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The smr and qacA/B genes in Staphylococcus aureus confer tolerance to antiseptics and are associated with nosocomial acquisition of infection and underlying medical conditions. Such antiseptic tolerance (AT) genes have also been reported in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and enterococci, however, few data are available regarding their prevalence. We sought to describe the frequency of AT genes among bloodstream isolates of S. aureus, CoNS and enterococci at Texas Children’s Hospital (TCH).
Banked CoNS, S. aureus and enterococci isolated from blood cultures collected bewteen October 1, 2016, and October 1, 2017, were obtained from the TCH clinical microbiology laboratory. All isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the qacA/B and smr genes. Medical records were reviewed for all cases.
In total, 103 CoNS, 19 Enterococcus spp, and 119 S. aureus isolates were included in the study, and 80.6% of the CoNS possessed at least 1 AT gene compared to 37% of S. aureus and 43.8% of E. faecalis isolates (P < .001). Among CoNS bloodstream isolates, the presence of either AT gene was strongly associated with nosocomial infection (P < .001). The AT genes in S. aureus were associated with nosocomial infection (P = .025) as well as the diagnosis of central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI; P = .04) and recent hospitalizations (P < .001). We found no correlation with genotypic AT in E. faecalis and any clinical variable we examined.
Antiseptic tolerance is common among bloodstream staphylococci and E. faecalis isolates at TCH. Among CoNS, the presence of AT genes is strongly correlated with nosocomial acquisition of infection, consistent with previous studies in S. aureus. These data suggest that the healthcare environment contributes to AT among staphylococci.
Escherichia coli O157 are zoonotic bacteria for which cattle are an important reservoir. Prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 in British cattle for human consumption are over 10 years old. A new baseline is needed to inform current human health risk. The British E. coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS) ran between September 2014 and November 2015 on 270 farms across Scotland and England & Wales. This is the first study to be conducted contemporaneously across Great Britain, thus enabling comparison between Scotland and England & Wales. Herd-level prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 did not differ significantly for Scotland (0·236, 95% CI 0·166–0·325) and England & Wales (0·213, 95% CI 0·156–0·283) (P = 0·65). The majority of isolates were verocytotoxin positive. A higher proportion of samples from Scotland were in the super-shedder category, though there was no difference between the surveys in the likelihood of a positive farm having at least one super-shedder sample. E. coli O157 continues to be common in British beef cattle, reaffirming public health policy that contact with cattle and their environments is a potential infection source.
Data obtained by the AS&E X-ray Telescope Experiment during the first Skylab mission have revealed a variety of temporal changes in both the form and brightness of coronal structures. Dynamical changes have been noted in active regions, in large scale coronal structures, and in coronal bright points. The coronal activity accompanying a series of Hα flares and prominence activity between 0800 and 1600 UT on 10 June 1973 in active region 137 (NOAA) at the east limb is shown in Figure 1. It is characterized by increases in the brightness and temperature of active region loops and a dramatic change in the shape and brightness of a loop structure. Figure 2 shows the reconfiguration of an apparent polar crown filament cavity between 1923 UT on 12 June 1973 and 1537 UT on 13 June 1973. A ridge of emitting material which attains a peak brightness at least four times that of the surrounding coronal structures appears within the cavity during the course of the event. Typical X-ray photographs with filters passing relatively soft X-ray wavelengths (3–32, 44–54 Å) show 90 to 100 X-ray bright points (Vaiana et al., 1973). On twelve occasions in the data from the first mission, such bright points were seen to increase in intensity by two orders of magnitude in less than 4 min. Such an event is shown in Figure 3.
The energy radiated by Mars in the wavelength bands 8–12 and 18–25 μ has been measured during the flyby of Mariner 1969 with linear resolution of 50 km at closest approach. From the laboratory energy calibrations and assuming unit emissivity, the temperature of the surface materials has been derived. The main results are summarized as follows:
(a)The temperatures near the equator (Mariner 6), as function of local time, on the average agree with the values expected on the basis of the gross thermophysical properties of the soil determined from ground-based measurements.
(b)The temperature fluctuations around their mean seem to correspond to variations in albedo over the classical features of the planet, with the possible exception of one area.
(c)The lowest temperatures measured by channel 2 of Mariner 7, during the polar swath, were 148 K, while at the edge of the polar cap the temperature was 230 K.
