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Natural samples containing tetrahedrite–tennantite, bournonite–seligmannite and geocronite–jordanite from the Coranda-Hondol ore deposit, Romania, were investigated by Raman spectroscopy to determine its capability to provide estimates of solid solutions in three common and widespread sulfosalt mineral series. Raman measurements were performed on extended solid solution series (Td1 to Td97, Bnn25 to Bnn93 and Gcn24 to Gcn67, apfu). The tetrahedrite–tennantite and bournonite–seligmannite solid solution series show strong correlations between spectroscopic parameters ( position, relative intensity and shape of the Raman bands) and the Sb/(Sb+As) content ratio, while Raman spectra of geocronite–jordanite shows no evolution of Raman bands. In order to simplify the method used to estimate the Sb/(Sb+As) content ratio in tetrahedrite–tennantite and bournonite–seligmannite series, several linear equations of the first-order polynomial fit were obtained. The results are in good agreement with electron microprobe data. Moreover, a computer program was developed as an analytical tool for a fast and accurate determination of Sb/(Sb+As) content ratio by at least one spectroscopic parameter. These results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can provide direct information on the composition and structure of the tetrahedrite–tennantite and bournonite– seligmannite series.
The cubic polytype of silicon carbide is a stimulating candidate for Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) applications due to its interesting physical and chemical properties. Recently, we demonstrated the possibility to elaborate 3C-SiC membranes on 3C-SiC pseudo-substrates, using a silicon epilayer grown by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition as a sacrificial layer. Such structures could be the starting point for the elaboration of new MEMS devices. However, the roughness still represents a major concern. Therefore, in this contribution, we investigate the influence of an excimer laser irradiation on the Si epilayer surface prior to the 3C-SiC epilayer growth. We compare these results with the 3C-SiC epilayer grown directly on the as-grown Si epilayer.
Present and past gas-fuelling of galaxies is expected to depend upon both the properties of the galaxies themselves, as well as their larger-scale environments. In the case of galaxies in groups the environment, i.e the group mass, can be probed by measuring the velocity dispersion of the group members, as done with the GAMA Galaxy Group catalogue (Robotham et al. 2011), probing the halo mass function all the way to small groups. The gas-fuelling rate of normal late-type galaxies can be traced by the SFR under the assumption of a steady state between gas-fuelling and gas-consumption by SF. We present a method to estimate disk opacities from UV/optical photometric characteristics, calibrated using the radiative transfer model of Popescu et al. (2011), applied to UV-Opt-FIR GAMA/H-ATLAS photometry for a subset of GAMA galaxies. We use the method to extract attenuation corrected SFRs for a large sample of late-type GAMA galaxies, which we use in an initial application to constrain the dependency of star formation/gas-fuelling in late-type galaxies on mass of parent DMH, and compactness of galaxy group.
We crystallize amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers (thicknesses: ∼300nm and ∼1300nm for comparison) that are deposited on glass substrates (Corning 7059) by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using a continuous wave Ar+-laser. We scan the raw beam with a diameter of ∼60νm in single traces and traces with varying overlap (30-60%). With optimized process parameters (fluence, scan velocity, overlap) we achieve polycrystalline Si with grains as wide as 100νm. The grain boundary population is dominated by first and second order twin boundaries as analyzed by electron backscattering analysis in the scanning electron microscope and convergent beam electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope. These twins are known not (or only marginally) to degrade the electrical properties of the material. In addition to twins, dislocations and twin lamellae occur at varying densities (depending on grain orientation and process parameters). The recombination activity of the defects is analyzed by EBIC and according to these measurements crystallization receipts are defined that yield the reduction of electrically detrimental defects.
Although resveratrol has widely been studied for its potential health benefits, little is known about its metabolic effects in humans. Our aims were to determine whether the polyphenol resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients and to gain some insight into the mechanism of its action. After an initial general examination (including blood chemistry), nineteen patients enrolled in the 4-week-long double-blind study were randomly assigned into two groups: a resveratrol group receiving oral 2 × 5 mg resveratrol and a control group receiving placebo. Before and after the second and fourth weeks of the trial, insulin resistance/sensitivity, creatinine-normalised ortho-tyrosine level in urine samples (as a measure of oxidative stress), incretin levels and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt):protein kinase B (Akt) ratio in platelets were assessed and statistically analysed. After the fourth week, resveratrol significantly decreased insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) and urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion, while it increased the pAkt:Akt ratio in platelets. On the other hand, it had no effect on parameters that relate to β-cell function (i.e. homeostasis model of assessment of β-cell function). The present study shows for the first time that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in humans, which might be due to a resveratrol-induced decrease in oxidative stress that leads to a more efficient insulin signalling via the Akt pathway.
