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The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of −0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.
We consider large-eddy simulation (LES) of buoyant plumes in uniform and stably stratified environments. We show that in the former case the results agree well with the simple plume model of Morton, Taylor & Turner (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 234, 1956, p. 1). In particular, we calculate an entrainment constant which is consistent with laboratory and field measurements and find no significant difference between the radial spreading rates of vertical velocity and buoyancy. In a stably stratified environment, the LES plume shows better agreement with Morton et al. (1956) below the level at which the buoyancy first vanishes than above this level. Above the level of neutral buoyancy, the LES plume is characterized by an ascending core of negative buoyancy surrounded by a descending annulus of positive buoyancy. We compare the LES data with the model of Bloomfield & Kerr (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 424, 2000, p. 197), which explicitly accounts for these coherent motions. The model exhibits many qualitative aspects of the LES plume and quantitative agreement can be improved by adjusting the downward volume flux relative to the upward volume flux in a manner consistent with the LES plume. This simple adjustment, along with revised values of the entrainment constants, represents the combined effects of an overturning region at the top of the plume (where a fluid element reverses direction), ‘plume-top’ entrainment (whereby the plume entrains ambient fluid above the plume) as well as lateral entrainment and detrainment processes (both external and internal) occurring above the top of the model plume.
Between January and March 1992, 361 faecal specimens were collected from the healthy black population in the Transvaal Province of South Africa. Each specimen was examined for the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in commensal bacteria. Volunteers, from both rural and urban dwellings, were divided into four age groups. The overall carriage rate of resistance varied from 88.6% for ampicillin, 74.2% for trimethoprim, 52.6% for chloramphenicol, 10.2% for nalidixic acid to 7.5% for gentamicin. The carriage of resistance found to each individual antimicrobial agent was slightly higher in the rural population rather than the urban population but there was no correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the age group.
In a recent survey of trimethoprim resistance. 357 Gram-negative aerobic organisms were isolated from healthy volunteers from rural and urban populations in South Africa. Trimethoprim resistance did not transfer to an Escherichia coli J62–2 recipient strain by conjugation in a liquid mating in 161 (45·1%) of the isolates. These isolates which did not transfer their resistance were probed with intragenic oligonucleotide probes for the types Ia. Ib. IIIa. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X and XII dihydrofolate reductase genes. Contrary to all previous data, the most prevalent dihydrofolate reductase gene in this group of non-transferable isolates which hybridized, was the type VII (38%) followed by the type Ia (25%). Ib (12%). V (1·7%) and VIII (1·2%). None of the strains hybridized to the types IIIa. VI. XI. X and the XII dihydrofolate reductase probes. Southern blots of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from selective isolates revealed that the type VII dihydrofolate reductase genes were located on the chromosome and were associated with the integrase gene of Tn21. However, the type Ib and V dihydrofolate reductase genes were all found on plasmids which could not be mobilized. The type Ia dihydrofolate reductase genes were found on both non-transferable plasmids and on the chromosome. The nature of the genetic structures associated with a dihydrofolate reductase gene strongly affects the means of spread of the gene in a population.
The genetic and biochemical basis of ampicillin resistance amongst the aerobic Gram-negative commensal faecal flora of healthy volunteers in South Africa has been determined. Amongst 608 ampicillin resistant strains isolated from 320 of the participants, 158 were able to transfer their ampicillin resistant determinants into Escheriehia coli K-12 J62–2. Iso-electric focusing of the β-lactamases, extracted from the transconjugants, demonstrated that ampicillin resistance resulted from the presence of the TEM-1, TEM-2 and SHV-1 β-lactamases in 94·3%, 2·5% and 3·2% of isolates respectively. Endonuclease restriction digests of the plasmids isolated from the transconjugants showed that the β-lactamase genes were present on a wide variety of plasmid types; 101 distinct plasmid endonuclease restriction patterns were identified. Transferable ampicillin resistance was associated with resistance to other antibiotics at the following frequencies: trimethoprim (48·7 %), streptomycin (35·4 %), tetracycline (27·2%), spectinomycin (9·5%), chloramphenicol (3·2%) and gentamicin (1·3%). One antibiotic resistance pattern, ampicillin and trimethoprim. predominated (28%). In total. 77·9% of the plasmids conferred resistance to other antibiotics raising the possibility that use of any of these agents, not simply ampicillin, may contribute to the maintenance of resistance genes.
