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Ninety-five patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis had a range of specimens taken at laparotomy for bacterial culture. Bacteria were isolated from 68 % of cases. Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen. Other aerobic and anaerobic intestinal bacteria were also isolated. Liver biopsy, bile and gallstones were the most rewarding specimens for culture. Infection was usually localized, but systemic infection occurred occasionally. The site of infection is probably in the liver parenchyma; however, the route by which intestinal bacteria invade the liver is not known. Sixty per cent of the cases of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis had gallstones and 20% were infected with Clonorchis sinensis.
Strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from laparotomy specimens from Chinese patients with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis in Hong Kong. A large variety of serotypes were found. Several sites were sampled in each patient. While only one serotype was normally isolated from one site, different sites often yielded different serotypes in the same patient. Generally the ‘O’ types found did not correspond to those found in the faeces of the Hong Kong Chinese population.
This study investigated the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates in Northern Ireland during 2001–2003. All six participating hospital laboratories used similar methods. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of human enteric (n=897) Salmonella isolates were analysed by retrospective collation of laboratory records. Resistance of human Salmonella isolates to nalidixic acid was 16% but resistance to ciprofloxacin or cefotaxime was rare (<1%). Minor inter-laboratory variations in sensitivity testing practices make it difficult to compare antimicrobial sensitivity results reliably and also to monitor for epidemic clones such as S. Typhimurium DT104 with the ACSSuT resistance pattern. The outcome of this study was the adoption of a standardized regional approach to the isolation of salmonella antimicrobial resistance. This should improve epidemiological monitoring of epidemic clones and assure optimum treatment options are available. In cases of treatment failure, MICs to third-generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin should be determined.
This cross-sectional study of 400 sera from a randomly selected
adult population in Northern
Ireland, using a microimmunofluorescence assay, demonstrated high overall
(70%) for IgG Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in developed populations.
shown to be unrelated to gender, age or smoking but there was an inverse
infection and educational level achieved as a measure of socio-economic
status. IgG levels were
also higher during the winter months suggesting seasonal variation of Chlamydia
infection. The high prevalence of evidence of exposure to Chlamydia
pneumoniae as described
in this study may have implications for prevention of cardiovascular disease
if further evidence
conclusively determines that infection with this organism is a risk factor
We report the integration of six levels of Cu interconnects using dual inlaid patterning in a 0.2 μm logic technology. A review of process technology as well as device performance shortcomings using conventional aluminum metallization has been presented. Two tantalum based barriers, TaNx and Ta-Si-N as well as a titanium based barrier, CVD TiN, have been evaluated for their applicability. The use of embedded barriers wherein the barrier is formed below the surface of the dielectric has also been discussed as a potential option. No degradation to the device front-end parametrics were found with the choice of an appropriate barrier. Planarization by Cu CMP introduces surface topography that needs to be minimized in order to process multiple levels of interconnects within specified sheet resistance distributions for a range of line widths. Excellent results with highly planarized levels of metallization have consistently been achieved through an optimization of the unit processes and device integration.
Stands of pearl millet were grown in three controlled environment glasshouses in which were imposed different combinations of atmospheric saturation deficit (1.5 to 2.3 kPa) and soil water content (fully irrigated and not irrigated). Consistent differences in saturation deficit (SD) were maintained throughout the experiment (100 days) but a high water table restricted differences in water supply to the first 40 days. Responses to SD and soil water were observed in some variables but not in others. Developmental processes such as the rate of leaf appearance were unaffected, whereas the efficiency for conversion of intercepted solar energy decreased by 24% and the rate at which the canopy expanded by 50%, in the driest compared to the wettest conditions.
Instruments and techniques are described for measuring the interception of light by the canopy of a crop, the CO2 exchange of individual leaves, leaf extension rate, and root distribution. Suitable systems for recording are also reviewed. Names and addresses of manufacturers are cited for a few representative models.
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