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Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB). Little is known about how research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (bidirectionality). This program evaluation assessed researcher presentations from 2014 to 2018 to the CABs linked to our CTSA at all three sites (Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida) for relevance to local community needs identified in 2013 and/or 2016. From content analysis, of 65 presentations total, 41 (63%) addressed ≥1 local health needs (47% Minnesota, 60% Florida, and 80% Arizona). Cross-cutting topics were cancer/cancer prevention (physical activity/obesity/nutrition) and mental health. Results could help to prioritize health outcomes of community-engaged research efforts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB), an effective strategy to increase community engagement (CE) in research. Little is known about how the research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (i.e., bi-directionality). This program evaluation assessed the health topics presented by researchers to the CABs linked to our CE Program at all three Mayo Clinic sites (MN, AZ, and FL) for relevance to local community needs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two coders classified Mayo researcher presentations to our CABs from 2014-2018 for relevance to needs identified in the local 2013 and/or 2016 County Health Needs Assessments and specific topic(s); with high levels of agreement (Kappa=0.90). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, of the 65 presentations 41 (63%) addressed one or more local health needs (47% MN, 60% FL, 80% AZ). Cross-cutting health topics addressed at 2 sites were physical activity/obesity/nutrition and mental health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings were shared with our CABs to obtain input on future directions. The FL and AZ CABs are systematic in seeking out or initiating research projects that address local health needs, an approach the MN site is interested in adopting. Ultimately, it is important to demonstrate improved health outcomes with CTSA-based CE research strategies. Understanding community health needs and depth of researchers in those areas may help to focus priorities for demonstrating such outcomes.
The lambs production system in the South-European countries is characterised by producing light carcasses (< 13 kg) of young animals, less than 90 days old, and fed with the ewe milk and supplemented with concentrates. However, there is an increasing concern on the study of forage production system in growing lambs as a consequence of the interest in diversifying products and producing healthy and safe meat. When forage is included in the fattening diet a reduction of average daily gain is observed and carcasses have a lower degree of fatness, in comparison to the drylot system. The modification in the traditional type of carcass must be evaluated in order to assure that the final product meets the consumer demands. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the lambs fattening system on the carcass characteristics and meat quality especially on the instrumental analysis traits as colour and texture.
Twenty Gascon young bulls that had been reared either in intensive conditions (INT) (n=10) with early weaning at 3 to 4 months, or in a traditional extensive (EXT) system (n=10) with weaning at 7 months, were subjected to the same conditions during the 145-day finishing period. Production system before the finishing period did not affect conformation, dressing percentage or morphology of the carcass; nevertheless, tissue composition differed somewhat between the two groups. Display had a stronger effect on meat colour than did production system. Percentage of myoglobin was highest in INT (P⩽0.001), although meat texture and sensory quality did not differ between rearing conditions. EXT animals had darker, more yellow fat, a higher percentage of n-3 fatty acids (P⩽0.001), a lower percentage of saturated fatty acids (P⩽0.05) and a lower n-6/n-3 index (P⩽0.001) than did the INT-reared animals. Production system before the fattening period might modify some of the characteristics of commercial beef, especially those associated with fat.
Two community-based density case-control studies were performed to assess risk factors for cholera transmission during inter-peak periods of the ongoing epidemic in two Haitian urban settings, Gonaives and Carrefour. The strongest associations were: close contact with cholera patients (sharing latrines, visiting cholera patients, helping someone with diarrhoea), eating food from street vendors and washing dishes with untreated water. Protective factors were: drinking chlorinated water, receiving prevention messages via television, church or training sessions, and high household socioeconomic level. These findings suggest that, in addition to contaminated water, factors related to direct and indirect inter-human contact play an important role in cholera transmission during inter-peak periods. In order to reduce cholera transmission in Haiti intensive preventive measures such as hygiene promotion and awareness campaigns should be implemented during inter-peak lulls, when prevention activities are typically scaled back.
Serrana de Teruel is an endangered cattle breed raised traditionally in the mountainous areas of Southern Aragon (Spain). With the aim of recovering the breed, a characterization was carried out to determine the morphology, husbandry and genetic values of the Serrana de Teruel breed. Individuals showed a medium to high degree of homogeneity and harmony, most of the animals being of straight profile, and eumetrical and sublongilineal individuals, although smaller in size than other phylogenetically proximate breeds. Biodiversity studies showed good diversity values despite the breed's low effective population size (240 individuals in 2010). These studies provided the basis for a sustainable programme of genetic conservation. In order to guarantee long-term maintenance, germplasm banks contain 6400 doses of semen and 74 embryos. Concurrently, the commercial viability of the breed was studied by means of an analysis of carcass and meat quality from three commercial categories – yearling, bull and steer (castrated at 9 months old) – with ages at slaughter of 12, 22 and 22 months and live weights of 470, 720 and 660 kg,, respectively. Good performances and high-quality products with no commercial constraints in the beef market were obtained. Finally, a prospective study for a new beef quality product labelled ‘Serrana de Teruel’ was performed, according to the opinions of experts. These studies provide the standard requirements for the alternative production of a labelled beef product that might create an incentive for the production of the Serrana de Teruel breed among other breeds, and thus favour the conservation of the breed in the medium term.
