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The question of whether intonation contours directly signal meaning is an old one. We revisit this question using vocatives in Colombian Spanish (Bogotá). We recorded speakers' productions in three pragmatic conditions – greeting, confirmation-seeking, and reprimand – and compared proper names (vocatives) to situation-specific one-word utterances, such as ¡Hola! ‘Hello’ (non-vocatives). Intonational analyses showed no direct one-to-one correspondence between the pragmatic conditions and intonation contours: (a) for vocatives, e.g. a rising–falling contour occurred in both greetings and reprimands; and (b) for non-vocatives, e.g. a step-down contour (a.k.a. calling contour) occurred in both greeting and confirmation-seeking conditions. Looking beyond intonation to consider other phonetic variables – spectral tilt, duration, alignment of tonal targets, f0-range, f0-slope – the results showed that the intonation contours that occurred in more than one pragmatic condition differed in phonetic realisation, e.g. rising–falling vocatives showed differences in f0-range of the rise and spectral tilt. However, the corresponding non-vocatives did not show the same differences. Furthermore, vocatives in greeting contexts were realised differently from non-vocatives in greeting contexts. In sum, the pragmatic condition affects the prosodic realisation of (non-)vocatives, but the relationship is complex. The results are discussed in the light of prosodic constructions, leading to the conclusion that the prosodic realisation of vocatives and non-vocatives in Bogotá Colombian Spanish cannot be easily modelled by prosodic constructions.
A photogrammetric survey in 1998 formed the basis for compiling a map of the Tuyuksu glacier region in the northern Tien Shan, Central Asia. Comparison with a map from 1958 enables calculation of the change in glacier volume over 40 years. The results are compared with direct annual measurements carried out continuously since 1956. Central Tuyuksu glacier shows a mass balance of –12.6 mw.e. for the geodetic method and –16.8 m for glaciological measurements. In view of the high accuracy of the maps, the discrepancy can be explained mainly by deficiencies in the glaciological measurements. Application of the precipitation–runoff model HBV-ETH represents the hydrological method of mass-balance determination and delivers specific mass-balance losses almost twice those indicated by the geodetic observations. This discrepancy is suspected to be caused by erroneous runoff measurements. The volume balance derived by the geodetic method is used to calibrate both the glaciological and the hydrological method.
Several large (at least 0.°5 diameter) supernova remnants (SNR) located at 2. °5 or more from the galactic plane have been mapped with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at 49 cm. The sample, which includes IC443, DA530, VR042.05.01, CTA1 and OA184, is particularly suitable for complementary studies in other spectral regimes. By choosing objects at relatively high galactic latitudes we have consciously selected SNR which are likely to suffer less than average extinction and are probably nearer to the sun than most. This makes them particularly attractive for optical and X-ray studies which, along with IR and further radio observations, are either in progress or being planned. These are summarized in Table 1.
In this paper, we present a comparison of the radio and X-ray morphology of the supernova remnant G109.1–1.0, based on recent radio observations at 6 and 20 cm and investigate the relationship of the SNR to a neighbouring molecular cloud.
The extended cloud complex containing members of the Gem OB1 association, the supernova remnant IC443, and the H II region S249 has been studied with IRAS observations at 12,25,60 and 100 microns and WSRT observations at 327 and 1400 MHz and in the 21-cm H I line. A skeleton-like framework of cool dust delineates the boundaries of the region, and physical parameters have been derived for the entire complex, individual H II regions and the shocked and recombined gas within IC443 using the radio and infrared data. IC443 is shown to consist of three interconnected, roughly spherical subshells of vastly different radii and centroids. The geometry is fully constrained by the structural and kinematic data. Two of the subshells together define the usually assumed boundaries of IC443, while the third includes the optical filaments which extend beyond the northeastern rim and which are shown to have well-correlated nonthermal radio components. The available evidence implies that the SNR shock has encountered a pre-existing high density shell. It is shown that the system of subshells is fully consistent with formation by stellar wind driven bubbles generated by association members within the inhomogeneous environment of the complex.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
The relative speed between Comet Halley and the presently planned Halley Probe will be approx. 55 km/s. At such a speed the method of impact ionization mass-spectrometry is perfectly suited to analysing cometary dust particles with masses from 10−16g to 10−10g. First results are reported by Dalmann et al. If a micrometeoroid hits the sensitive target, ions from both particle and target material are produced. The total number of ions is registered with a charge-sensitive amplifier and this signal Q allows the determination of the particle mass m (Q ∼ m). By an electric potential difference of 3 kV, ions are drawn into a field-free drift-tube. The ions are separated in time in the TOF-Spectrometer due to their different masses. The mass spectrum is registered as output current of the particle multiplier at the end of the TOF-tube. It gives information about the chemical composition of the detected particle. Characteristics of such spectra recorded with the Impact-Spectrometer currently used in the laboratory are the following: a) mass resolution m/Δm > 100 at 23 amu, b) flight-time (t ∼ 14 μs at 100 amu; the corresponding Δt ∼ 70 ns between 99 and 100 amu).
