To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Homeless and precariously housed individuals experience a high burden of comorbid illnesses, and excess mortality. Cross-sectional studies report a high rate of cognitive impairment. Long-term trajectories have not been well investigated in this group.
To longitudinally assess risks for premature and/or accelerated cognitive ageing, and the relationship with early mortality in homeless and precariously housed people.
This is a 9-year community-based study of 375 homeless and precariously housed individuals from Vancouver, Canada. Annual cognitive testing assessed verbal learning and memory, and inhibitory control. Linear mixed-effects models examined associations between clinical risk factors (traumatic brain injury, psychotic disorders, viral exposure, alcohol dependence) and cognitive change over 9 years. Cox regression models examined the association between cognition and mortality.
Traumatic brain injury and alcohol dependence were associated with decline in verbal memory. Inhibitory control declined, independent of risk factors and to a greater extent in those who died during the study. Better inhibitory control was associated with a 6.6% lower risk of mortality at study entry, with a 0.3% greater effect for each year of life. For each one-point increase in the Charlson Comorbidity Index score at study entry, the risk of mortality was 9.9% higher, and was consistent across age. Adjusting for comorbidities, inhibitory control remained a significant predictor of mortality.
Findings raise the possibility of a premature onset, and accelerated trajectory, of cognitive ageing in this group of homeless and precariously housed people. Traumatic brain injury, alcohol dependence and cognition could be treatment priorities.
Healthy diet has been linked to better age-related functioning, but evidence on the relationship of diet quality in late midlife and measures of physical capability in later life is limited. Research on potential sex differences in this relationship is scarce. The aim was to investigate the prospective association between overall diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) at 60–64 years and measures of walking speed 7 years later, among men and women from the Insight 46, a neuroscience sub-study of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Diet was assessed at 60–64 years using 5-d food diaries, from which total HEI-2015 was calculated. At 69–71 years, walking speed was estimated during four 10-m walks at self-selected pace, using inertial measurement units. Multivariable linear regression models with sex as a modifier, controlling for age, follow-up, lifestyle, health/social variables and physical performance, were used. The final sample consists of 164 women and 167 men (n 331). Women had higher HEI-2015 and slower walking speed than men. A 10-point increase in HEI-2015 was associated with faster walking speed among women (B 0·024, 95 % CI 0·006, 0·043), but not men. The association remained significant in the multivariable model (B 0·021, 95 % CI 0·003, 0·040). In women, higher diet quality in late midlife is associated with faster walking speed. A healthy diet in late midlife is likely to contribute towards better age-related physical capability, and sex differences are likely to affect this relationship.
Previous studies have shown that the interaction between limiting vitamin A (VA) and an alcohol dehydrogenase 1 C (ADH1C) variant in beef cattle results in increased intramuscular fat in the longissimus thoracis muscle in one genotype when fed low dietary VA. Although quality grade is important for increased profitability and improving taste characteristics of beef products, limiting VA too drastically can impair animal welfare. The objectives of this study were to determine if this marker-assisted management strategy would be effective, and whether any impairment in immune function would occur in a feedlot setting. Mixed breed beef steers (n=2000) were sorted into 40 feedlot pens so that all combinations of ADH1C genotype (TT or CT), VA level (50% or 100% of recommended) and hormonal implant status (implanted (IMP) or non-implanted (NI)) were equally represented within the population. The VA×ADH1C interaction was not observed. An implant status × ADH1C interaction was observed with average daily gain (ADG; P=0.03). Steers that were IMP and CT had higher ADG than IMP TT (CT=1.69 and TT=1.62 kg/day), whereas both genotypes in the NI steers were lower (CT=1.29 and TT=1.32 kg/day). Implant status was shown to affect dry matter intake (DMI; IMP=8.55 and NI=7.87 kg; P<0.01), total days-on-feed (IMP=164.4 and NI 210.5 days; P<0.01), USDA yield grade (YIELD; IMP=2.40 and NI=2.77; P<0.01), marbling score (MARB; IMP=392 and NI=455; P<0.01), longissimus thoracis area (LTA; IMP=85.0 and NI=80.7 cm2; P=0.01) and backfat thickness (FAT; IMP=8.0 and NI 10.0 mm; P<0.01). Overall, IMP animals finished on fewer total days-on-feed with higher ADG, DMI, larger LTA, and lower YIELD, MARB and FAT. To investigate immune function parameters, crossbred steers (n=18) were selected from a prior feeding trial so that all combinations of ADH1C (TT, CT and CC) and VA (25% or 75%) were equally represented. Blood cell count analysis and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulation assays were conducted. None of these immune parameters were affected by VA level. Treatment and mortality records were examined in the 2000 steer population, where no correlations with ADH1C, implant status or VA level were observed. Due to no VA × ADH1C interaction, this nutrigenetic marker-assisted management strategy is not effective at this time in commercial beef cattle feedlots, however, supplementing VA at a level as low as 25% of recommended in finishing rations would likely not result in signs of immune dysfunction.
Signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed to the effective protection of at least 17% of the terrestrial environment by 2020 (Aichi Target 11). Here, we assess the coverage of terrestrial protected areas (land protected by legislation) on the UK's Overseas Territories. These 14 Territories are under the sovereignty of the UK, a signatory of the CBD, and are particularly biodiverse. Eight Territories have protected areas covering 17% or more of their land, but the extent of protection across these Territories as a whole is low, with only 4.8% of this land designated as protected. This protection covered 51% of sites already identified as of conservation importance (Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas), although only 8% of the area of these sites was protected. The expansion of effective protection to meet the 17% target provides an opportunity to capture the most important sites for conservation. Locally led designation will require an improvement in knowledge of the distribution and density of species. This, together with measures to ensure that the protection is enforced and effective, will require provision of resources. This should be seen as an investment in the UK meeting its obligations to Aichi Target 11.
This article discusses a GIS analysis of the results of the Carthaginian Countryside survey conducted by Joseph Greene from 1979 to 1983. The 136 sites identified by the project constitute one of the largest datasets of site locations recorded in the hinterland of Carthage from multiple time periods. The results of this survey have not generally been integrated into modern studies of the region because the project was never fully published and has not been digitised. This paper discusses the challenges of working with legacy data and the importance of using GIS to both preserve and analyse the Carthaginian Countryside survey. The results presented here reveal new insights into the antiquity of the rural landscape around the city of Carthage and the importance of revisiting legacy datasets to contextualise current research.
Declines in populations of the Critically Endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaeus have been rapid, with the breeding population now perhaps numbering fewer than 120 pairs. The reasons for this decline remain unresolved. Whilst there is evidence that hunting in wintering areas is an important factor, loss of suitable habitat on passage and wintering areas is also of concern. While some key sites for the species are already documented, many of their wintering locations are described here for the first time. Their wintering range primarily stretches from Bangladesh to China. Comprehensive surveys of potential Spoon-billed Sandpiper wintering sites from 2005 to 2013 showed a wide distribution with three key concentrations in Myanmar and Bangladesh, but also regular sites in China, Vietnam and Thailand. The identification of all important non-breeding sites remains of high priority for the conservation of the species. Here, we present the results of field surveys of wintering Spoon-billed Sandpipers that took place in six countries between 2005 and 2013 and present species distribution models which map the potential wintering areas. These include known and currently unrecognised wintering locations. Our maximum entropy model did not identify any new extensive candidate areas within the winter distribution, suggesting that most key sites are already known, but it did identify small sites on the coast of eastern Bangladesh, western Myanmar, and the Guangxi and Guangdong regions of China that may merit further investigation. As no extensive areas of new potential habitat were identified, we suggest that the priorities for the conservation of this species are habitat protection in important wintering and passage areas and reducing hunting pressure on birds at these sites.
