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Literature surrounding the burden of and factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in persons with tuberculosis (TB) disease remains limited and focused on populations outside the USA. Cross-matched New York City (NYC) TB and viral hepatitis surveillance data were used to estimate the proportion of NYC adults diagnosed with TB from 2000 to 2010 with a report of viral hepatitis infection and to describe the impact of viral hepatitis infection on TB treatment completion and death. For 9512 TB patients, HCV infection was reported in 4·2% and HBV infection in 3·7%; <1% of TB patients had both HCV and HBV infection. The proportion of TB patients with HCV infection to die before TB treatment completion was larger than in TB patients without a viral hepatitis report (21% vs. 9%); this association remained when stratified by HIV status. There was no significant difference in death before treatment completion for TB patients with HBV infection compared to TB patients without a viral hepatitis report when stratified by HIV status. These findings reinforce the importance of hepatitis testing and providing additional support to TB patients with viral hepatitis infection.
The structure of “diamond-like” carbon, a-C:H has been studied using the Xray diffraction facilities available at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (Daresbury Lab, UK). The principle advantage of using the SRS is that high fluxes are available at short wavelengths (λ ∼ 0.6Å): it is therefore possible to extract the “diffuse” scattering profile associated with all amorphous systems with considerable precision over a very wide K-range. A novel diffraction technique is also described in which the X-ray beam is incident on an as-deposited thin film at or near the critical angle. In this geometry we demonstrate that it is possible to gather diffraction data on -1μm films in-situ.
We demonstrate the method of x-ray diffraction at shallow angles of incidence, using the intrinsically highly collimated x-ray beam generated by a synchrotron source, to study the atomic-scale structure of amorphous thin films and coatings in their as-deposited (i.e., on-substrate) state. As the incident angle is decreased, scattering from the film/coating can be isolated as contributions from the substrate are reduced. Systems studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films deposited onto both silicon and steel substrates, where evidence of an interfacial region between the film and silicon wafer has been observed, but we focus on a range of amorphous films/coatings (mixed TiO2 : SiO2 sol-gel spun films, hydrogenated carbon films and “glassy” carbon coatings, silicon: germanium semiconducting films and alumina coatings). The data are used both to comment upon the systems studied and to elucidate the potential, and the limitations, of the experimental method.