Human milk oligosaccharides, representing the third largest fraction of human milk, have been assigned important protective functions for newborns acting as bifidogenic substrates or as inhibitory agents towards pathogens. Using high-pH anion-exchange chromatography and an enzyme test kit, twenty oligosaccharides and lactose were determined in milk samples of German women from days 3 to 90 postpartum. Twenty-two secretor mothers with Lewis blood group Le(a − b+) synthesised all twenty oligosaccharides, and could be assigned to milk group 1. Five non-secretor mothers (Le(a+b − )) produced all oligosaccharides with the exception of α1,2-fucosylated compounds (milk group 2), whereas three secretor mothers with blood type Le(a − b − ) lacked α1,4-fucosyloligosaccharides, corresponding to milk group 3. Secretor women of milk groups 1 and 3 synthesised significantly higher amounts of total neutral oligosaccharides and of several total core structures (e.g. lacto-N-tetraose) than non-secretor women. Generally, these oligosaccharides significantly decrease during the first 3 months postpartum. By comparing fucosyloligosaccharides within and among the three milk groups, insight into their biosynthesis could be gained. Six acidic oligosaccharides without fucose residues were detected in milk samples of all mothers. Regression analysis confirmed that total acidic oligosaccharides declined threefold during the study period. Milk samples corresponding to the three milk groups exhibited significant qualitative and quantitative differences during the first 3 months of lactation. It can be assumed that particularly milk of non-secretor women (milk group 2) exerts a modified biological protection in the babies in comparison with milks of secretors (groups 1 and 3).