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Antenna-pattern measurements obtained from a double-metal supra-terahertz-frequency (supra-THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) are presented. The QCL is mounted within a mechanically micro-machined waveguide cavity containing dual diagonal feedhorns. Operating in continuous-wave mode at 3.5 THz, and at an ambient temperature of ~60 K, QCL emission has been directed via the feedhorns to a supra-THz detector mounted on a multi-axis linear scanner. Comparison of simulated and measured far-field antenna patterns shows an excellent degree of correlation between beamwidth (full-width-half-maximum) and sidelobe content and a very substantial improvement when compared with unmounted devices. Additionally, a single output has been used to successfully illuminate and demonstrate an optical breadboard arrangement associated with a future supra-THz Earth observation space-borne payload. Our novel device has therefore provided a valuable demonstration of the effectiveness of supra-THz diagonal feedhorns and QCL devices for future space-borne ultra-high-frequency Earth-observing heterodyne radiometers.
Laboratory tasks to delineate anxiety disorder features are used to refine classification and inform our understanding of etiological mechanisms. The present study examines laboratory measures of response inhibition, specifically the inhibition of a pre-potent motor response, in clinical anxiety. Data on associations between anxiety and response inhibition remain inconsistent, perhaps because of dissociable effects of clinical anxiety and experimentally manipulated state anxiety. Few studies directly assess the independent and interacting effects of these two anxiety types (state v. disorder) on response inhibition. The current study accomplished this goal, by manipulating state anxiety in healthy and clinically anxious individuals while they complete a response inhibition task.
The study employs the threat-of-shock paradigm, one of the best-established manipulations for robustly increasing state anxiety. Participants included 82 adults (41 healthy; 41 patients with an anxiety disorder). A go/nogo task with highly frequent go trials was administered during alternating periods of safety and shock threat. Signal detection theory was used to quantify response bias and signal-detection sensitivity.
There were independent effects of anxiety and clinical anxiety on response inhibition. In both groups, heightened anxiety facilitated response inhibition, leading to reduced nogo commission errors. Compared with the healthy group, clinical anxiety was associated with excessive response inhibition and increased go omission errors in both the safe and threat conditions.
Response inhibition and its impact on go omission errors appear to be a promising behavioral marker of clinical anxiety. These results have implications for a dimensional view of clinical anxiety.
To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial.
Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members.
Enrolled households were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups: (1) education on routine hygiene measures, (2) education plus decolonization without reminders (intranasal mupirocin ointment twice daily for 7 days and chlorhexidine gluconate on the first and last day), or (3) education plus decolonization with reminders, where subjects received daily telephone call or text message reminders.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Owing to small numbers of recurrent infections, this analysis focused on time to clearance of colonization in the index case.
Of 223 households, 73 were randomized to education-only, 76 to decolonization without reminders, 74 to decolonization with reminders. There was no significant difference in time to clearance of colonization between the education-only and decolonization groups (log-rank P=.768). In secondary analyses, compliance with decolonization was associated with decreased time to clearance (P=.018).
Total household decolonization did not result in decreased time to clearance of MRSA colonization among adults and children with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. However, subjects who were compliant with the protocol had more rapid clearance
The technology leading to very large aperture telescopes and their optics has progressed well in the period since 1984 and plans for many new large aperture telescopes have been made. Focal plane instrumentation continues to become more sophisticated or more efficient: multi-object capabilities, automatic instrument control and operation, and increasing use of CCDs are examples of areas to which this applies. The proportion of time devoted to observations using two-dimensional photoelectronic detectors has grown substantially at many observatories, particularly with telescopes of moderate aperture; and the use of high quantum efficiency array detectors is now being extended into the infrared spectral region. Important advances have also been made in instrumentation and techniques for ground-based high angular resolution interferometry.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
A radiochemical 71Ga−71 Ge experiment to determine the integral flux of neutrinos from the sun has been constructed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the USSR. Measurements have begun with 30 tonnes of gallium. The experiment is being expanded with the addition of another 30 tonnes. The motivation, experimental procedures, and present status of this experiment are presented.
To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization.
Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012.
Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers.
Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures. Recurrent colonization was defined as any positive MRSA surveillance culture after clearance. Index cases with recurrent MRSA colonization were compared with those without recurrence on the basis of antibiotic exposure, household demographic characteristics, and presence of MRSA colonization in household members.
The study cohort comprised 195 index cases; recurrent MRSA colonization occurred in 85 (43.6%). Median time to recurrence was 53 days (interquartile range, 36–84 days). Treatment with clindamycin was associated with lower risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29–0.93). Higher percentage of household members younger than 18 was associated with increased risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02). The association between MRSA colonization in household members and recurrent colonization in index cases did not reach statistical significance in primary analyses.