Previously, the single nucleotide polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1C c.-64T>C) was shown to have an association with intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle when vitamin A was limited in finishing rations of beef steers. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum vitamin A supplementation level, in combination with ADH1C genotype, to increase IMF of the LT muscle. In total, 45 TT genotype, 45 CT and 27 CC Black Angus crossbred steers were backgrounded on a commercial ration containing 3360 IU vitamin A/kg dry matter (DM). During finishing, the steers were randomly assigned to one of three vitamin A treatments at 25%, 50% and 75% of the National Research Council recommendation of 2200 IU/kg DM. Treatments were administered via an oral bolus. Carcass quality was evaluated and a sample from the LT muscle was collected for analysis of IMF. A treatment×genotype interaction (P=0.04) was observed for IMF; TT steers on the 75% treatment had higher IMF relative to CT and CC steers on the same treatment. Western blot analysis showed that TT steers had higher (P=0.02) ADH1C protein expression in hepatic tissue. Previously, TT steers exhibited increased IMF when fed limited vitamin A. In the current study, the lack of variation in IMF between treatments and genotypes at the lower vitamin A treatment levels was likely due to the majority of the steers grading Canada AAA (USDA Choice). However, the western blot data supports that TT steers are expected to have higher IMF deposition, due to an increased production of ADH1C. The interaction between ADH1C genotype and vitamin A supplementation level has the potential for use in marker-assisted management programs to target niche markets based on increased marbling.
BOUT++ is a 3D nonlinear finite-difference plasma simulation code, capable of solving quite general systems of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs), but targeted particularly on studies of the edge region of tokamak plasmas. BOUT++ is publicly available, and has been adopted by a growing number of researchers worldwide. Here we present improvements which have been made to the code since its original release, both in terms of structure and its capabilities. Some recent applications of these methods are reviewed, and areas of active development are discussed. We also present algorithms and tools which have been developed to enable creation of inputs from analytic expressions and experimental data, and for processing and visualisation of output results. This includes a new tool Hypnotoad for the creation of meshes from experimental equilibria. Algorithms have been implemented in BOUT++ to solve a range of linear algebraic problems encountered in the simulation of reduced Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gyro-fluid models: A preconditioning scheme is presented which enables the plasma potential to be calculated efficiently using iterative methods supplied by the PETSc library (the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation) (Balay et al. 2014), without invoking the Boussinesq approximation. Scaling studies are also performed of a linear solver used as part of physics-based preconditioning to accelerate the convergence of implicit time-integration schemes.
To determine whether there is a change in the epidemiology of nasal fractures in females in the UK, and the potential contribution of the ‘ladette’ culture.
This paper reports a multi-centre retrospective study. Operating theatre data for all females who underwent manipulation of nasal fractures under anaesthesia between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. In addition, the case notes of all females presenting with nasal fractures over a five-year period (2004–2009) were retrospectively reviewed and the cited cause of the fracture was noted.
From 2002 to 2009, there was an 825 per cent increase in nasal fractures in women aged 13–20 years. Almost one-quarter of all nasal fractures in one centre was attributed to non-domestic violence. The highest incidence of nasal fractures (67 per cent) was amongst white British females.
There is an increasing trend in the number of women sustaining nasal fractures in the UK. The cause may be multi-factorial, but could be partially attributed to a rise in ladette culture. Further research on the role of alcohol consumption in this phenomenon is needed.
Several neuroimaging studies have investigated brain grey matter in people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), showing possible abnormalities in the limbic system, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nuclei and temporal lobes. This study takes these findings forward by investigating white matter properties in BDD compared with controls using diffusion tensor imaging. It was hypothesized that the BDD sample would have widespread significantly reduced white matter connectivity as characterized by fractional anisotropy (FA).
A total of 20 participants with BDD and 20 healthy controls matched on age, gender and handedness underwent diffusion tensor imaging. FA, a measure of water diffusion within a voxel, was compared between groups on a voxel-by-voxel basis across the brain using tract-based spatial statistics within the FSL package.