The new genus and species Bicoloromyces kyffinensis is described as new to science from a sterile crustose lichen, perhaps Lecanora fuscobrunnea or Lecidella sp. from Ebony Ridge of Mount Kyffin, Antarctica. The fungus recalls superficially the lichenicolous species referred to Taeniolella, but differs in having semi-macronematous conidiophores, tissues encrusted with calcium oxalate, aeruginose to blue-black colouration under the microscope, and conidia which are distoseptate and formed in basipetal chains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy established that the encrustations were of calcium oxalate. Differences from genera of rock-inhabiting fungi described from the Antarctic are discussed. This appears to be the furthest south any lichen-inhabiting fungus has been reported.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee's recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance.
We developed a new phage-typing method and evaluated its application in combination with XbaI macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as a useful tool for the long-term epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. In this study, we investigated 1008 S. Infantis isolates recovered from humans, various animal species and food products from 1973 to 2009. The typing scheme is based on 17 typing phages, defining 61 different patterns within the strain collection. The experiments showed that phage typing is a reliable method for differentiation of outbreaks and sporadic clinical cases as well as for elucidation of chains of transmission. The combined analysis of phage typing and PFGE revealed the existence of epidemic clones with a high stability over time like PT29/XB27 which was identified in nosocomial salmonellosis, community outbreaks as well as in broiler chickens from 2002 to 2009.
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.
Antenatal corticosteroids are used to augment fetal lung maturity in human pregnancy. Dexamethasone (DEX) is also used to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the fetus in early pregnancy. We previously reported effects of synthetic corticosteroids given to sheep in early or late gestation on pregnancy length and fetal cortisol levels and glucocorticoids alter plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in late pregnancy and reduce fetal weight. The effects of administering DEX in early pregnancy on fetal organ weights and betamethasone (BET) given in late gestation on weights of fetal brain regions or organ development have not been reported. We hypothesized that BET or DEX administration at either stage of pregnancy would have deleterious effects on fetal development and associated hormones. In early pregnancy, DEX was administered as four injections at 12-hourly intervals over 48 h commencing at 40–42 days of gestation (dG). There was no consistent effect on fetal weight, or individual fetal organ weights, except in females at 7 months postnatal age. When BET was administered at 104, 111 and 118 dG, the previously reported reduction in total fetal weight was associated with significant reductions in weights of fetal brain, cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver. Fetal plasma insulin, leptin and triiodothyronine were also reduced at different times in fetal and postnatal life. We conclude that at the amounts given, the sheep fetus is sensitive to maternal administration of synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation, with effects on growth and metabolic hormones that may persist into postnatal life.
In Germany, emergency medical care is provided by ambulances. Emergency physicians also are used in the German rescue system to ensure primary care. Additionally, rescue helicopters are insertable. The rescue helicopter in Dresden covers the city of Dresden and its surrounding areas, with 517,000 inhabitants and distances up to 70 km. The goal of this study was to evaluate emergency cases in helicopter rescue missions according to primary diagnoses and severity of the mission on the basis of NACA Score.
Data from all emergencies using the German Air Rescue (DRF-Luftrettung) Helicopter Base Dresden were recorded on a standardized protocol and transferred to a central computer database (MEDAT®). Data from all emergency cases between January 2006 and July 2010 were analyzed.
