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We present our latest 3D model atmospheres for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars computed with the CO5BOLD code. The stellar parameters are representative of hot turn-off objects (Teff ~ 6250 K, log g = 4.0, [Fe/H]=−3). The main purpose of these models is to investigate the role of 3D effects on synthetic spectra of the CH G-band (4140-4400 Å), the CN BX-band (3870-3890 Å), and several UV OH transitions (3122-3128 Å). By comparison with the synthetic spectra from standard 1D model atmospheres (assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, LTE), we derive 3D abundance corrections for carbon and oxygen of up to −0.5 and −0.7 dex, respectively.
Our recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) APM 08279+5255 and PG 1115+080 have provided new insights into the structure of quasar outflows and the enrichment of their host galaxies by quasar winds (Chartas et al. 2002, 2003). Our spectral analysis of these observations suggests the presence of X-ray BAL material accelerated to relativistic velocities of up to ~ 0.4c, considerably larger than the observed velocities of the UV BAL absorbers in these objects. We present constraints on the quasar mass-outflow rates based on the observed relativistic outflow velocities and locations of the X-ray BAL material.
We present results, some preliminary, from a major new study of the star formation properties of a sample of nearby disk galaxies (Ferguson 1997). Our emphasis is on the faint outer regions of disks. Hα images, combined with broad-band images and spectroscopy of HII regions, constrain the present and past star formation rates and chemical enrichment. These data also allow study of faint diffuse ionised gas, which traces the influence of massive stars on their environment, and the structure of the interstellar medium.
We examine the roles of actuaries in UK life offices, along with trends, challenges to and opportunities for actuaries. We carry out an analysis of senior roles in life offices, a questionnaire survey and interviews with relevant senior personnel. We find that actuaries occupy many important roles in life offices and are regarded as having good industry knowledge and technical skills, especially in financial modelling. There are fewer executive directors and more non-executive directors of life offices who are actuaries compared with the position in 1990. A higher proportion of reserved roles is outsourced to consultants than was the case in 1990. Only a small number of Actuarial Function Holders are directors. Actuaries are more siloed than was the case in the past, although actuaries are well represented in the finance and risk functions of many offices. Although actuarial work in connection with the preparation for Solvency II will decline, there will be important ongoing requirements for actuaries following Solvency II implementation. We also see opportunities for actuaries in four areas: in risk management, in financial analysis and management based on Solvency II and international financial reporting standards, in connection with “big data”, and in product development and the customer proposition. There are implications for the examination syllabus, continuing professional development and research.
Neonatal infections are usually classified according to time and mode of onset in three categories: (1) prenatal, (2) perinatal (early onset), and (3) nursery-acquired (late onset). The division in time between early and late onset is usually 2 to 7 days of age (Table 94.1). Different investigators have divided early-onset from late-onset infections at different days of life but most early-onset infections are evident during the first day of life. Infections that begin within the first month of life are considered neonatal, but many intensive care units for neonates provide continuing care for infants several months of age with complex problems that are the result of prematurity and complications of neonatal disorders. Therefore, neonatal nursery-associated infections may occur in infants up to a year or more of age. Bacterial infections due to rapidly dividing high-grade pathogens that set in substantially before birth usually result in a stillbirth. Often it is difficult to distinguish infections acquired shortly prior to birth from those acquired as a result of contact with maternal vaginal, fecal, or skin flora during delivery.
Neonatal sepsis occurs in approximately 2 to 4 per 1000 live births in the United States. World-wide reports vary from <2 to 50 per 1000 live births. The rates of early-onset sepsis have fallen to <1.0/1000 in the United States and Western Europe. Risk factors noted in Table 94.1 have a very strong predictive influence on infection rates. Full-term infants born without incident have a very low incidence of infection, lower than any other population of hospitalized patients. Infants susceptible to early-onset postnatal infections are primarily those born prematurely. Those premature infants born to mothers with an infection or whose membranes rupture more than 18 hours before delivery may have an infection rate of 20% or more. In extremely premature infants extra vigilance is required for early recognition and treatment of infection. Premature infants are much more likely to develop sepsis as a consequence of the amnionitis caused by ascending infection than are full-term infants.
