where quadrupole field (first harmonic, 5-5.5 years) dominate over dipole field (fundamental, 11 years) causing extreme north south asymmetry in sunspot activity.
The solar magnesium II core-to-wing ratio has been a well-studied proxy for chromospheric activity since 1978. Daily measurements at high spectral (0.1 nm) resolution began with the launch of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) in 2003. The next generation of measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Sensor (EUVS) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 16 (GOES-16) will add high time cadence (every 30 seconds) to the observational Mg II irradiance record. We present a comparison of the two measurements during the period of overlap.
The meteoroid ablation is an important source of upper atmosphere metal atoms. Many meteoroids ablate between 70 - 110 km and form an ionized plasma trail which is detected by radar technique. It is also known that the ablation heights of the meteors depend on various factors such as velocity, mass, and its composition, etc. The meteor ablation height provides new opportunities to gather information on the neutral atmosphere in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. In this study, we analysed the 11 years of meteor radar data (2005 - 2015), i.e., descending phase of solar cycle 23, and ascending phase of solar cycle 24, detected by all sky meteor radar at Thumba. We found that the solar activity influences the meteor ablation height, here, during the solar maxima meteor peak detection height rise to few hundred meters higher altitudes. We also examined the long term pattern of the meteor count rate which shows a decreasing trend and has good agreement with the sunspot number (SSN).
In this paper we have studied space weather conditions near 53 potentially habitable exoplanets reported in literature using available information on the chromoshperic activity of their host stars and nature of dynamical interactions possible in the respective star-planetary systems.
The properties of the acoustic modes are sensitive to magnetic activity. The unprecedented long-term Kepler photometry, thus, allows stellar magnetic cycles to be studied through asteroseismology. We search for signatures of magnetic cycles in the seismic data of Kepler solar-type stars. We find evidence for periodic variations in the acoustic properties of about half of the 87 analysed stars. In these proceedings, we highlight the results obtained for two such stars, namely KIC 8006161 and KIC 5184732.
The analysis of the Ca-K line spectra as a function of latitude and integrated over the visible disk obtained during the period of 1989–2011 at the Kodaikanal Solar Tower Telescope shows that the FWHM of the K1 distribution at different latitudes varies by negligible amount at about 60° latitude whereas it varies significantly at other latitudes. Findings, especially the fewer variations in mid-latitude belts as compared to polar regions and complex variation in the shift in the activity around 60° latitude belt, will have important implications on the modeling of solar dynamos. Further, we have generated a uniform set of digitized Ca-K line images by selecting images considering the intensity distribution of the images corrected for the instrumental vignetting for the data obtained at Kodaikanal during the 20th century. Then, we have determined the percentage of plage and network areas by using the intensity and area threshold values.
The earlier work on the oscillatory phenomena in sunspot structures have supported in validating the detection of long-period oscillations, which are generated by the photospheric umbral response to the five minute p-mode global oscillations. We report here on the events of 3- min umbral oscillations which are detected within a duration of one hour from a single-polarity sunspot of active region NOAA 12132. The umbral oscillations that appear first around umbral boundaries is speculated to be excited by the wavefronts at the umbral-penumbral boundaries due to sub-photospheric or photospheric granular buffetings. The appearance of the wavefronts in spiral structures suggests that the wave guides are twisted. In addition, the newly formed running penumbral waves (RPWs) appears to be connected with the preceding RPWs.
Sunspots are active regions on the surface of the Sun having strong magnetic fields. Activity level of the Sun shows long-time scale phenomena known as grand episodes-Grand maxima and Grand minima. Present study examines grand episodes shown by sunspot numbers (1090-2017), using methods of wavelet transform and sinusoidal regression. Time interval analysed includes two grand maxima and four grand minima. Interval in between grand episodes are regular oscillations. Phase changes found from periodicity analysis clearly show the presence of upcoming grand episodes. The forthcoming grand episodes are suggested to be two grand minima which are likely to occur between the years 2100-2160 and 2220-2300.
Ultraviolet (UV) Solar spectral Irradiance (SSI) has been measured from orbit on a regular basis since the beginning of the space age. These observations span four Solar Cycles, and they are crucial for our understanding of the Sun-Earth connection and space weather. SSI at these wavelengths are the main drivers for the upper atmosphere including the production and destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. The instruments that measure UV SSI not only require good preflight calibration, but also need a robust method to maintain that calibration on orbit. We will give an overview of the catalog of current and former UV SSI measurements along with the calibration philosophy of each instrument and an estimation of the uncertainties in the published irradiances.
Massive to lobate volcanic flows and brecciated hyaloclastite units in the Abitibi greenstone belt allow investigation of Late Archæan seafloor alteration and associated incorporation into these rocks of nitrogen (N) biogeochemical signatures. In this suite (the Blake River Group), hyaloclastite units containing putative microbial ichnofossils are particularly enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (K, Rb, Ba, Cs), B, and Li, consistent with their having experienced the greatest fluid–rock interaction during subseafloor hydrothermal alteration. Similarly, silicate-δ18O and δ15N values for samples from the hyaloclastites show the greatest shifts from plausible magmatic values. The chemical and isotopic patterns in these tholeiitic igneous rocks greatly resemble those in modern altered seafloor basalts, consistent with the preservation of an Archæan seafloor alteration signature. The N enrichments and shifts in δ15N appear to reflect stabilization of illite and interaction with fluids carrying sedimentary/organic signatures. Enrichments of N (and the δ15N of this N) in altered glass volcanic rocks on Earth's modern and ancient seafloor point to the potential utility of N for tracing past and present biogeochemical processes in similar rocks at/near the Mars surface.
The practical realization of energy-efficient computing vectors is imperative to address the break-down in the scaling of power consumption with transistor dimensions, which has led to substantial underutilized chip space. Memristive elements that encode information in multiple internal states and reflect the dynamical evolution of these states are a promising alternative. Herein we report the observation of pinched loop hysteretic type-II memristive behavior in single-crystalline nanowires of a versatile class of layered vanadium oxide bronzes with the composition δ-[M(H2O)4]0.25V2O5 (M = Co, Ni, Zn), the origin of which is thought to be the diffusion of protons in the interlayer regions.