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Characterisation of genetic diversity in a large number of European pig populations has been undertaken with EC support. The populations sampled included local (rare) breeds, national varieties of the major international breeds, commercial lines and the Chinese Meishan breed. A second phase of the project will sample a further 50 Chinese breeds. Neutral genetic markers (AFLP and microsatellites), with individual or bulk typing, were used and compared.
DNA from 59 European pig populations was extracted on samples of about 50 individuals per population. Individuals were typed for 50 microsatellites and for 148 AFLP bands. A subset of 25 populations was typed for 20 microsatellites on pools of DNA. Allele frequencies were estimated by direct allele counting for the co-dominant markers. Frequencies of AFLP negative alleles (absent bands) were obtained by taking the square root of absent band frequencies. Within-breed variability was summarised using standard statistics: expected and observed heterozygosity, mean observed and effective numbers of alleles, and F statistics. Between-breed diversity analysis was based on a bootstrapped Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree derived from Reynolds distances (DR). The standard distance of Nei (DS) was also calculated.
The use of genetic markers to identify regions of the genome associated with variation in quantitative traits (QTL) is now widespread. Several studies have attempted to find QTLs for growth and fatness in pigs. Since the first published study (Andersson et al., 1994) many groups have found effects on chromosome 4, albeit with different breeds. In theory, joint analysis offers considerable potential to extract additional information from the data. This study aims to investigate the benefits and drawbacks of joint analysis.
Data on birth weight (BWT), growth rate to end of test or slaughter (GRE) and average backfat depth (BF) were supplied from seven different pig populations in six countries. The data from Scotland, France, USA, Netherlands and half of the data from Germany were Meishan (MS) x commercial F2 populations. Data from Sweden and the remaining German data were from wild boar (WB) x commercial F2 populations. A total of 31 different markers were used, all on chromosome 4.
A superconductor of paired protons is thought to form in the core of neutron stars soon after their birth. Minimum energy conditions suggest that magnetic flux is expelled from the superconducting region due to the Meissner effect, such that the neutron star core retains or is largely devoid of magnetic fields for some nuclear equation of state and proton pairing models. We show via neutron star cooling simulations that the superconducting region expands faster than flux is expected to be expelled because cooling timescales are much shorter than timescales of magnetic field diffusion. Thus magnetic fields remain in the bulk of the neutron star core for at least 106 − 107yr. We estimate the size of flux free regions at 107yr to be ≲ 100m for a magnetic field of 1011G and possibly smaller for stronger field strengths.
The influence of baseline severity has been examined for antidepressant
medications but has not been studied properly for cognitive–behavioural
therapy (CBT) in comparison with pill placebo.
To synthesise evidence regarding the influence of initial severity on
efficacy of CBT from all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which
CBT, in face-to-face individual or group format, was compared with
pill-placebo control in adults with major depression.
A systematic review and an individual-participant data meta-analysis
using mixed models that included trial effects as random effects. We used
multiple imputation to handle missing data.
We identified five RCTs, and we were given access to individual-level
data (n = 509) for all five. The analyses revealed that
the difference in changes in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between
CBT and pill placebo was not influenced by baseline severity (interaction
P = 0.43). Removing the non-significant interaction
term from the model, the difference between CBT and pill placebo was a
standardised mean difference of –0.22 (95% CI –0.42 to –0.02,
P = 0.03, I2 = 0%).
Patients suffering from major depression can expect as much benefit from
CBT across the wide range of baseline severity. This finding can help
inform individualised treatment decisions by patients and their
Visual processing problems may be one underlying factor for cognitive impairments related to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We examined associations between ASD-traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient) and visual processing performance (Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test; Block Design task of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III) in young adults (mean age=25.0, s.d.=2.1 years) born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) (n=101) or at term (n=104). A higher level of ASD-traits was associated with slower global visual processing speed among the preterm VLBW, but not among the term-born group (P<0.04 for interaction). Our findings suggest that the associations between ASD-traits and visual processing may be restricted to individuals born preterm, and related specifically to global, not local visual processing. Our findings point to cumulative social and neurocognitive problems in those born preterm at VLBW.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing public health concern in Europe and there is a need to develop more efficient early detection systems. Nervous signs in horses are considered to be an early indicator of WNV and, using them in a syndromic surveillance system, might be relevant. In our study, we assessed whether or not data collected by the passive French surveillance system for the surveillance of equine diseases can be used routinely for the detection of WNV. We tested several pre-processing methods and detection algorithms based on regression. We evaluated system performances using simulated and authentic data and compared them to those of the surveillance system currently in place. Our results show that the current detection algorithm provided similar performances to those tested using simulated and real data. However, regression models can be easily and better adapted to surveillance objectives. The detection performances obtained were compatible with the early detection of WNV outbreaks in France (i.e. sensitivity 98%, specificity >94%, timeliness 2·5 weeks and around four false alarms per year) but further work is needed to determine the most suitable alarm threshold for WNV surveillance in France using cost-efficiency analysis.
Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
Multicolour imaging polarimetry of the main sequence star BD+31°643 shows that the Kalas & Jewitt (1997) disc extends to at least 13000AU. A disc of this radius must be dynamically very young compared to the central star, unlike the situation found in the β Pictoris system. A striking linear filament of 850μm emission detected 50″ south, that parallels the dust disk, is probably not physically associated.
Results of adulthood mental health of those born late-preterm (34 + 0–36 + 6 weeks + days of gestation) are mixed and based on national registers. We examined if late-preterm birth was associated with a higher risk for common mental disorders in young adulthood when using a diagnostic interview, and if this risk decreased as gestational age increased.
A total of 800 young adults (mean = 25.3, s.d. = 0.62 years), born 1985–1986, participated in a follow-up of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study. Common mental disorders (mood, anxiety and substance use disorders) during the past 12 months were defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Munich version). Gestational age was extracted from hospital birth records and categorized into early-preterm (<34 + 0, n = 37), late-preterm (34 + 0–36 + 6, n = 106), term (37 + 0–41 + 6, n = 617) and post-term (⩾42 + 0, n = 40).
Those born late-preterm and at term were at a similar risk for any common mental disorder [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67–1.84], for mood (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.54–2.25), anxiety (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.40–2.50) and substance use (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.74–2.32) disorders, and co-morbidity of these disorders (p = 0.38). While the mental disorder risk decreased significantly as gestational age increased, the trend was driven by a higher risk in those born early-preterm.
Using a cohort born during the advanced neonatal and early childhood care, we found that not all individuals born preterm are at risk for common mental disorders in young adulthood – those born late-preterm are not, while those born early-preterm are at a higher risk. Available resources for prevention and intervention should be targeted towards the preterm group born the earliest.
Boar taint is a quality defect in meat, related to accumulation of skatole and androstenone in male pigs. The levels of skatole and its main metabolites in plasma and urine samples were measured with a validated liquid chromatography-MS method and related to activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in order to identify ‘fast metabolizing’ pigs. Urine (n=46), blood (n=12), liver (n=25) and adipose tissue (n=46) were sampled from a total of 46 entire male pigs. Skatole levels in fat were negatively correlated to CYP2E1 activity and positively to 3-hydroxy-3-methyloxindole (HMOI), indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA) and 2-aminoacetophenone in urine. HMOI and ICA levels in urine were the best predictors of high skatole levels in fat. In summary, the present study provided further evidence for the key role of CYP2E1 in skatole metabolism and suggested that measurement of HMOI and/or ICA in urine might provide information about skatole levels in live pigs.
Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in children, such as frequent snoring, apnoea and choking, may lead to health problems if untreated. The caregiver's level of awareness of these symptoms has been poorly studied. This study aimed to study healthcare provider contact related to sleep-disordered breathing symptoms in a population of children aged 0–11 years.
A total of 1320 children were randomly selected from a national database that included all children living in Sweden. Caregivers answered a questionnaire about sleep-disordered breathing symptoms during the last month and healthcare provider contact related to these symptoms.
A total of 754 answers were received. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms was 4.8 per cent. Of this subgroup, 69 per cent had not been in contact with a healthcare provider regarding their symptoms.
This study shows that sleep-disordered breathing in children is underestimated and that there is a need to increase caregiver and healthcare provider awareness of sleep-disordered breathing in children.
Flexible copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on lightweight substrates can deliver high specific powers. Flexible lightweight CIGS solar cells are also primary candidates for building-integrated panels. In all applications, CIGS cells can greatly benefit from the application of broadband and wide-angle AR coating technology. The AR coatings can significantly improve the transmittance of light over the entire CIGS absorption band spectrum. Increased short-circuit current has been observed after integrating AR coated films onto baseline solar panels. NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM) has predicted up to 14% higher annual power output on AR integrated vertical or building-integrated panels. The combination of lightweight flexible substrates and advanced device designs employing nanostructured optical coatings together have the potential to achieve flexible CIGS modules with enhanced efficiencies and specific power.
