To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
Much bilingualism research includes some consideration of codeswitching, which may be measured via self-report, an experimental task, or sociolinguistic interview; however, there is little triangulation across measures in either psycholinguistic or sociolinguistic approaches. To consider possible differences between self-report and oral production of codeswitching, Spanish–English bilinguals completed a codeswitching questionnaire and oral production in an autobiographical memory task. They also completed proficiency and executive function tests. We found that broad measures of self-reported and orally produced codeswitches were positively correlated, although relationships with proficiency and executive function were more complex. These findings may direct future studies’ operationalization of codeswitching.
Causes of falls in older adults are common, multifactorial, and can lead to significant injury. This before-and-after study evaluated the benefits of a Fall Prevention Mobile Clinic (FPMC) in reducing the risk of falling in older adults in British Columbia, Canada. Four hundred seventy-six participants (average age of 83.6 years) enrolled in the study and were followed for 12 months after attending the FPMC. At 12-month follow-up, the mean percentage uptake of fall prevention recommendations was 48.8 per cent (SD = 25.7%), the Timed Up and Go mobility measure improved from a median of 19.04 seconds to 17.45 seconds and the number of participants falling decreased from 64.8 per cent (in the 12 months before attending the clinic) to 55.6 per cent (in the 12 months after attending the clinic) (p = .012). After attending the FPMC, participants acted on recommendations, improved mobility and decreased their risk of future falls.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
HESS J1614–518 and HESS J1616–508 are two tera-electron volt γ-ray sources that are not firmly associated with any known counterparts at other wavelengths. We investigate the distribution of interstellar medium towards the tera-electron volt γ-ray sources using results from a 7-mm-wavelength Mopra study, the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey, the Millimetre Astronomer’s Legacy Team-45 GHz survey and [C i] data from the HEAT telescope. Data in the CO(1–0) transition lines reveal diffuse gas overlapping the two tera-electron volt sources at several velocities along the line of sight, while observations in the CS(1–0) transition line reveal several interesting dense gas features. To account for the diffuse atomic gas, archival H i data was taken from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. The observations reveal gas components with masses ~103 to 105 M⊙ and with densities ~102 to 103 cm−3 overlapping the two tera-electron volt sources. Several origin scenarios potentially associated with the tera-electron volt γ-ray sources are discussed in light of the distribution of the local interstellar medium. We find no strong convincing evidence linking any counterpart with HESS J1614–518 or HESS J1616–508.
Parent–child relationships have long-term effects on health, particularly later inflammation and depression. We hypothesized that these effects would be mediated by later romantic partner relationships and elevated stressors in young adulthood, helping promote chronic, low grade, inflammation as well as depressive symptoms, and driving their covariation. It has been proposed recently that youth experiencing harsher parenting may also develop a stronger association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in adulthood and altered effects of stressors on outcomes. In the current investigation, we test these ideas using an 18-year longitudinal study of N = 413 African American youth that provides assessment of the parent–child relationship (at age 10), pro-inflammatory cytokine profile and depressive symptoms (at age 28), and potential mediators in early young adulthood (assessed at ages 21 and 24). As predicted, the effect of harsher parent–child relationships (age 10) on pro-inflammatory state and increased depressive symptoms at age 28 were fully mediated through young adult stress and romantic partner relationships. In addition, beyond these mediated effects, parent–child relationships at age 10 moderated the concurrent association between inflammation and depressive symptoms, as well as the prospective association between romantic partner relationships and inflammation, and resulted in substantially different patterns of indirect effects from young adult mediators to outcomes. The results support theorizing that the association of depression and inflammation in young adulthood is conditional on earlier parenting, and suggest incorporating this perspective into models predicting long-term health outcomes.
The presence of an extrasolar planet can be revealed when it passes in front of its host star, reducing the star's apparent brightness by ∼ 1%. We are monitoring a large sample (of order 104) of stars using our own 0.5 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in search of such transiting planets.
Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) are characterized by a total velocity in excess of the Galactic escape speed, and with trajectories consistent with coming from the Galactic Centre. We apply a novel data mining routine, an artificial neural network, to discover HVSs in the TGAS subset of the first data release of the Gaia satellite, using only the astrometry of the stars. We find 80 stars with a predicted probability >90% of being HVSs, and we retrieved radial velocities for 47 of those. We discover 14 objects with a total velocity in the Galactic rest frame >400 km s−1, and 5 of these have a probability >50% of being unbound from the Milky Way. Tracing back orbits in different Galactic potentials, we discover 1 HVS candidate, 5 bound HVS candidates, and 5 runaway star candidates with remarkably high velocities, between 400 and 780 km s−1. We wait for future Gaia releases to confirm the goodness of our sample and to increase the number of HVS candidates.
We have observed the oxygen-rich SNR 1E 0102.2-7219 with the integral field spectrograph WiFeS at Siding Spring Observatory and discovered sulfur-rich ejecta for the first time. Follow-up deep DDT observations with MUSE on the VLT (8100 s on source) reaching down to a noise level of ~5 × 10−20ergs−1cm−2Å−1spaxel−1 have led to the additional discovery of fast-moving hydrogen as well as argon-rich and chlorine-rich material. The detection of fast-moving hydrogen knots challenges the interpretation that the progenitor of 1E 0102 was a compact core of a Wolf-Rayet star that had shed its entire envelope. In addition to the detection of hydrogen and the products of oxygen-burning, this unprecedented sharp (0.2″ spaxel size at ~0.7″ seeing) and deep MUSE view of an oxygen-rich SNR in the Magellanic Clouds reveals further exciting discoveries, including [Fe xiv]λ5303 and [Fe xi]λ7892 emission, which we associate with the forward shock. We present this exciting data set and discuss some of its implications for the explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis of the associated supernova.