A small amount of instrumental responsivity to off-axis radiation will change these nominal temperatures slightly, in the general sense that the low temperatures, when properly corrected, will decrease by a few degrees, while the high temperatures will increase by a similar amount.
The AS&E X-ray telescope experiment on Skylab has obtained images of the solar X-ray corona with a variety of time resolutions ranging from 21/2 s to the regular 12 ± 2 h synoptic observation rate. The form and brightness of coronal active region structures are seen to vary on time scales ranging from seconds, for flare associated changes, to several solar rotations for long term evolution of the regions. The extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields into the corona, using the potential field approximation, results in a good morphological agreement between the form of the computed coronal field lines and the structure of many of the active regions observed. Thus, in general, the coronal active region structures follow potential field lines and the long term evolutionary changes can be explained on the basis of the spreading of the fields. Short term changes in active region structure frequently take the form of selective brightening or dimming of pre-existing loops due to changes in the pressure of the emitting coronal plasma. In these cases, variations in the non-potential component of the coronal fields supporting and containing the plasma are implied.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities.
Altered corticostriatothalamic encoding of reinforcement is a core feature of depression. Here we examine reinforcement learning in late-life depression in the theoretical framework of the vascular depression hypothesis. This hypothesis attributes the co-occurrence of late-life depression and poor executive control to prefrontal/cingulate disconnection by vascular lesions.
Our fMRI study compared 31 patients aged ⩾60 years with major depression to 16 controls. Using a computational model, we estimated neural and behavioral responses to reinforcement in an uncertain, changing environment (probabilistic reversal learning).
Poor executive control and depression each explained distinct variance in corticostriatothalamic response to unexpected rewards. Depression, but not poor executive control, predicted disrupted functional connectivity between the striatum and prefrontal cortex. White-matter hyperintensities predicted diminished corticostriatothalamic responses to reinforcement, but did not mediate effects of depression or executive control. In two independent samples, poor executive control predicted a failure to persist with rewarded actions, an effect distinct from depressive oversensitivity to punishment. The findings were unchanged in a subsample of participants with vascular disease. Results were robust to effects of confounders including psychiatric comorbidities, physical illness, depressive severity, and psychotropic exposure.
Contrary to the predictions of the vascular depression hypothesis, altered encoding of rewards in late-life depression is dissociable from impaired contingency learning associated with poor executive control. Functional connectivity and behavioral analyses point to a disruption of ascending mesostriatocortical reward signals in late-life depression and a failure of cortical contingency encoding in elderly with poor executive control.
Migrations of most animal taxa are declining as a result of anthropogenic pressures and land-use transformation. Here, we document and characterize a previously unknown multi-country migration of Burchell's zebra Equus quagga that is the longest of all recorded large mammal migrations in Africa. Our data from eight adult female zebras collared on the border of Namibia and Botswana show that in December 2012 all individuals crossed the Chobe River and moved due south to Nxai Pan National Park in Botswana, where they spent a mean duration of 10 weeks before returning, less directly, to their dry season floodplain habitat. The same southward movements were also observed in December 2013. Nxai Pan appeared to have similar environmental conditions to several possible alternative wet season destinations that were closer to the dry season habitat on the Chobe River, and water availability, but not habitat or vegetation biomass, was associated with higher-use areas along the migratory pathway. These results suggest a genetic and/or cultural basis for the choice of migration destination, rather than an environmental one. Regardless of the cause, the round-trip, straight-line migration distance of 500 km is greater than that covered by wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus during their well-known seasonal journey in the Serengeti ecosystem. It merits conservation attention, given the decline of large-scale ecological processes such as animal migrations.
The civil justice system of every modern state presents a tapestry of intertwined threads. The resulting image reflects the laws providing for redress of selected grievances, the remedies available to the aggrieved parties, the institutions available for resolving disputes, and the processes followed by those institutions. All of these are informed by the fundamental elements of the society – its political system, its economic arrangements, and its culture. In this chapter we are concerned primarily with dispute-processing institutions. All modern states have established judicial systems designed to accomplish the basic tasks of finding the relevant law and applying it in an efficient and fair manner to the actual facts underlying the dispute. The differences among them are about how to achieve these goals. We shall describe significant features of modern systems, discuss the difficulties of categorizing them, and try to account for the differences among them by looking at broader issues of politics, culture, and history. We close with some observations about the future of procedure in an ever-globalizing world and of the challenges for procedural comparatists.
