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New dietary-based concepts are needed for treatment and effective prevention of overweight and obesity. The primary objective was to investigate if reduction in appetite is associated with improved weight loss maintenance. This cohort study was nested within the European Commission project Satiety Innovation (SATIN). Participants achieving ≥8% weight loss during an initial 8-week low-energy formula diet were included in a 12-week randomised double-blind parallel weight loss maintenance intervention. The intervention included food products designed to reduce appetite or matching controls along with instructions to follow national dietary guidelines. Appetite was assessed by ad libitum energy intake and self-reported appetite evaluations using visual analogue scales during standardised appetite probe days. These were evaluated at the first day of the maintenance period compared with baseline (acute effects after a single exposure of intervention products) and post-maintenance compared with baseline (sustained effects after repeated exposures of intervention products) regardless of randomisation. A total of 181 participants (forty-seven men and 134 women) completed the study. Sustained reduction in 24-h energy intake was associated with improved weight loss maintenance (R 0·37; P = 0·001), whereas the association was not found acutely (P = 0·91). Suppression in self-reported appetite was associated with improved weight loss maintenance both acutely (R −0·32; P = 0·033) and sustained (R −0·33; P = 0·042). Reduction in appetite seems to be associated with improved body weight management, making appetite-reducing food products an interesting strategy for dietary-based concepts.
Three species, Lobothallia brachyloba Paukov & I. V. Frolov, L. epiadelpha Paukov & A. Nordin and L. zogtii Paukov & Davydov, from arid regions of Eurasia (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Mongolia) are described as new to science. Lobothallia brachyloba has flat, firmly attached lobes, immersed apothecia lacking a distinct thalline margin, and contains norstictic acid. Both Lobothallia epiadelpha and L. zogtii contain stictic acid and have a brown thallus and sessile apothecia. Lobothallia epiadelpha initially develops on crustose Circinaria spp, has thick lobes loosely attached to the substratum, and brown apothecial discs with constant thalline margins. Lobothallia zogtii is a free-living species with brownish black to jet black apothecial discs surrounded by a receding thalline margin. Lecanora bogdoënsis is synonymized with Lobothallia praeradiosa and Lobothallia helanensis is synonymized with L. subdiffracta. Three new combinations, Lobothallia hedinii (H. Magn.) Paukov, A. Nordin & Sohrabi, L. lacteola (Oxner) Şenkardeşler, Paukov, Davydov & Sohrabi, and L. subdiffracta (H. Magn.) Paukov, are proposed. Phylogenetic analyses of Lobothallia brachyloba, L. epiadelpha and L. subdiffracta (ITS, mtSSU) are presented, showing their relationships within Lobothallia. The lectotype of the name Aspicilia lacteola Oxner is designated. A key to 18 species of Lobothallia is provided.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) protocol implementation can be a challenging endeavor given the large and diverse provider workforce. These efforts can be even more challenging given training restrictions, career and volunteer combination EMS agencies, and inconsistent work schedules. In an effort to educate as many providers as possible in a relatively short time, the community of practice educational model was used during a new evidence-based EMS protocol implementation. This model identifies providers who are enthusiastic during initial training as advocates. These advocates then continue to educate their peers going forward. This allows for the initial educational effort to continue to propagate during pilot testing and beyond. During this protocol implementation, a total of 17 educational visits were made to EMS stations and 43 providers were identified as advocates.
FrattaKA, FisheJN, AndersJF, SmithTG. Introduction of a New EMS Protocol Using the Communities of Practice Educational Model. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(1):108–109.
Douglas Nakashima, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France,Igor Krupnik, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC,Jennifer T. Rubis, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France
Investigation of Lake Quinault in western Washington, including a reflection seismic survey, analysis of piston cores, and preliminary mapping in the steep, landslide-prone Quinault River catchment upstream of the lake, reveals evidence for three episodes of earthquake disturbance in the past 3000 yr. These earthquakes triggered failures on the lake’s underwater slopes and delta front, as well as subaerial landsliding, partial channel blockage, and forced fluvial sediment aggradation. The ages of the three Lake Quinault disturbance events overlap with those of coseismically subsided, coastal marsh soils nearby in southwest Washington that are interpreted to record ruptures of the Cascadia megathrust. Absent from Lake Quinault, however, are signals of obvious disturbance from five additional subduction earthquakes inferred to have occurred during the period of record. The lack of evidence for these events may reflect the limitations of the data set derived from the detrital, river-dominated lake stratigraphy but may also have bearing on debates about segmentation and the distribution of slip along the Cascadia subduction zone during prior earthquakes.