A large proportion of patients initially presenting with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection will have recurrent colonization after clearance. The reduced rate of recurrent colonization associated with clindamycin may indicate a unique role for this antibiotic in the treatment of such infection.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):786–793
Thin films of AlxGa1−xN (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.96) having smooth surfaces were deposited directly on both vicinal and on-axis 6H-SiC(0001) substrates. Cross-sectional TEM of Al0.13Ga0.87N revealed stacking faults near the SiC/Nitride alloy interface and numerous threading dislocations. EDX, AES and RBS were used to determine the compositions, which were paired with their respective CL near band-edge emission energies. A negative bowing parameter was determined. The CL emission energies were similar to the bandgap energies obtained by SE. FE-AES of the initial growth of Al0.2Ga0.8N revealed an aluminum rich layer near the interface. N-type (silicon) doping was achieved for AlxGa1−xN for 0.12 ≤ x ≤ 0.42. Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices were fabricated with coherent interfaces. Additionally, HEMT structures using an AlN/GaN/AlN buffer structure were fabricated.
To validate a brief FFQ developed for capturing short-term antioxidant intake in a sample of US college students.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. The FFQ was validated against 30 d food records (FR) and plasma antioxidant concentrations. The reliability of the FFQ was evaluated by two FFQ administered at a 1-month interval.
University of Connecticut, CT, USA.
Sixty healthy college students.
Estimates of dietary antioxidants from the FFQ were moderately to highly correlated with those estimated from the 30 d FR (r = 0·29–0·80; P < 0·05) except for γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin. Total antioxidant capacity from diet only or from diet and supplements estimated by the 30 d FR and FFQ were highly correlated (r = 0·67 and 0·71, respectively; P < 0·0001). The FFQ categorized 91 % of participants into the same or adjacent tertiles of antioxidant intake as the 30 d FR. Most dietary carotenoids estimated from the FFQ were correlated with plasma levels (P < 0·05). Correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability ranged from 0·39 to 0·86. More than 94 % of the participants were classified in the same or adjacent tertiles between the two administrations of the FFQ.
The brief FFQ demonstrated reasonable validity for capturing a comprehensive antioxidant intake profile. This FFQ is applicable in epidemiological or clinical studies to capture short-term antioxidant intake or to simply document the variations of antioxidant intake in intervention trials. Cross-validation studies are warranted in other target populations.
Previous studies on the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and psychological morbidity are conflicting. To resolve this confusing picture we examined the hypothesis that there is a non-linear relationship between panic and systolic BP (SBP) and explored the association of generalized anxiety symptoms with SBP.
We used data from the population-based Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT) in which all 92 936 individuals aged ⩾20 years residing in one Norwegian county were invited to participate. Panic was assessed using one item from the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and generalized anxiety with the remaining six items of this subscale. SBP was the mean of two measurements by an automatic device.
A total of 64 871 respondents had SBP recorded (70%). Both unadjusted (n=61 408) and adjusted analyses provided evidence for a non-linear relationship between panic and SBP, represented by a U-shaped curve with a minimum prevalence of panic at around 140 mmHg. The relationship was strengthened after adjustment for confounders, with the quadratic term significantly associated with panic (p=0.03). Generalized anxiety symptoms were associated only with low SBP.
The U-shaped relationship between SBP and panic provides a unifying explanation for the separate strands of published literature in this area. The results support the hypothesis that high BP and panic disorder could share brainstem autonomic and serotonergic abnormalities. By contrast, generalized anxiety symptoms were more common only at lower BPs, suggesting that any biological link between panic and high BP does not extend to generalized anxiety.
Tumors consist of a heterogeneous population of neoplastic cells infiltrated by an equally heterogeneous collection of nonneoplastic cells that comprise the tumor microenvironment. Tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis depend on multiple interactions between these cells. To assess their potential as therapeutic targets or vehicles for tumor specific delivery of therapeutic agents, we examined the contribution of bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) to the intestinal tumor microenvironment. Hematopoietic stem cells expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) were transplanted into lethally irradiated ApcMin/+ mice, and their engraftment was analyzed by confocal microscopy. The results showed abundant infiltration of eGFP cells into the small intestine, colon, and spleen compared to heart, muscle, liver, lung, and kidney. Within the intestine, there was a pronounced gradient of engraftment along the anterior to posterior axis, with enhanced infiltration into adenomas. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that osteopontin was expressed in tumor stromal cells but not in nontumor stromal populations, suggesting that gene expression in these cells is distinct. Tumor vasculature in ApcMin/+ mice was chaotic compared to normal intestinal regions. Our data suggest that BMDCs can be harnessed for tumor-targeted therapies to enhance antitumor efficacy.