There was a total of 6,310 emergencies during the study period, with a significant increase over time. The helicopter was on-scene within 10.9 minutes. In total, 54% of the patients were male. The rate of female patients > 80 years of age was 64.5%. A total of 63.4% of patients suffered life-threatening injuries or dysfunctions and a NACA score ≥ 4. A total of 7.6% of patients were classified in NACA 6 or 7. The most common cause for rescue missions was an acute coronary syndrome (20.4%). Other frequent diagnoses included brain injury (13.3%), unconsciousness (12.5%), stroke (12.9%), general cerebral convulsion (7.9%), polytrauma (6.4%), and cardiac arrest (5.0%). The rate of prehospital endotracheal intubation was 15.1%. In 1.1% of patients, a thoracic drainage was established.
In recent years the number of helicopter rescue missions increased, along with injury severity. The total number of patients with NACA 6 and 7 was extremely high, and demonstrates the need for an efficient emergency medical rescue system that includes helicopters.
Series of poly(urethanes) were prepared in which the spacer groups between the rigid segments contained siloxanes. The conditions for the appearence of liquid crystallinity and a fair thermal stability were investigated and compared to those of corresponding esters.
A novel kind of hydroxyl formation during the processing of quartz glass tubes with oxy-hydrogen burners was found and studied in detail by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. The formation mechanism involving hydrogen penetration from the flame and following reactions is discussed.
We have successfully grafted polythiophene on polyethylene (PE) film with a three reactions step: gas phase bromination on PE, yielding PE-Br; substitution reaction of PE-Br with 2-thiophene thiolate anion, following by chemical oxidative polymerization. The polymerization was carried out in a suspension solution of anhydrous FeCl3 in CHCl3, yielding a reddish PE-PT film after dedoping with ethanol. ATR-FTIR shows that the polythiophene (PT) was grafted on PE in the 2,5-position; on the other hand, PT homopolymer shows a small amount of 2,4 coupling. XPS reveals higher intensity of the S2p, including neutral and positive sulfur. SEM image reveals the island of PT on the PE film. AFM analysis found the thickness of the island is in the range of 120–145 nm. The conductivity of these thin films is in the range of 10−6 S/cm.
Two-dimensional passive photodiode matrices are hardly useful for image sensing due to the crosstalk between pixels. This crosstalk makes it difficult to recover information from individual pixels. A switching unit attached to each sensing unit has been the common solution in image sensors (such as in CMOS sensors and in TFT-PiN a-Si photosensors). A novel organic photodiode with voltage-switchable photosensitivity was developed recently. Passive photodiode matrices made with such organic photodiodes can be used for image sensing applications. This circuit simulation study demonstrates an effective scheme to extract images from passive photodiode matrices, concluding that individual photodiode parameters determine the contrast and resolution of N by M image sensors.
Growing interest in nanomaterials has raised many questions regarding the operating mechanisms active during the deformation and failure of nanoscale materials. To address this, a simple, effective in situ TEM straining technique was developed that provides direct detailed observations of the active deformation mechanisms at a length scale relevant to most nanomaterials. The capabilities of this new straining structure are highlighted with initial results in pulsed laser deposited (PLD) Al-Al2O3 thin films of uniform thickness. The Al-Al2O3 system was chosen for investigation, as the grain size can be tailored via deposition and annealing conditions and the active mechanisms in the binary system can be compared to previous studies in PLD Ni and evaporated Al films. PLD Al-Al2O3 free-standing films of various oxide concentrations and different thermal histories were produced and characterized in terms of average grain and particle sizes. Preliminary in situ TEM straining experiments show intergranular failure for films with 5 vol% Al2O3. Further work is in progress to explore and understand the active deformation and failure mechanisms, as well as the dependence of mechanisms on processing routes.
In order to find the next generation thermoelectric (TE) material, we are focussing on the parameter Nv, the degeneracy of the band extrema in semiconductors near the Fermi energy. We attempt to synthesize ‘multivalley’ semiconductors by incorporating tetrahedral anions to introduce structural complexity while maintaining high crystallographic symmetry.
The synthesis and crystal structures of two new compounds that partially fulfill our requirements for potential TE materials are reported. Pb3(PS4)Br3 is monoclinic, space group P21/m with a=9.1531(1)Å, b=10.9508(3)Å, c=12.7953(1)Å and β=111.024(2)°. Pb3(PS4)I1.75Te0.625 crystallizes in the space group R 3 with a=9.4876(4)Å, c=46.189(3)Å. Both structures are built from alternating layers of lead halide and the thiophosphate ion (PS4)3-.