Detailed measurements of crystal outlines and fabrics have been performed on 35 000 crystals in fifteen 10 × 20 cm2 vertical thin sections from the North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) ice core, evenly distributed in the depth interval 115–880m. The crystals exhibit important changes over this period. As the ice gets older the mean crystal area increases towards a constant value, the shape of the crystals becomes increasingly irregular, and the area distribution of crystals develops from a single log-normal distribution into a bimodal lognormal distribution. The c-axis fabric of the ice shows a smooth development of an increasingly stronger vertical fabric with depth, and the formation of a weak vertical girdle. Already in the younger samples the fabric is rather strongly oriented towards vertical. The fabric and the area of individual crystals are found not to correlate. A simple model, which takes into account the vertical strain of the ice, is applied in an attempt to determine the crystal growth rate at NorthGRIP.
We describe the DR14 APOGEE-TGAS catalogue, a new SDSS value-added catalogue that provides precise astrophysical parameters, chemical abundances, astro-spectro- photometric distances and extinctions, as well as orbital parameters for ~30, 000 APOGEE-TGAS stars, among them ~5, 000 high-quality giant stars within 1 kpc.
The South African coast contains abundant estuaries and lagoons, most of which originated as river valleys incised during Quaternary sea-level fall and subsequently drowned and/or infilled during rising interglacial sea levels. This chapter discusses these changes and highlights the geomorphological and sedimentological evolution of several southern African estuaries during the Pleistocene to present. The development, infilling and positioning of incised valley systems is mainly controlled by sea-level variation as well as fluvial and marine sediment supply. Most contemporary estuaries in southern Africa show dramatic responses to shorter term sea-level fluctuations and sediment supply during the Holocene. Barring anthropogenic interference, the dynamic behaviour of estuaries, dictated by their transient position and geomorphic character within an incised valley, is considered to fluctuate on centennial to millennial timescales.
From the observed timings of primary eclipse of HD 5303 we find that its 2.7 day period is increasing at a rate of about one second per year. In this paper we consider the implications of this in terms of mass transfer or mass loss from the system.
We present a fast object recognition system coding shape by viewpoint invariant geometric relations and appearance information. In our advanced industrial work-cell, the system can observe the work space of the robot by three pairs of Kinect and stereo cameras allowing for reliable and complete object information. From these sensors, we derive global viewpoint invariant shape features and robust color features making use of color normalization techniques.
We show that in such a set-up, our system can achieve high performance already with a very low number of training samples, which is crucial for user acceptance and that the use of multiple views is crucial for performance. This indicates that our approach can be used in controlled but realistic industrial contexts that require—besides high reliability—fast processing and an intuitive and easy use at the end-user side.
Central venous catheter (CVC) day definitions do not consider concurrent CVCs. We examined traditional CVC day counts and resultant central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates with a CVC day definition that included concurrent CVCs. Accounting for concurrent CVCs increased device day counts by 8.5% but only mildly impacted CLABSI rates.
Objectives: Mobile systems are widely adopted in healthcare services. Mobile reporting systems have been recently introduced for social home care by municipalities in Sweden. The study aims to assess the benefits of using these systems.
Methods: We followed an expert survey approach. Data were collected by means of telephone interviews with the experts in charge of managing and implementing the systems at the municipalities. In addition, several workshops were organized for assessing the economic value of the systems at one municipality. We performed thematic analysis and cost-benefit analysis of the data.
Results: The thematic analysis showed the three main benefits of using the mobile reporting systems in social home care: municipal benefits, care providers’ benefits, and care recipients’ benefits. The cost-benefit analysis indicated that the systems could bring substantial long-term economic value for municipalities. The results also revealed the difficulties encountered at the early stage of the deployment and implementation of the systems.
Conclusions: The mobile systems yield benefits for all the actors, that is, municipalities, care recipients and care providers. These enhance the public-private coordination and cooperation in social home care in Sweden. The municipalities are called upon to address change management and technical challenges in the implementation.
The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based survey for transiting exoplanets. Our primary goal is to find the first statistically-significant sample of Neptunes and super-Earths that are bright enough for radial velocity confirmation. By measuring precise masses and radii we will constrain the bulk composition and internal structure of planets that span the transition between the gas giants and terrestrial planets. Our brightest exoplanets will also be suitable for atmospheric characterisation with large facilities such as the VLT, JWST and the E-ELT. NGTS construction began in June 2013, and the survey is due to commence in 2014.
