To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Gold is a globally traded asset and held in large quantities by investors and central banks. Since there is no established model to assess whether the price of gold is overvalued or undervalued, we propose a relative valuation framework based on gold price ratios. This idea is not confined to gold but offers the foundation for relative valuation of a broad range of different assets or asset classes. We analyze gold prices relative to commodity prices, consumer prices, stock prices, dividend, and bond yields and find that the relative value of gold varies significantly over time. An analysis of the factors which drive these variations demonstrates that inflation expectations and uncertainty have a strong influence on gold ratios while macroeconomic fundamentals are less important. More specifically, a boost in confidence decreases the relative price of gold while heightened uncertainty increases the relative price of gold, which confirms the role of gold as a safe haven.
Idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a result of impaired placental nutrient supply. Newborns with IUGR exhibiting postnatal catch-up growth are of higher risk for cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities in adult life. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was recently shown to function as a placental nutrient sensor. Thus, we determined possible correlations of members of the placental mTOR signaling cascade with auxologic parameters of postnatal growth. The protein expression and activity of mTOR-pathway signaling components, Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase α, mTOR, p70S6kinase1 and insulin receptor substrate-1 were analysed via western blotting in IUGR v. matched appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) placentas. Moreover, mTOR was immunohistochemically stained in placental sections. Data from western blot analyses were correlated with retrospective auxological follow-up data at 1 year of age. We found significant catch-up growth in the 1st year of life in the IUGR group. MTOR and its activated form are immunohistochemically detected in multiple placental compartments. We identified correlations of placental mTOR-pathway signaling components to auxological data at birth and at 1 year of life in IUGR. Analysis of the protein expression and phosphorylation level of mTOR-pathway components in IUGR and AGA placentas postpartum, however, did not reveal pathognomonic changes. Our findings suggest that the level of activated mTOR correlates with early catch-up growth following IUGR. However, the complexity of signals converging at the mTOR nexus and its cellular distribution pattern seem to limit its potential as biomarker in this setting.
In parasitological research, significant progress has been made with respect to genomics and transcriptomics but transgenic systems for functional gene analyses are mainly restricted to the protozoan field. Gene insertion and knockout strategies can be applied to parasitic protozoa as well as gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi). By contrast, research on parasitic helminthes still lags behind. Along with the major advances in genome and transcriptome analyses e.g. for schistosomes, methods for the functional characterization of genes of interest are still in their initial phase and have to be elaborated now, at the beginning of the post-genomic era. In this review we will summarize attempts made in the last decade regarding the establishment of protocols to transiently and stably transform or transfect schistosomes. Besides approaches using particle bombardment, electroporation or virus-based infection strateies to introduce DNA constructs into adult and larval schistosome stages to express reporter genes, first approaches have also been made in establishing protocols based on soaking, lipofection, and/or electroporation for RNA interference to silence gene activity. Although in these cases remarkable progress can be seen, the schistosome community eagerly awaits major breakthroughs especially with respect to stable transformation, but also for silencing or knock-down strategies for every schistosome gene of interest.
Among the topics of considerable interest concerning our understanding of the unusual biology of schistosomes is the sexual maturation of the female. The identification of genes coding for signal transduction proteins controlling essential steps of the pairing-dependent differentiation of the reproductive organs, vitellarium and ovary will help to substantiate our knowledge about this unique parasite. Furthermore, such signalling proteins could be potential targets to interfere with the development of this parasite to combat schistosomiasis since its pathology is caused by the eggs. This review summarises first post-genomic steps to elucidate the function of gonad-specific signalling molecules which were identified by homology-based cloning strategies, by in silico identification or by yeast two-hybrid interaction analyses, using a combination of novel techniques. These include the in vitro culture of adult schistosomes, their treatment with chemical inhibitors to block enzyme activity, the use of RNAi to silence gene function post-transcriptionally, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to study the morphological consequences of these experimental approaches. Finally, we propose a first model of protein networks that are active in the ovary regulating mitogenic activity and differentiation. Some of these molecules are also active in the testes of males, probably fulfilling similar roles as in the ovary.
Selective breeding of dogs has culminated in a large number of modern breeds distinctive in terms of size, shape and behaviour. Inadvertently, a range of breed-specific genetic disorders have become fixed in some pure-bred populations. Several inherited conditions confer chronic metabolic defects that are influenced strongly by diet, but it is likely that many less obvious breed-specific differences in physiology exist. Using Labrador retrievers and miniature Schnauzers maintained in a simulated domestic setting on a controlled diet, an experimental design was validated in relation to husbandry, sampling and sample processing for metabolomics. Metabolite fingerprints were generated from ‘spot’ urine samples using flow injection electrospray MS (FIE-MS). With class based on breed, urine chemical fingerprints were modelled using Random Forest (a supervised data classification technique), and metabolite features (m/z) explanatory of breed-specific differences were putatively annotated using the ARMeC database (http://www.armec.org). GC-MS profiling to confirm FIE-MS predictions indicated major breed-specific differences centred on the metabolism of diet-related polyphenols. Metabolism of further diet components, including potentially prebiotic oligosaccharides, animal-derived fats and glycerol, appeared significantly different between the two breeds. Analysis of the urinary metabolome of young male dogs representative of a wider range of breeds from animals maintained under domestic conditions on unknown diets provided preliminary evidence that many breeds may indeed have distinctive metabolic differences, with significant differences particularly apparent in comparisons between large and smaller breeds.
Low-frequency density and temperature oscillations (ω « νj, ωcj, where νj is the collision frequency with neutrals and ωcj is the cyclotron frequency; j = i, e) observed in magnetized radiofrequency-produced plasmas with electron density and temperature gradients across the magnetic field are analysed using a local two-fluid model. This model incorporates the electron energy equation. The resulting dispersion relation permits study of the parameter dependence of the complex angular wave frequency. Instability is found in the case where the election density and temperature gradients have opposite signs. This instability is classified as a low-frequency drift wave, and the criteria for its onset are obtained.
The nonlinear behaviour of unstable drift waves in magnetized plasmas is analysed analytically. Most attention is paid to low-frequency waves created in electron density and temperature gradients of opposite sign. This situation is typically encountered in radiofrequency-produced discharges. The model developed explains nonlinear features such as mode competition, amplitude saturation and magnetic field hysteresis, which are observed experimentally.
During 2002–2003 increased numbers of notified salmonellosis due to S. enterica serovar Agona were observed in Germany. In order to understand the recent spread of this serovar and to trace the route of infection to its source, a new phage-typing scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to analyse these isolates. By using 14 bacteriophages, 52 phage types were distinguished among the S. Agona strains. PFGE also differentiated 52 different patterns. A combination of both methods generated 94 clonal types among 165 S. Agona strains originating from Germany and other countries including the United States, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, India, Austria and Finland, indicating a great biological diversity within this serovar. However, 36 recent S. Agona isolates from infantile gastroenteritis in Germany, from an untreated batch of aniseed imported from Turkey and from fennel-aniseed-caraway infusion (packed in tea bags) revealed clonal identity indicating their epidemiological relatedness as a new source of infection. It is suggested that strains of S. Agona will continue to be of public health concern, and that phage typing together with PFGE typing should be applied as reliable and rapid tools for epidemiological subtyping and future monitoring.
Many experimental findings suggest that disturbances of noradrenergic neurons in the CNS are involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Moreover, evidence indicates that adaptive changes of central noradrenergic neurons contribute to the biochemical mechanism of action of most anti-depressive treatments (Goodwin, 1984; Johnstone, 1982). Accordingly, assessing the activity of central noradrenergic neurons in depressive patients has become important in psychiatric research.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.