The impact of nanostructured broadband antireflection (AR) coatings on solar panel performance has been projected for a broad range of panel tilt angles at various locations. AR coated films have been integrated on test panels and the short-circuit current has been measured for the entire range of panel tilts. The integration of the AR coatings resulted in an increase in short-circuit current of the panels by eliminating front sheet reflection loss for a broad spectrum of light and wide angle of light incidence. The short-circuit current enhancement is 5% for normal light incidence and approximately 20% for off-angle light incidence. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM) predicts that this AR coating can yield at least 6.5% improvement in solar panel annual power output. The greatest enhancement, approximately 14%, is predicted for vertical panels. The AR coating’s contributions to vertical mount panels and building-integrated solar panels are significant. This nanostructured broadband AR coating thus has the potential to lower the cost per watt of photovoltaic solar energy.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are progressively used for decentralized electricity generation. To obtain the maximum yield from such systems, optimisation of all components is essential. In this contribution, we provide a comprehensive modelling and sizing of PV systems for any location. Three applications are here presented providing real time monitoring of PV potential, accurate prediction of yield taking into account thermodynamic temperature effects, optimization of modules orientation addressing the effects of shading and efficient sizing of inverter for a higher yield output. When combined, these models can accurately predict the real time performance of any PV system.
It is well known that web-based interventions can be effective treatments for depression. However, dropout rates in web-based interventions are typically high, especially in self-guided web-based interventions. Rigorous empirical evidence regarding factors influencing dropout in self-guided web-based interventions is lacking due to small study sample sizes. In this paper we examined predictors of dropout in an individual patient data meta-analysis to gain a better understanding of who may benefit from these interventions.
A comprehensive literature search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy for adults with depression from 2006 to January 2013 was conducted. Next, we approached authors to collect the primary data of the selected studies. Predictors of dropout, such as socio-demographic, clinical, and intervention characteristics were examined.
Data from 2705 participants across ten RCTs of self-guided web-based interventions for depression were analysed. The multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [relative risk (RR) 1.08], lower educational level (primary education, RR 1.26) and co-morbid anxiety symptoms (RR 1.18) significantly increased the risk of dropping out, while for every additional 4 years of age, the risk of dropping out significantly decreased (RR 0.94).
Dropout can be predicted by several variables and is not randomly distributed. This knowledge may inform tailoring of online self-help interventions to prevent dropout in identified groups at risk.
We have grown GaN, with addition of a 0.10 to 0.33 % Al, on sapphire(0001) substrates by solid-source RF-plasma assisted MBE. The Al-concentration was determined by secondary ion-mass spectrometry and Auger-electron spectroscopy, while the layer quality was assessed by photoluminescence and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy revealed a meandering pattern and a surface roughness varying with Al-content. The smallest surface roughness was obtained at 0.10 % Al. Photoluminescence revealed two main peaks attributed to the neutral donor-bound exciton. Its energy increased slightly with Al-concentration, which established a correlation between the Al-concentration and the band gap.
Optical properties of the GaNxAs1−x layers grown on (001) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied. The samples can be classified into three categories with respect to the concentration of N, as determined by x-ray diffraction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry: (i) with doping nitrogen concentration, (ii) with average content of N less than 30 %, and (iii) with x close to 100 %. From optical measurements of photoluminescence and Raman scattering, combined with analysis of x-ray diffraction spectra, different phases are observed in the GaNxAs1−x layers: GaAs, GaN and the solid ternary solution GaNxAs1−x. We have estimated the fundamental band-gap energy in the GaNxAs1−x alloy with low nitrogen concentration (up to x = 0.04) from absorption measurements, and in GaNxAs1−x with low arsenic concentration (up to 1−x = 0.04) - from photoluminescence spectra. An analysis of the dependence of the experimental values of the GaNxAs1−x band-gap energy on the nitrogen composition indicates a constant bowing parameter b as large as b = -18 eV.
As relapse after completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is common, many treatment protocols include booster programs to improve the long-term effects. However, the effects of booster programs are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support for OCD with or without an Internet-based booster program.
A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were randomized to a booster program or no booster program. Outcome assessments were collected at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months after receiving ICBT.
The entire sample had sustained long-term effects from pre-treatment to all follow-up assessments, with large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d = 1.58–2.09). The booster group had a significant mean reduction in OCD symptoms compared to the control condition from booster baseline (4 months) to 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Participants in the booster group improved significantly in terms of general functioning at 7, 12 and 24 months, and had fewer relapses. Kaplan–Meier analysis also indicated a significantly slower relapse rate in the booster group.
The results suggest that ICBT has sustained long-term effects and that adding an Internet-based booster program can further improve long-term outcome and prevent relapse for some OCD patients.
Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958–2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.