The metallurgical and electrical behavior of Au/Zn contacting metallization onp-type InP was investigated as a function of the Zn content in the metallization. It was found that ohmic behavior can be achieved with Zn concentrations as small as 0.05 atomic percent Zn. For Zn concentrations between 0.1 and 36 at.%, the contact resistivity ρc was found to be independent of the Zn content For low Zn concentrations the realization of ohmic behavior was found to require the growth of the compound Au2P3 at the metal-InP interface. The magnitude of ρc is shown to be very sensitive to the growth rate of the interfacial Au2P3 layer. The possibility of exploiting this sensitivity to provide low resistance contacts while avoiding the semiconductor structural damage that is normally attendant to contact formation is discussed.
Systematic relations are shown between the parameters controlling explosive crystallization in silicon (temperature, width of a liquid zone, and gradient of melt undercooling), the kinetics of the crystallization process, the predominance of preferential growth directions, and the crystal structure observed. Three typical regions of crystallization are found: (a) cellular growth of a laminated crystalline layer controlled by the formation of high densities of twins at a nearly plane liquid/solid interface, (b) cellular-dendritic growth of crystal lamellae characterized by branching of a curved interface, and (c) formation of a diffuse “slush zone” due to random nucleation in a-Si and grain growth in the liquid zone.
Reaction of metallic indium with benzoyl peroxide in 4-methylpyridine (4-Mepy) at 25 °C produces an eight-coordinate mononuclear indium(III) benzoate, In(η2-O2CC6H5)3(4- Mepy)2 4H2O (I), in yields of up to 60%. The indium(III) benzoate was fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography; (I) exists in the crystalline state as discrete eight-coordinate molecules; the coordination sphere around the central indium atom is best described as pseudo-square pyramidal. Thermogravimetric analysis of (I) and X-ray diffraction powder studies on the resulting pyrolysate demonstrate that this new benzoate is an inorganic precursor to indium oxide. Decomposition of (I) occurs first by loss of 4-methylpyridine ligands (100°-200°C), then loss of benzoates with formation of In2O3 at 450°C. We discuss both use of carboxylates as precursors and our approach to their preparation.
The preparation of poly(ρ-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) encapsulated in a mesoporous silica, MCM-41, is reported. In situ polymerization of xylylene bis(tetrahydrothiophenium chloride) yields a highly luminescent, yellow powder with a fluorescence spectrum matching that of unencapsulated PPV. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms show that the pore size of the PPVloaded MCM-41 is significantly smaller than that of empty MCM-41 and a polymer loading of ca. 8% by weight is obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. Photoluminescence data for the encapsulated PPV are presented.
The preparation of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) encapsulated in a mesoporous silica, MCM-41, is reported. In situ polymerization of xylylene bis(tetrahydrothiophenium chloride) yields a highly luminescent, yellow powder with a fluorescence spectrum matching that of unencapsulated PPV. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms show that the pore size of the PPV- loaded MCM-41 is significantly smaller than that of empty MCM-41 and a polymer loading of ca. 8% by weight is obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. Photoluminescence data for the encapsulated PPV are presented.
A novel cryogenic electrostatic storage device consisting of two ion-beam storage rings with a common straight section for studies of interactions between oppositely charged ions at low and well-defined relative velocities is under construction at Stockholm University. Here we consider the prospect of using this new tool to measure cross-sections and rate coefficients for mutual neutralization reactions of importance in interstellar ion chemistry in general and specifically in cosmic pre-biotic ion chemistry.
Using the double pulse technique with two synchronized lasers, we studied the conditions of ignition and evolution of explosive crystallization. The structure of the resulting crystallized layers is analyzed by TEM. Results of calculations are reported describing the development of the two phase fronts: amorphous/molten and molten/crystalline. It is shown that the system takes more than 500 ns to reach the steady state. The experimental results support the model of creating first a melt nucleus in the amorphous layer followed by the formation of the crystalline nucleus in the molten sphere. Competitive solid phase nucleation and growth in the amorphous layer limit the temperature-time interval of melt nucleation. Defined explosively crystallized areas in laterally structured SOI layers are presented.
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