The H2O3PCH(C6H4)2CH2PO3H2 and H2O3PO(C6H4)2OPO3H2 acids were synthesizedT and used to obtain new pillared zirconium phosphonates and organic phosphates in which the pillars are tilted with respect to the layers. The Zr(O3PCH2(C6H4)2CH2PO3) and Zr(O3PO(C6H4)2OPO3) obtained have a good thermal resistance and the distance between the inorganic α-layers joined by the organic pillars is 14.7 and 13.8 Å, respectively. Structural models suggest that the biphenyl groups in the solids are tilted at 140° and 137° with respect to the perpendicular at the layer plane. Solid solutions of the two derivatives over the whole range of composition have also been obtained; the distance between the α-layers changes from 14.7 to 13.8 Å in a continuous way as the diphosphate groups replace the diphosphonate ones, allowing us to suppose a variation of the tilting angles. Attempts to remove the phosphoester in the mixed derivatives by hydrolytic attack, and to replace some pillars with phosphite groups are described.
The presence of H3PO3 in the synthesis of zirconium diphosphonates in dimethylsulfoxide, other than the expected dilution of the pillars, which in turn gives rise to a certain degree of microporosity, may also induce the formation of a high percentag. of mesopores. E.g., compounds with high surface area(300–500 m2 /g) of which 60–70% is due to mesopores with diameters 20–40 Å and the remaining is due to micropores, were obtained. It was furthermore found that the distribution of the mesopores was fairly narrow. Compounds with micropores <3 Å and mesopores of 20–30 Å behave in practice as pure and narrow mesoporous solids;they are therefore of great interest as new molecular inorgano-organic sieves.
The thermal stability of patterned cobalt silicide layers grown on amorphous silicon has been studied in the temperature range between 850 and 1000 °C. The degradation of patterned CoSi2, detected by resistance measurements, occurs via grain agglomeration at a temperature ∼100 °C lower than in blanket film. The reduction of the stability window in patterned samples is due to geometric constraints,. which results in a greater growth rate of the median grains with respect to lateral grains.
Thirty-one faecal samples were collected from red deer in the northern area of Varese, in the Italian region of Lombardy, between August and October 2008. The animals had either been hunted or accidently killed. Examination for internal parasites showed a prevalence of 45.2% for Elaphostrongylus cervi larvae and species identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ninety-seven faecal samples were also collected from two goat flocks grazing in the same area between December 2007 and May 2008. These showed a prevalence of 74.7% for lungworms. Furthermore, the central nervous systems from five goats and one sheep from this area with a history of neurologically related lameness were examined. Histopathology confirmed E. cervi cerebro- spinal nematodiasis in five cases out of six. This study demonstrates E. cervi transmission from wild to domestic ruminants when the animals graze in the same area, and the possible occurrence of clinical disease in infected goats and sheep associated with high prevalence in deer.
In this paper, the Finite Integration Technique and an
approach to solve simultaneously the magnetic and electric circuit equations
is presented in magnetostatic case. The developments of the FIT will be
compared with those used for the Finite Element Method. As example of
application an iron core coil is studied and the results of both approaches
The appearance of small amounts of albumin in the urine, which were less than those detected by conventional methods at the time but higher than normal, was first noted by Professor Keen and colleagues in the 1960s. Little further was done for 15 years until groups in London and Denmark started to look in more detail at urine protein excretion in people with diabetes. This intermediate grade of proteinuria between dip-stick detectable and normal was referred to as microalbuminuria – a totally inaccurate name but one that has stuck! Since then a vast amount of work has accumulated and many publications on the subject have appeared. Of particular interest is the fact that these small amounts of protein in the urine are associated not just with more rapid progression to end stage renal failure but with subsequent cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Initially, studies focused on type 1 diabetes, but now there is much literature on type 2 as well, and increasing awareness of the relevance of microalbuminuria in non-diabetic renal and vascular disease.
For many physicians the amount of literature on microalbuminuria is overwhelming and hence tends not to be read. The present book by Drs Winocour and Marshall provides a succinct account of what we know about microalbuminuria, not just in relation to renal function but with regard to the broader aspects of diabetes. The book fills a large gap in the diabetes and renal literature.
1. The influence of the dose and the form in which guar gum was given on the degree of ‘flattening’of blood glucose curves was studied in five subjects using meals of bread and soup containing 5 or 10 g guar gum.
2. When 5 g guar gum was added to bread the peak increase of blood glucose was reduced by 41% (P < 0.002), with 5 g guar in soup, the reduction was 54% (P < 0.001) while a reduction of 68% (P < 0.001) was seen with 10 g guar gum (5 g in bread and 5 g in soup). The corresponding reduction in insulin peak increases were 37% (P < 0.002), 50% (P < 0.001) and 65% (P < 0.001) respectively.
3. The difference between the two 5 g doses was not significant with respect to the reduction of the peak increases in blood glucose and serum insulin; however the difference between the 5 g dose in bread and the increases in blood glucose and serum insulin; however the difference between the 5 g dose in bread and the 10 g dose was significantly different (P < 0.002 for glucose, P < 0.01 for insulin).
4. The results indicate that as little as 5 g guar gum may reduce the glycaemia following a 45 g carbohydrate meal, but perhaps due to earlier and more complete mixing, guar gum is most effective when added to the liquid phase of the meal.
A female baby, showing the characteristic malformation pattern of the 17-18 trisomy syndrome, was found to have two extra chromosomes in groups 6-X-12 and 17-18, respectively: the presence of double drum-sticks and of double Barr bodies leads to interprete the karyologic finding as a triple-X + 17-18 trisomy. Autopsy showed an interventricular septal defect and an abnormal histological structure of the ovaries.
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