Plasma and ion beam methods such as gas and metal ion implantation, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), and metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIIID) are introduced as powerful tools to modify the properties of battery electrodes. Three kinds of rechargeable electrochemical cells have been investigated: the lead-acid cell, the nickel alkaline-electrolyte cell, and the lithium cell. It was experimentally shown that (i) metal ion implantation of Ti, V, Cr, Ni, and W into lead and lead-antimony electrodes reduced the corrosion current by more than one order of magnitude, (ii) cobalt ion implantation into nickel electrodes enhanced the interconversion of Ni(OH)2 to NiOOH and the associated cycle life, (iii) nitrogen-PIII resulted in the formation of a nitrided lithium layer on lithium which stabilized the surface against corrosion, (iv) MePIIID with a tungsten plasma reduced the pitting corrosion of aluminum, a current collector for a lithium battery.
Seaward migration of immature salmonids (smolts) may be associated with severe mortality in anthropogenically altered channels. Few studies however, have identified distinct behaviours that lead to exposure to adverse habitats or even unsuccessful migration. This study used high resolution telemetry to map migration routes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts approaching a water withdrawal zone associated with an aquaculture facility in a lowland river. Individual smolts were tagged with an acoustic transmitter and released upstream of the water withdrawal zone. A trap was installed downstream of the water withdrawal zone. The trap captured all smolts that passed the water withdrawal zone. The tracking results confirmed previous studies on Pacific salmon showing that Atlantic salmon smolts may perform milling behaviours (i.e. upstream excursions and circular swimming behaviour) in anthropogenically altered channels. Non-milling and milling smolts were compared. Smolts performing milling behaviours covered a larger area (m2) and experienced an increased probability of entering the water withdrawal zone, considered an adverse habitat. Finally, smolts were identified as either passing (67%) or non-passing (33%) the water withdrawal zone based on the recapture data from the trap. In total, 20% of the non-passing smolts entered the aquaculture facility. Several behavioural traits differed between the remaining (80%) non-passing smolts and the passing smolts. In particular, time spent near the water withdrawal zone correlated negatively with the probability of passage. These links between individual behaviours and exposure to adverse habitats and passage probability may be applied to improve management of salmonid populations.
Empirical Total Energy Tight Binding (TETB) has proven to be a fast and accurate method for calculating materials properties for various system, including bulk, surface and amorphous structures. The determination of the tight binding parameters from first-principles results is a multivariate, non-linear optimization problem with multiple local minima. Simulated annealing is an optimization method which is flexible and “guaranteed” to find a global minimum, opposed to classical methods like non-linear least squares algorithms. As an example results are presented for a nonorthogonal s,p parameterization for Silicon based on the NRL tight binding formalism.
Co/Pt thin film multilayers with strong perpendicular anisotropy and out-of-plane coercivities of 5-11 kOe were magnetically altered in areas of local ion beam interaction. The ion irradiations were performed by ion projection through silicon stencil masks fabricated by silicon on insulator (SOI) membrane technology. The ion projector at the Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology (ISiT) was operated at 73 keV ion energy and with a 8.7- fold demagnification. After exposure to 3 × 1014Ar+/ cm2 magnetic islands smaller than 100 nm in diameter were resolved in the Co/Pt multilayersby means of magnetic force microscopy. The impact of different ion species (He+, Ar+ and Xe+) and ion energies (10 – 200 keV) on the multilayer structure was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The ballistic interface intermixing was used to predict magnetic coercivity changes for various irradiation conditions. The simulations revealed that with 73 keV Ar+ and Xe+ ions the irradiation dose could be reduced by a factor of 100 and 400 respectively in comparison to 73 keV He+which was verified in the experiments. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that the Co/Pt superlattice structure is slightly weakened during the irradiation and that the surface smoothness of the media is preserved. Using the Ion Projection Process Development Tool (PDT) at IMS-Vienna concentric data tracks including head positioning servo informations were patterned onto a 1” IBM microdrive™ glass disk which was coated with Co/Pt multilayers. In a single exposure step several tracks within an exposure field of 17 mm in diameter were structured by 2 × 1015He+/ cm2 at 45 keV using a 4- fold demagnification set-up.