The incentive sensitisation model of obesity suggests that modification of the dopaminergic associated reward systems in the brain may result in increased awareness of food-related visual cues present in the current food environment. Having a heightened awareness of these visual food cues may impact on food choices and eating behaviours with those being most aware of or demonstrating greater attention to food-related stimuli potentially being at greater risk of overeating and subsequent weight gain. To date, research related to attentional responses to visual food cues has been both limited and conflicting. Such inconsistent findings may in part be explained by the use of different methodological approaches to measure attentional bias and the impact of other factors such as hunger levels, energy density of visual food cues and individual eating style traits that may influence visual attention to food-related cues outside of weight status alone. This review examines the various methodologies employed to measure attentional bias with a particular focus on the role that attentional processing of food-related visual cues may have in obesity. Based on the findings of this review, it appears that it may be too early to clarify the role visual attention to food-related cues may have in obesity. Results however highlight the importance of considering the most appropriate methodology to use when measuring attentional bias and the characteristics of the study populations targeted while interpreting results to date and in designing future studies.
Two new integral field units (IFUs) were installed recently on the WIYN Observatory's 3.5-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. These unique IFUs contain fibers of different sizes in the same head. This design allows smaller fibers to sample regions of higher surface brightness, providing higher spatial resolution while maintaining adequate signal-to-noise (S/N). Conversely, larger fibers maintain S/N at the expense of spatial resolution in the lower surface brightness regions of galaxies. The new IFUs were built with funds from NSF award ATI-0804576.
The Milky Way appears as a typical barred spiral, and comparisons can be made between its nuclear region and those of structurally similar nearby spirals. Maffei 2, M83, IC 342 and NGC 253 are nearby systems whose nuclear region properties contrast with those of the Milky Way. Stellar masses derived from NIR photometery, molecular gas masses and star formation rates allow us to assess the evolutionary states of this set of nuclear regions. These data suggest similarities between nuclear regions in terms of their stellar content while highlighting significant differences in current star formation rates. In particular current star formation rates appear to cover a larger range than expected based on the molecular gas masses. This behavior is consistent with nuclear region star formation experiencing episodic variations. Under this hypothesis the Milky Way's nuclear region currently may be in a low star formation rate phase.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered to be a disorder predominantly affecting memory. It is increasingly recognized that the cognitive profile may be heterogeneous. We hypothesized that it would be possible to define distinct “cognitive phenotypes” in older people with AD.
Participants from three individual studies were included, consisting of 109 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD, and 91 age- and gender-matched control participants. All had demographic and cognitive assessment data available, including the Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly (CAMCOG). The CAMCOG scores and sub-scores were further analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis.
Three clusters were identified. The scores loaded onto three factors representing the domains of attention, praxis, calculation, and perception; memory; and language comprehension and executive function. The main difference between the clusters related to degree of memory impairment. The composite score for memory between the clusters remained significantly different despite adjustment for illness duration and age of onset (p < 0.001).
These data suggest clinical heterogeneity within an older group of people with AD. This may have implications for diagnosis, prognosis, response to currently available treatments, and the development of novel therapies.
We report three cases of lateral outfracture of the inferior turbinate, which demonstrate a range of changes in the size, position and shape of the inferior turbinate.
During a study of the validity of computer modelling of nasal airflow, computed tomography scans of the noses of patients who had undergone lateral outfracture of the inferior turbinate were collected. The pre-operative scan was compared with the post-operative scan six weeks later.
In one patient, there was only a small lateral displacement of the inferior turbinate. In the other two cases, appreciable reduction in the volume of one inferior turbinate was noted, in addition to minor changes in the shape.
Lateral outfracture of the inferior turbinate produces varied and inconsistent changes in morphology which may affect the shape, size and position of the turbinate.