A survey of the β-lactamases responsible for ampicillin resistance in urinary Escherichia coli isolated in central Scotland has been performed. The TEM-1 β-lactamase was found to be most prevalent occurring in 88.2% of ampicillin-resistant isolates tested. Forty-six percent of the TEM-1 producing strains were able to transfer this resistance to E. coli J62–2 at 37 ° C. Analysis of the resulting transconjugants revealed that the degree of resistance to amoxycillin and amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid was related to the specific activity of the TEM-1 β-lactamase. The variation in specific activity was shown to be related to plasmid type as determined by restriction analysis. No obvious relationship between β-lactamase specific activity and resistance to amoxycillin and amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid could be demonstrated in the original plasmid donor strains.
In 2002, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH; Chicago, Illinois) convened the Chicago-Area Neonatal MRSA Working Group (CANMWG) to discuss and compare approaches aimed at control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To better understand these issues on a regional level, the CDPH and the Evanston Department of Health and Human Services (EDHHS; Evanston, Illinois) began an investigation.
Survey to collect demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic data on individual cases and clusters of MRSA infection; an additional survey collected data on infection control practices.
Level III NICUs at Chicago-area hospitals.
Neonates and healthcare workers associated with the level III NICUs.
From June 2001 through September 2002, the participating hospitals reported all clusters of MRSA infection in their respective level III NICUs to the CDPH and the EDHHS.
Thirteen clusters of MRSA infection were detected in level III NICUs, and 149 MRSA-positive infants were reported. Infection control surveys showed that hospitals took different approaches for controlling MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
The CANMWG developed recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA colonization and infection in the NICU and agreed that recommendations should expand to include future data generated by further studies. Continuing partnerships between hospital infection control personnel and public health professionals will be crucial in honing appropriate guidelines for effective approaches to the management and control of MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
In November 2002, the first of three outbreaks of Salmonella Montevideo infection in Australia and New Zealand was identified in New South Wales, Australia. Affected persons were interviewed, and epidemiologically linked retail outlets inspected. Imported tahini was rapidly identified as the source of infection. The contaminated tahini was recalled and international alerts posted. A second outbreak was identified in Australia in June–July 2003 and another in New Zealand in August 2003. In a total of 68 S. Montevideo infections, 66 cases were contacted. Fifty-four (82%) reported consumption of sesame seed-based foods. Laboratory analyses demonstrated closely related PFGE patterns in the S. Montevideo isolates from human cases and sesame-based foods imported from two countries. On the basis of our investigations sesame-based products were sampled in other jurisdictions and three products in Canada and one in the United Kingdom were positive for Salmonella spp., demonstrating the value of international alerts when food products have a wide distribution and a long shelf life. A review of the controls for Salmonella spp. during the production of sesame-based products is recommended.
A study was designed to investigate management factors that might influence the shedding of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 by beef cows in Scotland, where there is a particularly high rate of human infection. Thirty-two herds were visited at least monthly over approximately 1 year for collection of fresh faecal pat samples and information on management factors. The faecal pat samples were tested for VTEC O157 by established culture and immunomagnetic separation methods. Questionnaires were completed at the monthly visits to record management factors. Data were analysed using both univariate and multi-factor (GLMM) analysis. Changes in the number of cows in a group, dogs, wild geese, housing, and the feeding of draff (distillers' grains) were statistically significant as risk factors. The event of calving appeared to reduce the likelihood of shedding. Any effects of weaning or turnout were not statistically significant. It appears that the rate of shedding of VTEC O157 is influenced by several factors but possibly the most important of these are the circumstances of animals being housed, or, when outside, the presence of wild geese.
Thirty-nine strains of Salmonella typhi, isolated in 1995 from four Districts in Pakistan,
Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Kharian and Jehlem, were catalogued and examined. Chromosomal
DNA from each isolate was digested with XbaI restriction endonuclease and subjected to
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three clonal variants comprising of 17–19 DNA fragments
were identified. Antibiotic susceptibility testing identified that 37 of the S. typhi were resistant
to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and ampicillin. These antibiotic resistance genes were found
to be located on one of four plasmids belonging to incompatibility group IncHI1 and ranging
in size from 150–175 Kb. The genes responsible for this resistance in each case were the
chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) type I, the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) type VII
and the β-lactamase TEM-1 respectively.
The prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water, lakes
and sewage outfalls during July and
August 1996 in Vellore, India was determined. Drinking water samples were
collected on single
occasions from 12 sites in different geographic areas of the town where
cholera had been
reported. Samples of water, plankton and sediment were collected from fixed
sites at three
lakes on three occasions separated by at least 3 days during the course
of the study. Samples
from open sewers were taken from two representative sites in four areas
of the town. Bacteria
isolated from samples were identified by standard biochemical tests
and isolated strains of V.
cholerae tested for their ability to agglutinate O1 and O139
antisera. Water samples from lakes
were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and
O139 by fluorescent antibody staining.
Non-O1, non-O139 strains of V. cholerae were detected
in 41% of drinking water samples and
100% of water, sediment and plankton samples from the test lakes. Eighty-seven
per cent of
open sewers sampled contained viable non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae.
staining gave positive results for V. cholerae O1 and
O139 for all water samples from the three
lake sites. Strains of Aeromonas spp. were isolated from
58% of drinking water samples and
from 66% of sediment, 77% of plankton and 55% of water samples from lakes.
sewers sampled contained Aeromonas spp. PCR amplification employing
demonstrated that none of the non-agglutinating V. cholerae
isolates contained the ctx operon.
The non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae isolates showed different patterns
of antibiotic resistance to
ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and trimethoprim.
Primary human osteoblasts were cultered on biomaterials to develop living bone substitutes by Tissue Engineering. Monolayer cultures were established from iliac crest biopsies. Single cell suspensions were then seeded onto tricalciumphosphate (TCP) BIOBASE®, hydroxyapatitecollagen(HAC), autoclaved cancellous bone (CB) and fibrin glue (FG) Tissucol® The constructs were analyzed by electronmicroscopy, Cell proliferation assay (XTT) and histology to assess adhesion, proliferation and extracellular matrix formation on the biomaterial.
The osteoblastic cells survived in the fibrin glue and established a mesenchymal phenotype. They adhered to the HAC-sponges, TCP and CB. Prolifertion was seen on TCP and CB. HAC had a suppressive effect on the cells. An inmature matrix was found on TCP and a bone neomatrix on CB after 4 weeks in vitro.
We compared accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages of large (>150 μm) pelagic foraminifera with radiometric bulk carbonate 14C ages in two northeastern Atlantic cores. The foraminiferal ages are consistently older than those of the bulk sediment (by + 0.76 ka in Core 11881 and by + 1.1 ka in Core 11886), whereas corresponding fine (<5 μm) fraction ages are similar to those of the bulk sediment carbonate. We calculated near-identical sediment accumulation rates from both the foraminiferal and bulk sediment age/depth relations (3.0 cm ka−1 in Core 11881 and 5.9 cm ka−1 in Core 11886). Consideration of various factors that might produce such offsets leads us to believe that they are not artifacts, but were most probably caused by differential bioturbation of the different size-fractions in the sediment surface mixed layer. The importance of this finding is that many paleoceanographic records, such as the oxygen isotope record, also derive from analyses of large foraminifera, so that these records must be offset in time from the bulk of the sediments that they characterize.
Diamond is suitable for use as an ionizing particle detector for high rate, high radiation, and/or chemically harsh environments. A sampling calorimeter, a detector measuring the total energy of an incident particle, consisting of 20 alternating layers of diamond and tungsten has been constructed and tested. The diamond for the detector layers was grown by chemical vapor deposition with an averaged thickness of 500 μm. The active area of each layer was 3×3 cm2 with ohmic contacts on opposite faces forming a metal-insulator-metal structure. The calorimeter was tested with electrons of energies up to 5.0 GeV. The response of the diamond/tungsten calorimeter was found to be linear as a function of incident energy. A direct comparison of diamond/tungsten and silicon/tungsten calorimeters was made.
Two complementary techniques are used to study the electrical transport properties related to the use of diamonds as materials for ionizing radiation detectors. Transient photoconductivity using soft x-rays is used to probe the first few microns of the material, while ionizing particle-excited conductivity is used to probe the entire bulk of the material (1 millimeter). Both techniques measure the mean drift distance of free carriers, or the collection distance d. In addition, transient photoconductivity is able to extract the lifetimes and mobilities of the excited carriers. The collection distance measured by the two methods are in agreement, suggesting the material is homogeneous. At an applied field of 10 kV/cm, d is 25 to 30 microns, and, up to a field of 25 kV/cm, d has not saturated. The lifetime varies between 100 and 600 ps, and the mobility varies between 1000 and 4000 cm2/V-s, the range due to natural variations from sample to sample. The primary defects limiting the lifetime are believed to be nitrogen impurities and dislocations.