Before we parse the varieties of disputing in the modern world, we alert the reader to the tunnel-vision dangers of assuming that ‘official’ dispute institutions tell the whole story. Even in the most ‘officialized’ countries, informal systems, usually grouped under the catch-all heading of alternative dispute resolution or ‘ADR’, supplement the formal, court-based processes. Still more is this the case in those societies that have yet to succumb completely to modernity. As Werner Menski powerfully reminds us, large groups of people are still at least partially, or even predominantly, oriented towards traditional ways of thought and living. Taking a different path, H. Patrick Glenn argues that the informal law of the less developed world (what he calls ‘chthonic’ law) is but one of several – perhaps many – legal traditions, including the Talmudic, Islamic, Hindu, civil law, and common law. The dispute processes, or ‘civil justice’ (as we might call it) of each of these traditions largely mirror the world views of those who are steeped in them.
Negative biases in emotional processing are well recognised in people who are currently depressed but are less well described in those with a history of depression, where such biases may contribute to vulnerability to relapse.
To compare accuracy, discrimination and bias in face emotion recognition in those with current and remitted depression.
The sample comprised a control group (n = 101), a currently depressed group (n = 30) and a remitted depression group (n = 99). Participants provided valid data after receiving a computerised face emotion recognition task following standardised assessment of diagnosis and mood symptoms.
In the control group women were more accurate in recognising emotions than men owing to greater discrimination. Among participants with depression, those in remission correctly identified more emotions than controls owing to increased response bias, whereas those currently depressed recognised fewer emotions owing to decreased discrimination. These effects were most marked for anger, fear and sadness but there was no significant emotion × group interaction, and a similar pattern tended to be seen for happiness although not for surprise or disgust. These differences were confined to participants who were antidepressant-free, with those taking antidepressants having similar results to the control group.
Abnormalities in face emotion recognition differ between people with current depression and those in remission. Reduced discrimination in depressed participants may reflect withdrawal from the emotions of others, whereas the increased bias in those with a history of depression could contribute to vulnerability to relapse. The normal face emotion recognition seen in those taking medication may relate to the known effects of antidepressants on emotional processing and could contribute to their ability to protect against depressive relapse.
Raman scattering measurements of Bi clusters formed on disordered C films at 110K exhibit a phase transformation from nanocrystalline rhombohedral structure to a suggested disordered phase. XPS measurements on this phase indicate core level shifts attributed to intrinsic, initial state effects on cluster electronic states.
Raman scattering measurements in alkali—fullerene alloys in ultrathin and thin films provide evidence for variations in electron—phonon coupling. For x — 3similar behavior of Rb3 C60 films of different thickness support substantial electron—phonon induced damping of specific Hg(i) modes derived from intramolecular modes of C60. In 400A thick films a reduction of induced scattering from Raman inactive C60 modes substantiates the importance ofHg(2), but not Hg(3) modes for phonon—mediated superconductivity. In contrast to RbxC60 and KxC60 ultrathin film solid solutions, similar Raman spectra for NaxC60 indicate substantially reduced coupling consistent with the absence of superconductivity in this system.
Si nanocrystallites have been prepared by ultrasonicating thin sections of porous silicon. The materials produced from 20 and 49 wt % HF are characterized and compared. Samples were characterized by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and HRTEM.
What follows is a description of the methods used in the current excavation of Fontéchevade and an overview of the work accomplished. The methodology is based in part on French tradition for Paleolithic excavations and in part on the methodologies that our team has developed through the years at the sites of La Quina, Combe-Capelle Bas, Cagny-l'Epinette, and Cagny-la-Garenne. Much of the methodology is based on the application of computerized recording techniques, which have been extensively described in previous publications (Dibble 1987b; Dibble et al. 1995; Dibble and McPherron 1989; McPherron and Dibble 1987, 2002). Special emphasis was given to standardizing the excavation techniques and recording methods at Fontéchevade, both to optimize analysis of the site itself and to make the data comparable with data collected at the previously listed sites.
The excavation grid
The site was excavated in 1-m units following the traditional French system of labeling excavation units with a letter-number designation. In this system, it is also traditional to place grid north directly into the cave. We followed this tradition, despite the fact that true north is almost exactly 180 degrees opposite. One of the principal advantages of doing so is that all of our maps are thus oriented in relation to the long axis of the cave, very much as we saw the cave each day. The principal disadvantage to this system is that there can be some confusion between, for instance, “west” and “grid west.