To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Understanding the peculiar properties of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) via spectroscopic analysis is a challenging task that is now becoming feasible. The advent of 10m-class telescopes and high sensitivity instruments is enabling the gathering of high quality spectra even for the faintest systems. In addition, advances in the modelling of stellar populations, stellar libraries, and full-spectral fitting codes are allowing the recovery of the stellar content shaping those spectra with unprecedented reliability. In this contribution we report on the extensive tests we have carried out using the inversion code STECKMAP. The similarities between the Star Formation Histories (SFH) recovered from STECKMAP (applied to high-quality spectra) and deep Colour-Magnitude diagrams fitting (resolved stars) in two Local Group dwarf galaxies (LMC and LeoA) are remarkable, demonstrating the impressive performance of STECKMAP. We exploit the capabilities of STECKMAP and perform one of the most complete and reliable characterisations of the stellar component of UDGs to date using deep spectroscopic data. We measure radial and rotation velocities, SFHs and mean population parameters, such as ages and metallicities, for a sample of five UDG candidates in the Coma cluster. From the radial velocities, we confirm the Coma membership of these galaxies. We find that their rotation properties, if detected at all, are compatible with dwarf-like galaxies. The SFHs of the UDG are dominated by old (∼ 7 Gyr), metal-poor ([M/H] ∼ -1.1) and alpha-enhanced ([Mg/Fe]∼ 0.4) populations followed by a smooth or episodic decline which halted ∼ 2 Gyr ago, possibly a sign of cluster-induced quenching. We find no obvious correlation between individual SFH shapes and any UDG morphological properties. The recovered stellar properties for UDGs are similar to those found for DDO 44, a local UDG analogue resolved into stars. We conclude that the UDGs in our sample are extended dwarfs whose properties are likely the outcome of both internal processes, such as bursty SFHs and/or high-spin haloes, as well as environmental effects within the Coma cluster.
Twenty-two consecutive VLBI images of supernova 1993J in the galaxy M81 taken over 7 years show, in unprecedented detail, the dynamic evolution of the expanding radio shell of an exploded star. High precision astrometry using phase-referencing shows that the supernova expands isotropically, and that its geometric center has a formal proper motion of 190±110 km s−1 w.r.t. the core of M81. Systematic changes in the images most likely reflect a pattern of inhomogeneities in the medium left over from the progenitor star, or possibly instabilities in the expanding shell. As the shockfront sweeps up the medium, it is progressively decelerated, and after 7 years it has slowed to less than 1/2 its original expansion velocity. SN1993J is likely now entering the early stages of the adiabatic phase common in much older supernova remnants.
The Parkes 64 m telescope has been used to survey a complete sample of nearby red giants (i.e. not members of close binaries or showing strong emission lines of CaII). The sample consisted of all 82 stars in the Bright Star Catalogue within 30 pc having spectral types G, K, M and luminosity classes I, II, III south of the celestial equator.
Twenty consecutive VLBI images of supernova 1993J in M81 from the time of explosion to the present show the dynamic evolution of the expanding radio shell of an exploded star. No clear sign of a pulsar nebula, expected to have a spectral luminosity 10 to 1,000 times larger than that of the Crab, has yet been seen. The upper limit on the brightness at 8.4 GHz in the center of the shell in one of the latest images is 0.15 mJy per beam of 0.4 mas2, corresponding to a spectral luminosity of that of the Crab. Any nebula that may have formed in the center is probably still obscured by the surrounding thermal matter with no substantial filamentation having yet occurred in the latter.
Ornithosis outbreaks in poultry processing plants are well-described, but evidence for preventive measures is currently lacking. This study describes a case-control study into an outbreak of ornithosis at a poultry processing plant in the East of England, identified following three employees being admitted to hospital. Workers at the affected plant were recruited via their employer, with exposures assessed using a self-completed questionnaire. Cases were ascertained using serological methods or direct antigen detection in sputum. 63/225 (28%) staff participated, with 10% of participants showing evidence of recent infection. Exposure to the killing/defeathering and automated evisceration areas, and contact with viscera or blood were the main risk factors for infection. Personal protective equipment (goggles and FFP3 masks) reduced the effect of exposure to risk areas and to self-contamination with potentially infectious material. Our study provides some evidence of effectiveness for respiratory protective equipment in poultry processing plants where there is a known and current risk of ornithosis. Further studies are required to confirm this tentative finding, but in the meantime respiratory protective equipment is recommended as a precautionary measure in plants where outbreaks of ornithosis occur.
An investigation designed to display the intrinsic properties of perovskite manganites was accomplished by comparing the behavior of bulk samples with that of thin films; the results show the "colossal magneto resistance" at very low temperatures is not an intrinsic property of the thermodynamically stable 1/3 doped material. Epitaxial 1500 Å films of perovskite La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 were grown by solid source chemical vapor deposition on LaA1O3 and post annealed in oxygen at 950°C. Crystals were prepared by LASER heated pedestal growth. The magnetic and electrical transport properties are essentially the same. Below Tc/2 the intrinsic magnetization decreases as T2 (as can be expected for itinerant electron ferromagnets) while the intrinsic resistivity increases proportional to T2. The constant and T2 coefficients of the resistivity are largely independent of magnetic field and alkaline earth element (Ca, Sr or Ba). We identify three distinct types of negative magnetoresistance. The largest effect is observed near the Curie temperature and is likely to be due to magnetic critical scattering. There is also magnetoresistance associated with the net magnetization of polycrystalline samples. The high temperature (above Tc) resistivity of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 is consistent with small polaron hopping conductivity with a transition at 750K, while La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 does not exhibit activated conductivity until about 500K, well above Tc. The limiting low and high temperature resistivities may place a limit on the maximum possible magnetoresistance of these materials.