The objective of this study was to assess the public’s experience, expectations, and perceptions related to Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
A population-based telephone interview of adults in the United States was conducted. The survey instrument consisted of 112 items. Demographic variables including age, race, political beliefs, and household income were collected. Data collection was performed by trained interviewers from Kent State University’s (Kent, Ohio USA)Social Research Laboratory. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Comparative analyses were conducted between those who used EMS at least once in the past five years and those who did not use EMS using χ2 and t tests.
A total of 2,443 phone calls were made and 1,348 individuals agreed to complete the survey (55.2%). There were 297 individuals who requested to drop out of the survey during the phone interview, leaving a total of 1,051 (43.0%) full responses. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 94 years with an average age of 57.5 years. Most were Caucasian or white (83.0%), married (62.8%), and held conservative political beliefs (54.8%). Three-fourths of all respondents believed that at least 40% of patients survive cardiac arrest when EMS services are received. Over half (56.7%) believed that Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and EMT-Paramedics provide the same level of care. The estimated median hours of training required for EMT-Basics was 100 hours (IQR: 40-200 hours), while the vast majority of respondents estimated that EMT-Paramedics are required to take fewer than 1,000 clock hours of training (99.3%). The majority believed EMS professionals should be screened for illegal drug use (97.0%), criminal background (95.9%), mental health (95.2%), and physical fitness (91.3%). Over one-third (37.6%) had used EMS within the past five years. Of these individuals, over two-thirds (69.6%) rated their most recent experience as “excellent.” More of those who used EMS at least once in the past five years reported a willingness to consent to participate in EMS research compared with those who had not used EMS (69.9% vs. 61.4%, P=.005).
Most respondents who had used EMS services rated their experience as excellent. Nevertheless, expectations related to survival after cardiac arrest in the out-of-hospital setting were not realistic. Furthermore, much of the public was unaware of the differences in training hour requirements and level of care provided by EMT-Basics and EMT-Paramedics.
CroweRP, LevineR, RodriguezS, LarrimoreAD, PirralloRG. Public Perception of Emergency Medical Services in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s112–s117.
The high Antarctic plateau provides exceptional conditions for infrared observations on account of the cold, dry and stable atmosphere above the ice surface. This paper describes the scientific goals behind the first program to examine the time-varying universe in the infrared from Antarctica — the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS). This will employ a 50cm telescope to monitor the southern skies in the 2.4μmKdark window from China's Kunlun station at Dome A, on the summit of the Antarctic plateau, through the uninterrupted 4-month period of winter darkness. An earlier paper discussed optimisation of the Kdark filter for sensitivity (Li et al. 2016). This paper examines the scientific program for KISS. We calculate the sensitivity of the camera for the extrema of observing conditions that will be encountered. We present the parameters for sample surveys that could then be carried out for a range of cadences and sensitivities. We then discuss several science programs that could be conducted with these capabilities, involving star formation, brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters, exoplanets around M dwarfs, the terminal phases of stellar evolution, fast transients, embedded supernova searches, reverberation mapping of AGN, gamma ray bursts and the detection of the cosmic infrared background.
Near-infrared (1-3μm) emission lines of molecular and ionized hydrogen are excellent tools for investigating the morphology, energetics and kinematics of planetary nebulae, especially those PNe which contain large amounts of dust and are thus obscured at shorter wavelengths. The southern planetary nebula NGC 3132 was imaged with UNSWIRF (University of New South Wales Infrared Fabry-Perot) and IRIS on the 3.9m AAT Images in the H2 v=1-0 S(1) and H2 v=2-1 S(1) lines at 2.12μm and 2.25μm, and in Hii Brγ at 2.16μm are presented.
Conditions on the high Antarctic Plateau would appear to be extremely favourable for a wide range of astronomical research. Before a decision can be made on constructing an observatory, data are required on site conditions at the most promising locations. To enable these data to be collected, a Lockheed Automated Geophysical Observatory is being purchased. This facility will be fitted with a suite of astronomical site-testing instruments, and deployed to several sites on the Antarctic Plateau. This program will allow a definitive assessment of the site conditions to be made by the end of this century.
Our knowledge of the universe comes from recording the photon and particle fluxes incident on the Earth from space. We thus require sensitive measurement across the entire energy spectrum, using large telescopes with efficient instrumentation located on superb sites. Technological advances and engineering constraints are nearing the point where we are recording as many photons arriving at a site as is possible. Major advances in the future will come from improving the quality of the site. The ultimate site is, of course, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, such as on the Moon, but economic limitations prevent our exploiting this avenue to the degree that the scientific community desires. Here we describe an alternative, which offers many of the advantages of space for a fraction of the cost: the Antarctic Plateau.
Analysis of sky images obtained from an automated experiment at Dome C, Antarctica, at 2-hourly intervals from February to November 2001 show cloud-free conditions 74% of the time. This augurs well for the prospects of future astronomical observatories at this site.
What is the role of the situation in situational judgment tests (SJTs)? Lievens and Motowidlo (2016) assert that SJTs are somewhat of a misnomer because they do not actually measure how individuals would behave in a given situation per se. According to these researchers, SJTs assess general domain knowledge—whether potential employees recognize the “utility of expressing certain traits” (p. 4). As a result, SJTs map onto personality measures, which are a summary of behavior across time and situations. SJTs provide predictive validity in part because they tap into personality. However, rather than renaming SJTs, it is possible to reintroduce the concept of a situation to provide even greater predictive power. Thus, the goals of this commentary are to (a) clarify what constitutes a situation, (b) describe what SJTs might actually measure, and (c) set forth a path for a taxonomy of workplace situations.