Results showed that, compared with healthy controls, BDD patients demonstrated significantly lower FA (p < 0.05) in most major white matter tracts throughout the brain, including in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and corpus callosum. Lower FA levels could be accounted for by increased radial diffusivity as characterized by eigenvalues 2 and 3. No area of higher FA was found in BDD.
This study provided the first evidence of compromised white matter integrity within BDD patients. This suggests that there are inefficient connections between different brain areas, which may explain the cognitive and emotion regulation deficits within BDD patients.
Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) is a versatile technique for the analysis of nano and micro thin films surfaces. The scattering data depend strongly on the form and distribution of the scattering objects. In the present work GISAXS is used to study hafnium dioxide (HfO2) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering using different deposition processes and post-deposition annealing conditions. Two distinct types of 15 nm thick samples were produced using different sputtering targets and different gas mixtures. The GISAXS results show that the ellipsoids that compose the thin films present a reduction in their size for both samples sets. For the sputtered Hf metal target samples, the ellipsoid diameter value shifted from 9 nm (as-deposited) to 6 nm following a 800 °C thermal treatment. For the sputtered HfO2 target samples the diameter value shifts from 19 nm (as-deposited) to 3 nm after a 800 °C anneal in oxygen. The size distribution, for both sets of samples, follows a Gaussian distribution function.
As part of the requirements of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Canada has been investigating the genetic diversity of its native equine and pony populations. Along with examining four indigenous Canadian equine populations (Canadian horse, Lac La Croix pony, Newfoundland pony and Sable Island population), another 10 Mountain and Moorland, three Nordic, four horse and two feral equine populations (thought to have influenced some pony breeds) were also investigated. In total, 821 individuals were genotyped at 38 microsatellite loci. Results of the analysis of molecular variance indicated that 13.3% of genetic diversity was explained by breed differences, whereas 84.6% and 2.1% of diversity came from within and among individuals, respectively. The average effective number of alleles and allelic richness was the lowest in the Eriskay (2.51 and 3.98) and Lac La Croix (2.83 and 4.01) populations, whereas it was highest in the New Forest (4.31 and 6.01) and Welsh (4.33 and 5.87) breeds, followed closely by the Newfoundland-CDN (4.23 and 5.86) population. Expected heterozygosities varied from 0.61 in the Lac La Croix to 0.74 in the Welsh and in Newfoundland. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.57 in the Exmoor and 0.58 in the Sable Island herd to 0.77 in the Kerry Bog and 0.76 in the New Forest breeds. Structure and admixture analyses revealed that the most likely number of clusters was 21, although some substructure was also observed when K = 16, compared with the 24 predefined populations. Information gathered from this study should be combined with other available phenotypic and pedigree data to develop, or amend, a suitable conservation strategy for all populations examined.
Biologists now have access to a virtually complete map of all the genes in the human genome, and in the genomes of many other species. They are aggressively assembling a similarly detailed knowledge of the proteome, the full collection of proteins encoded by those genes, and the transcriptome, the diverse set of mRNA molecules that serve as templates for protein manufacture. We increasingly know the “parts list” of molecular biology. Yet we still lack a deep understanding of how all these parts work together to support the complex and coherent activity of the living cell; how cells and organisms manage the concurrent tasks of production and re-production, signalling and regulation, in fluctuating and often hostile environments.
Building a more holistic understanding of cell biology is the aim of the new discipline of systems biology, which views the living cell as a network of interacting processes and gives concrete form to the vision of François Jacob, one of the pioneers in the study of genetic regulatory mechanisms, who spoke in the 1960s of the “logic of life.” Put simply, systems biologists regard the cell as a vastly complex biological “circuit board,” which orchestrates diverse components and modules to achieve robust, reliable and predictable operation. Systems biology suggests that the mechanisms of cell biology can be related to the information sciences, to ideas about information flow and processing in de-centralized networks.
This view, of course, has long been implicit in the study of cell signalling and other key pathways of molecular bio-chemistry.