The critical magnetic properties of bulk La0.67Ca0.3MnO3 and magnetoresistance of a thin film with the same Tc were measured and critical exponents determined. The magnetization data can be scaled with β = 0.3 and γ = 0.9, except above Tc which appears to be affected by a region where X3 (M = XH + X3H3) is positive. An M2 dependence of the magnetoconducitvity is observed above Tc. Below Tc, however, such a correspondence between the critical magnetic and transport behavior is not found.
Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostiris are found in coastal waters from the Bay of Bengal east to Palawan, Philippines and south to northern Australia. They also occur in three large tropical river systems in South-east Asia: the Mekong, Mahakam and Ayeyarwady. In March and May 1997 approximately 350 km of riverine habitat in parts of north-east Cambodia were surveyed, discussions took place with local people, and reported dry season dolphin habitat was mapped. Our objectives were to investigate the status, habitat and distribution of dolphins in north-east Cambodia and identify threats to the continued survival of dolphins in the Mekong River Basin. Nine groups of dolphins were observed in the Mekong River. A ‘best’ estimate of 40 animals were seen. Irrawaddy dolphins were generally confined to sections of the river with water levels >8–10 m during the dry season. It appears that the Mekong River dolphin population is rapidly declining. In 1997 there were probably no more than 100¨C150 dolphins left in north-east Cambodia (including southern Laos) and no more than 200 within the entire Mekong River Basin, although these numbers remain tentative. Anthropogenic mortality is high, albeit largely unintentional, and there is considerable risk that the dolphin population will become locally extinct in the Mekong River in the near future. The establishment of community-managed deep water Fish Conservation Zones with government support may represent the best opportunity for reducing dry season dolphin mortality from large-meshed gillnet entanglement. Efforts to establish protected areas for dolphins are currently underway.
Four cases of serious MRSA wound infection following head and neck surgery have been identified. One patient died. At post mortem a mediastinal abscess containing MRSA was found to have eroded into the innominate artery causing fatal haemorrhage. The other three suffered serious wound infections, two requiring further surgery. Once MRSA hadbeen identified they were treated with intravenous teicoplanin and all made a full recovery.
The overthrow of the Tokugawa in 1867–68 carried implications of important changes in the political institutions of Japan, as well as in the location of power. Yet when Tokugawa Yoshinobu (Keiki) resigned as shogun in November 1867, this did not seem by any means inevitable. He might well have been succeeded, so contemporaries believed, by some kind of baronial council, in which he would still hold a preponderant place, thereby putting the authority of the shogun into the hands of a group of great lords, of whom he would be one. The palace coup d'état of January 3, 1868, engineered by Satsuma and Chōshū, ended that prospect, at least in the sense of ensuring that the Tokugawa would be excluded from any successor regime to which those domains belonged. There followed some months of civil war, which confirmed and extended Japan's political polarization, ensuring that all the lords and most of their retainers had to commit themselves to one side or the other. After this there was no going back. Because the Tokugawa had been defeated and there had emerged no single victorious feudal lord who could aspire to the office of shogun – Satsuma came closest – the country's new rulers had then to work out an alternative framework through which authority could be exercised. Japanese tradition and recent history ensured that it must focus on the emperor, but devising institutions appropriate to it was to take a whole generation, that is, until the promulgation of the constitution in 1889 and the associated regulations concerning central and local government.
The second half of the eighteenth century witnessed a new phase of European expansion into the non-European world, stimulated by the mercantilist ambitions of European governments and made possible by a growing technological superiority. One consequence was a series of attempts to develop a profitable trade with the countries of East Asia, most of which, bound loosely together in a political and economic system centering on China, had shown little inclination previously to engage in commerce with other regions. Japan, committed to a policy of national isolation (sakoku) dating from the seventeenth century, gave no sign of responding to such overtures. With China, however, there grew up a trade in tea and silk that by 1800 was of considerable value. In the next fifty years or so, this trade became, first, the main focus of Western economic penetration in East Asia and, then, the raison d'être for a set of institutional relationships, known as the treaty port system, which was eventually extended to most of China's maritime neighbors. As one of those neighbors, Japan became part of it.
The nature of the treaty port system in the nineteenth century derived principally from the commercial policies of Great Britain. These, in turn, reflected a shift from the eighteenth-century doctrines of mercantilism to those of laissez faire, linked with the coming of the Industrial Revolution. In 1840, seeking above all an expanding market for the products of its factories, Britain seized the opportunity afforded by a dispute with China over the opium trade and the treatment of British merchants at Canton to demand the “opening” of China on terms of “equality,” in accordance with the principles of free trade.